Chapter 33 -- Part 4: The Contemporary World in Historical Perspective
The official language of the Incas is Quechua.
Europeans in the tropics had previously been decimated by Malaria and an agent proved effective in controlling it.
The long Christian crusade to wrest Spain back from the Muslims was a sacred and patriotic mission according to clerics.
Sima Qian wrote a history of China.
The period from 1793 to 1794 was when Robespierre's Committee of Public Safety tried and executed thousands of people suspected of political crimes.
A French word meaning rebirth is used to describe a cultural movement that began in Italy in the 14th century.
A form of government in which there is no monarch and power is in the hands of the people.
The Marxist doctrine was updated to reflect realities of the time.
The central source of information on early Aryans is the earliest collection of Indian hymns, ritual texts, and philosophical treatises.
George Stephenson's locomotive reached a maximum speed of 35 miles per hour when it was first tested in Manchester in the late 19th century.
A movement in art, literature, and music is characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance and imagination.
The United States would correct what it saw as "chronic wrongdoing" in other countries.
The 1904-1905 war between Russia and Japan was fought over territory in northeast China.
The church believes certain rituals act as conduits of God's grace.
The state religion of the dynasty that ruled Persia and other regions from 1501 to 1722 was Shi'ism.
People who lived or died in a way that was noteworthy were venerated.
There are regular social gatherings held by talented and rich Parisian women in their homes where they meet to discuss literature, science, and philosophy.
The term laboring poor of Paris came from the fact that the men wore trousers instead of the knee breeches of the wealthy.
A high-caste Hindu woman would throw herself on her husband's funeral pyre.
Gandhi believed that the means of achieving truth and social justice were through love, suffering, and conversion of the oppressor.
Both scholars and officials were included in the Chinese educated elite.
The officials usually gained office by passing the civil service exam.
Medieval professors developed a method of thinking, reasoning, and writing in which questions were raised and authorities cited on both sides of a question.
The assembly was the main institution of power in the Roman Republic.
John Locke believed that all human ideas and thoughts are created by sensory impressions.
The native Indian troops were trained as infantrymen.
A peasant was bound to the landed estate of a lord after losing his or her freedom.
Men and women communicate with the unseen world.
Muslim law covers social, criminal, political, commercial, and religious matters.
The men in the lower ranks of the Chinese aristocracy could serve in either military or civil capacities.
One of the two main divisions of Islam is the supporters of Ali.
A process for trading goods in which European ships brought traders and slaves out to the ships.
There are trade routes between China and western Eurasia.
The application of the theory of biological evolution to human affairs sees the human race as driven to ever- greater specialization and progress by an ongoing economic struggle that determines the survival of the fittest.
A central feature of human society since the Neolithic era has been the divisions between rich and poor.
Key ideas of a radical political doctrine that opposed individualism and advocated cooperation and a sense of community were economic planning, greater economic equality, and state regulation of property.
The African state was founded in the 18th century by Uthman Dan Fodio.
Lech Walesa was the leader of an independent Polish trade union that worked for the rights of workers and political reform.
A collection of British goods would be traded for a slave or a quantity of gold, ivory, or dyewood.
The use of force within clearly defined boundaries and in which private armies are not a threat to central control was made important by European states.
James Hargreaves created a spinning machine in the 18th century.
The Strait of Malacca and the waters around Sumatra were held by a maritime empire.
Rather than being political states, African societies are bound together by ethnic or blood ties.
The breakthrough invention by Savery and Newcomen in 1698 and 1705 that burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump, was replaced by James Watt's more efficient steam engine in 1769.
Grassland that is too dry for crops but supports pasturing animals is common across much of the center of Eurasia.
The Zeno philosophy held that people could only be happy if they lived in accordance with nature and accepted whatever happened.
The African region is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Guinea, and the mountains of Ethiopia.
The Ottomans used an Arabic word to describe their ruler.
The division between Sunnis and Shi'a began in a dispute about who would succeed Muhammad, but over time many differences in theology developed.
The people living along the East African coast and on nearby islands are referred to as the "People of the Coast".
The 1916 secret agreement between Britain and France divided the Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, southern Turkey, Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq.
There was a huge rebellion in the religious teachings of Hong Xiuquan that began in 1851 and was suppressed in 1864.
Lady Murasaki wrote a novel about court life.
The reforms were designed to remake the Ottoman Empire on a western European model.
Chinese bronzes have a stylized animal face.
When the French imposed high tariffs on some imported products to counteract the flood of cheaper British goods, it was a government's way of supporting and aiding its own economy.
Whoever bids the most for the privilege gets the collection of taxes.
The largest Aztec city was built in 1325.
The city-state dominated trade in the classical era.
The execution of Robespierre was a result of the violence of the Reign of Terror.
A large-scale conflict lasting from 1618 to 1648 pitting Protestants against Catholics in central Europe, but also involved the interests of Spain and France.
The site of a Chinese student revolt in 1989 in which the Communists imposed martial law and killed hundreds of students.
It was originally a campsite for desert nomads and grew into a thriving city under Mansa Musa, the most famous ruler in Africa.
Tokugawa Ieyasu founded the Japanese government in Edo.
A dictatorship that exercises complete political power and control over all aspects of society seeks to mobilize the mass for action.
In World War I, a war in which the government plans and controls all aspects of economic and social life in order to make the greatest possible military effort.
Mexico ceded large tracts of land to the United States in the 19th century.
The territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey was recognized by the 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish war.
The peace treaty that ended the Seven Years' War was signed by France and India.
The 1494 agreement gave Spain everything west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and gave Portugal everything to the east.
The kingdoms of Charlemagne's three surviving grandsons set the pattern for the modern states of Germany, France, and Italy.
The peace settlement that ended World War I limited Germany's army to one hundred thousand men and forced Germany to pay huge amounts of compensation.
In World War I, fighting behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire cost lives and limited gains in territory.
The Han Dynasty established a system to regulate contact with foreign powers.
Envoys from states and tribes outside of China received gifts in return.
The American policy was to prevent the spread of Communism.
The north south trade in salt was controlled by the major branch of the nomadic Berber peoples.
The Qur'an and the Sunna are written by religious scholars.
Spanish king Charles I organized a debate in the city of Valladolid in the 15th century in which defenders of Spanish conquest and forcible conversion faced off against critics of these practices.
A knight is loyal to a lord.
French, German, Italian, and English were written in the everyday language of the region.
The chief assistants are the caliphs.
The Bolsheviks applied the total-war concept to a civil conflict, seizing grain from peasants, nationalizing banks and industry, and requiring everyone to work.
When states fought each other and one state was destroyed.
In response to the 1980s debt crisis in Latin America, policies were put in place to restrict public spending, lower import barriers, and privatize state enterprises.
A spinning machine created by Richard Arkwright that had a capacity of several hundred spindles and used waterpower required a larger and more specialized mill.
Many barbarian law codes have compensation for death or injury.
The idea that Europeans could and should civilize more primitive nonwhite peoples would eventually provide them with modern achievements and higher standards of living.
Hundreds of thousands of people, mostly women, were tried and executed in Europe and European colonies during the 16th and 17th century for being witches.
The basis for the religious traditions of Judaism is the god of the Hebrew people.
One of the poles represents the feminine, dark, and receptive, and the other the masculine, bright, and assertive.
The birth of modern secular Turkey was helped by the revolutionaries who seized power in the revolution of 1908.
The pastoral nomad tents could be quickly dismantled and loaded onto animals or carts.
The Meiji period began in Japan and lasted until the end of World War II.
There was a school of Buddhism that emphasized meditation.
Theodor Herzl started the movement towards Jewish political nationhood.
Zoroaster's teachings emphasized the individual's responsibility to choose between good and evil.
The book was reproduced with the permission of Columbia University Press.
The book was reproduced with permission of the university.
The book was reproduced with the permission of Columbia University Press.
Quoted in B. Lewis.
Oxford University Press has permission to use it.
Quoted in A.
"Kingdoms of West Africa" is a quote.
Reproduced by permission of Columbia University Press in the format Republish in a book via Copyright Clearance Center
"Quoted in J.
Ibid., p. 76, has been modified.
Quoted in p. 24.
CIA Director Richard Helms notes on Nixon's plan for Chile on September 15, 1970.
The United Nations High Commisssioner for Human Rights updated the Europe situation on January 24, 2017: http://www.unhcr.org/europe-emergency.html.
The names of individuals are boldface.
Blood circulation, blood sacrifice, lightning war, blockades in First World War, and Napoleonic.
Iran has been involved in Brinksmanship in North Korea, Bristol, England, and Britain.
Spanish Bureaucracy flooded by gold and silver.
There are developing countries.
The Dutch government and slave trade.
There was forced labor.
In West Africa, the House of Commons, the House of lords, and the House of Orange all have Byzantine families.
Specific kings and kingdoms have the right of kings in Southeast Asia.
There was a war of lightning.
Slave trade in the 583Liverpool and Manchester Railway.
The Manufacturing Population of England.
In Second World War, Songhai kingdom and Moriscos were expelled.
The economies of the First World War were planned.
Public works in Sweden.
The empire of the Qing (Manchu) Dynasty was 603-605 years old.
The 767-revolution against Russia and the Taiping Rebellion.
Saint-Gall abbey has a library.
Civil service; Civil service examination system, Taiping Rebellion and 770 scholars in China.
In Palestine, there are 384 semi-sedentary communities, skilled workers, Semitic peoples and languages.
Smyrna is a battle at the social class.
Welfare system in England, Germany, and the Soviet Union.
In trade, Sotho people.
Unemployment is a Uncertainty principle in Nazi Germany.
African and Asian women in agriculture, barbarian, Chinese Neolithic, in India, in Japan, in stateless societies, and Violence.
200,000 years begins.
Farming begins on the Nile River.
The Earliest mound begins.
India becomes Textiles, ca.
The Andes were built by Aryans Mycenaean Africa.
The caste system was created in Greek Dark Age.
The founding of Buddhism and Jainism.
Meroe becomes iron 600 C.E.
after Julius Caesar was killed.
Roman Empire at speaking flourishes in between greatest extent.
The Roman ports began in southern Africa.
The Gupta Empire is a state religion of North India and America.
Carolingians defeated Sahara, 800 years ago.
The construction of Latin, Greek Saharan Africa, South America, and Angkor Wat.
China was divided into towns.
Marco Polo is in China.
The Age of Discovery, East Africa, and the height of Aztecs are some of the factors that make Da Gama reach Moctezuma I.
Michelangelo paints slave trade.
She is the president of the World History Association.
He was a member of the Executive Council of the World History Association.
He was the president of the Conference on Latin American History.
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Take the lead in your history class.
The Earliest Human Societies were 2500 B.C.E.
The Neolithic Era saw the development of agriculture.
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Versions and Supplements
Maps, Figures, and Tables
1 The Earliest Human Societies to 2500 B.C.E. Evolution and Migration Understanding the Early Human Past Hominid Evolution Homo Sapiens, "Thinking Humans" Migration and Differentiation Later Paleolithic Society, ca. 200,000-9000 B.C.E. Foraging for Food Family and Kinship Relationships Analyzing the Evidence: Paleolithic Venus Figures Cultural Creations and Spirituality Thinking Like a Historian: Paleolithic Hand Markings Analyzing the Evidence: Bison and Human in Lascaux Cave The Development of Agriculture in the Neolithic Era, ca. 9000 B.C.E. The Development of Horticulture Global Viewpoints: Stone Age Houses in Chile and China Animal Domestication and the Rise of Pastoralism Plow Agriculture Neolithic Society Social Hierarchies and Slavery Gender Hierarchies and Inheritance Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections Individuals in Society: The Iceman Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
2 Complex Societies in Southwest Asia and the Nile Valley 3800-500 B.C.E. Writing, Cities, and States Written Sources and the Human Past Cities and the Idea of Civilization The Rise of States, Laws, and Social Hierarchies Mesopotamia from Sumer to Babylon Environmental Challenges, Irrigation, and Religion Sumerian Politics and Society Writing, Mathematics, and Poetry Analyzing the Evidence: Gilgamesh's Quest for Immortality Empires in Mesopotamia Life Under Hammurabi The Egyptians The Nile and the God-King Thinking Like a Historian: Addressing the Gods Egyptian Society and Work Analyzing the Evidence: Egyptian Families Migrations, Revivals, and Collapse Individuals in Society: Hatshepsut and Nefertiti Iron and the Emergence of New States The Hebrews The Hebrew State Global Viewpoints: Rulers and Divine Favor for Babylonians and Hebrews The Jewish Religion Hebrew Society The Assyrians and the Persians Assyria, the Military Monarchy The Rise and Expansion of the Persian Empire The Religion of Zoroaster Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
3 The Foundation of Indian Society to 300 C.E. The Land and Its First Settlers, ca. 3000-1500 B.C.E. Thinking Like a Historian: Harappan Artifacts The Aryans During the Vedic Age, ca. 1500-500 B.C.E. Aryan Dominance in North India Global Viewpoints: Divine Martial Prowess in India and Sumer Life in Early India Analyzing the Evidence: Conversations Between Rama and Sita from the Ramayana Brahmanism India's Great Religions Jainism Siddhartha Gautama and Buddhism Analyzing the Evidence: Gandharan Frieze Depicting the Buddha's Enlightenment Individuals in Society: Sudatta, Lay Follower of the Buddha Hinduism Western Contact and the Mauryan Unification of North India, ca. 513-185 B.C.E. Encounters with the West Chandragupta and the Founding of the Mauryan Empire The Reign of Ashoka, ca. 269-232 B.C.E. Small States and Trading Networks, 185 B.C.E.-300 C.E. Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
4 China's Classical Age to 221 B.C.E. The Emergence of Civilization in China The Impact of Geography Early Agricultural Societies of the Neolithic Age The Shang Dynasty, ca. 1500-1050 B.C.E. Shang Society Bronze Metalworking The Development of Writing The Early Zhou Dynasty, ca. 1050-400 B.C.E. Zhou Politics Life During the Early Zhou Dynasty Global Viewpoints: The Inglorious Side of War in the Book of Songs and the Patirruppattu Individuals in Society: Lord Mengchang Thinking Like a Historian: Ideas About the Divine Realm The Warring States Period, 403-221 B.C.E. New Technologies for War The Victorious States Confucius and His Followers Confucius Analyzing the Evidence: The Teachings of Confucius The Spread of Confucian Ideas Daoism, Legalism, and Other Schools of Thought Analyzing the Evidence: Inscribed Bamboo Slips Daoism Legalism Yin and Yang Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
5 The Greek Experience 3500-30 B.C.E. Greece in the Bronze Age, ca. 3000-800 B.C.E. The Minoans and Mycenaeans The "Dark Age" Analyzing the Evidence: Hesiod, Works and Days The Development of the Polis in the Archaic Age, ca. 800-500 B.C.E. Organization of the Polis Overseas Expansion The Growth of Sparta The Evolution of Athens Turmoil and Culture in the Classical Period, 500-338 B.C.E. The Deadly Conflicts, 499-404 B.C.E. Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles Analyzing the Evidence: The Acropolis of Athens Families and Sexual Relations Thinking Like a Historian: Gender Roles in Classical Athens Public and Personal Religion The Flowering of Philosophy Hellenistic Society, 323-30 B.C.E. From Polis to Monarchy, 404-200 B.C.E. Building a Hellenized Society The Growth of Trade and Commerce Hellenistic Religion, Philosophy, and Science Religion in the Hellenistic World Global Viewpoints: Hellenistic and Chinese Spells Philosophy and Its Guidance for Life Hellenistic Science and Medicine Individuals in Society: Archimedes, Scientist and Inventor Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
6 The World of Rome ca. 1000 B.C.E.-400 C.E. The Romans in Italy The Etruscans The Founding of Rome The Roman Conquest of Italy The Roman State Social Conflict in Rome Roman Expansion and Its Repercussions Overseas Conquests and the Punic Wars, 264 -133 B.C.E. New Influences and Old Values in Roman Culture The Late Republic and the Rise of Augustus, 133-27 B.C.E. Individuals in Society: Queen Cleopatra The Successes of Augustus Analyzing the Evidence: Ara Pacis Rome and the Provinces Political and Military Changes in the Empire Global Viewpoints: Roman and Chinese Officials in Times of Disaster Thinking Like a Historian: Army and Empire Life in Imperial Rome Prosperity in the Roman Provinces Eastward Expansion and Contacts Between Rome and China The Coming of Christianity Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity The Life and Teachings of Jesus The Spread of Christianity The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity Turmoil and Reform Political Measures Economic Issues The Acceptance of Christianity Analyzing the Evidence: The Edict of Toleration and the Edict of Milan Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
7 East Asia and the Spread of Buddhism 221 B.C.E.-845 C.E. The Age of Empire in China: The Qin and Han Dynasties The Qin Unification, 221-206 B.C.E. The Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. Han Intellectual and Cultural Life Inner Asia and the Silk Road Thinking Like a Historian: Who Made the Chinese Silks Found Along the Silk Road? Life in Han China Individuals in Society: The Ban Family China and Rome The Fall of the Han and the Age of Division The Spread of Buddhism Out of India Buddhism's Path Through Central Asia The Appeal and Impact of Buddhism in China Analyzing the Evidence: Sixth-Century Biographies of Buddhist Nuns The Chinese Empire Re-created: Sui (581-618) and Tang (618-907) The Sui Dynasty, 581-618 The Tang Dynasty, 618-907 Tang Culture The East Asian Cultural Sphere Vietnam Korea Japan Analyzing the Evidence: Horyuji Temple Global Viewpoints: Coping with Epidemics in Japan and Byzantium Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
8 Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia 250-850 The Byzantine Empire Sources of Byzantine Strength The Sassanid Empire and Conflicts with Byzantium Justinian's Code of Law Thinking Like a Historian: Slavery in Roman and Germanic Society Byzantine Intellectual Life Individuals in Society: Theodora of Constantinople Life in Constantinople The Growth of the Christian Church The Evolution of Church Leadership and Orthodoxy The Western Church and the Eastern Church Christian Monasticism Christian Ideas and Practices Christianity and Classical Culture Saint Augustine on Sin, Grace, and Redemption The Iconoclastic Controversy Analyzing the Evidence: Orthodox Icon of Jesus Migrating Peoples Global Viewpoints: Roman and Byzantine Views of Barbarians Social and Economic Structures Tribes, Warriors, and Laws Migrations and Political Change Christian Missionaries and Conversion Missionaries' Actions The Process of Conversion Frankish Rulers and Their Territories The Merovingians and Carolingians The Warrior-Ruler Charlemagne Analyzing the Evidence: The Capitulary de Villis Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
9 The Islamic World 600-1400 The Origins of Islam Arabian Social and Economic Structure Muhammad's Rise as a Religious Leader The Tenets of Islam Islamic States and Their Expansion Islam's Spread Beyond Arabia Reasons for the Spread of Islam The Caliphate and the Split Between Shi'a and Sunni Alliances The Abbasid Caliphate Administration of the Islamic Territories Fragmentation and Military Challenges, 900-1400 Breakaway Territories and Shi'a Gains The Ascendancy of the Turks The Mongol Invasions Muslim Society: The Life of the People The Social Hierarchy Slavery Women in Classical Islamic Society Analyzing the Evidence: Abu Hamid al-Ghazali on the Etiquette of Marriage Marriage, the Family, and Sexuality Trade and Commerce Thinking Like a Historian: The Risks and Rewards of Indian Ocean Seaborne Trade Cultural Developments Individuals in Society: Ibn Battuta The Cultural Centers of Baghdad and Cordoba Education and Intellectual Life Global Viewpoints: Amusing Animal Stories by Syrian and Greek Authors The Mystical Tradition of Sufism Analyzing the Evidence: Sufi Collective Ritual Muslim-Christian Encounters Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
10 African Societies and Kingdoms 1000 B.C.E.-1500 C.E. The Land and Peoples of Africa Global Viewpoints: Early Descriptions of Africa from Egypt Early African Societies Agriculture and Its Impact Bantu Migrations Life in the Kingdoms of the Western Sudan, ca. 1000 B.C.E.-800 C.E. The Trans-Saharan Trade The Berbers of North Africa Effects of Trade on West African Society The Spread of Islam in Africa African Kingdoms and Empires, ca. 800-1500 The Kingdom of Ghana, ca. 900-1100 The Kingdom of Mali, ca. 1200-1450 Ethiopia: The Christian Kingdom of Aksum Individuals in Society: Amda Siyon Analyzing the Evidence: The Queen of Sheba and King Solomon The East African City-States Analyzing the Evidence: A Tenth-Century Muslim Traveler Describes Parts of the East African Coast Southern Africa and Great Zimbabwe Thinking Like a Historian: Great Zimbabwe Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
11 The Americas 3200 B.C.E.-1500 C.E. Societies of the Americas in a Global Context Trade and Technology Settlement and Environment Ancient Societies Olmec Agriculture, Technology, and Religion Hohokam, Hopewell, and Mississippian Societies Kinship and Ancestors in the Andes The Incas The Inca Model of Empire Inca Imperial Expansion Imperial Needs and Obligations Analyzing the Evidence: Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, The First New Chronicle and Good Government The Maya and Teotihuacan Maya Agriculture and Trade Maya Science and Religion Analyzing the Evidence: The Maya Calendar Teotihuacan and the Toltecs Thinking Like a Historian: Feathers, Snakes, and Humans The Aztec Empire The Mexica: From Vassals to Masters Individuals in Society: Tlacaelel Life in the Aztec Empire The Limits of the Aztec Empire American Empires and the Encounter The Last Day of the Aztecs The Fall of the Incas Global Viewpoints: Inca and Spanish Views on Religion, Authority, and Tribute Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
12 Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia 300-1400 Central Asian Nomads Nomadic Society The Turks The Mongols Analyzing the Evidence: The Abduction of Women in The Secret History of the Mongols Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire Chinggis Khan Chinggis's Successors Thinking Like a Historian: The Mongol Army The Mongols as Rulers East-West Communication During the Mongol Era The Movement of Peoples Global Viewpoints: Explaining the Workings of Paper Money in China, Persia, and Europe The Spread of Disease, Goods, and Ideas India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300-1400 The Gupta Empire, ca. 320-480 India's Medieval Age and the First Encounter with Islam Individuals in Society: Bhaskara the Teacher The Delhi Sultanate Life in Medieval India Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Growth of Maritime Trade State Formation and Indian Influences Analyzing the Evidence: Bayon Relief at Angkor Thom The Srivijayan Maritime Trade Empire The Spread of Indian Culture in Comparative Perspective The Settlement of the Pacific Islands Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
13 States and Cultures in East Asia 800-1400 The Medieval Chinese Economic Revolution, 800-1100 Global Viewpoints: Painters of Uncanny Skill in China and Rome China During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 960-1368 The Song Dynasty The Scholar-Officials and Neo-Confucianism Analyzing the Evidence: Ma Yuan's Painting On a Mountain Path in Spring Individuals in Society: Shen Gua Women's Lives in Song Times Thinking Like a Historian: When and Why Did Foot Binding Begin? China Under Mongol Rule Korea Under the Koryo Dynasty, 935-1392 Japan's Heian Period, 794-1185 Fujiwara Rule Aristocratic Culture Analyzing the Evidence: The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon The Samurai and the Kamakura Shogunate, 1185-1333 Military Rule Cultural Trends Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
14 Europe and Western Asia in the Middle Ages 800-1450 Political Developments Invasions and Migrations "Feudalism" and Manorialism The Restoration of Order Law and Justice The Christian Church Papal Reforms Monastic Life Individuals in Society: Hildegard of Bingen Popular Religion The Expansion of Western and Eastern Christianity The Crusades Background and Motives The Course of the Crusades Thinking Like a Historian: Christian and Muslim Views of the Crusades Consequences of the Crusades The Life of the People The Life and Work of Peasants The Life and Work of Nobles Analyzing the Evidence: Courtly Love Poetry Towns, Cities, and the Growth of Commercial Interests The Expansion of Trade and the Commercial Revolution Learning and Culture Universities and Scholasticism Cathedrals and a New Architectural Style Vernacular Literature and Drama Crises of the Later Middle Ages The Great Famine and the Black Death Global Viewpoints: Italian and English Views of the Plague The Hundred Years' War Challenges to the Christian Church Analyzing the Evidence: The Battle of Nicopolis Peasant and Urban Revolts Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
15 Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation 1350-1600 Renaissance Culture Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy Individuals in Society: Cosimo and Lorenzo de' Medici The Rise of Humanism Thinking Like a Historian: Humanist Learning Christian Humanism Printing and Its Social Impact Art and the Artist Social Hierarchies Race and Slavery Analyzing the Evidence: Titian, Laura de Dianti Wealth and the Nobility Gender Roles Politics and the State in the Renaissance France England Spain The Habsburgs The Protestant Reformation Criticism of the Church Martin Luther Protestant Thought and Its Appeal Analyzing the Evidence: Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants' War Marriage and Women's Roles The Reformation and German Politics England's Shift Toward Protestantism Calvinism and Its Moral Standards Global Viewpoints: Chinese and European Views on Proper Behavior The Catholic Reformation Papal Reforms and the Council of Trent New Religious Orders Religious Violence French Religious Wars Civil Wars in the Netherlands The Great European Witch-Hunt Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
16 The Acceleration of Global Contact 1450-1600 The Afroeurasian Trade World The Trade World of the Indian Ocean Peoples and Cultures of the Indian Ocean Trade with Africa and the Middle East Genoese and Venetian Middlemen The European Voyages of Discovery Causes of European Expansion Technology and the Rise of Exploration The Portuguese in Africa and Asia Spain's Voyages to the Americas Analyzing the Evidence: Columbus Describes His First Voyage Spain "Discovers" the Pacific Early Exploration by Northern European Powers Conquest and Settlement Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires Thinking Like a Historian: Who Was Dona Marina? Portuguese Brazil Colonial Administration Indigenous Population Loss and Economic Exploitation Patterns of Settlement The Era of Global Contact The Columbian Exchange Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery Spanish Silver and Its Economic Effects The Birth of the Global Economy Individuals in Society: Catarina de San Juan Changing Attitudes and Beliefs Religious Conversion Global Viewpoints: Aztec and Spanish Views on Christian Conversion in New Spain European Debates About Indigenous Peoples New Ideas About Race Analyzing the Evidence: Mixed Races Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
17 The Islamic World Powers 1300-1800 The Turkish Ruling Houses: The Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire's Use of Slaves Individuals in Society: Hurrem The Safavid Empire in Persia The Mughal Empire in India Global Viewpoints: Mughal and French Views on Priorities for Monarchs Cultural Flowering The Arts City and Palace Building Gardens Intellectual Advances and Religious Trends Coffeehouses and Their Social Impact Analyzing the Evidence: Coffee Drinking Analyzing the Evidence: Katib Chelebi on Tobacco Non-Muslims Under Muslim Rule Thinking Like a Historian: Forced Relocation of Armenians to Persia Shifting Trade Routes and European Penetration European Rivalry for Trade in the Indian Ocean Merchant Networks in the Islamic Empires From the British East India Company to the British Empire in India Political Decline Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
18 European Power and Expansion 1500-1750 The Protestant and Catholic Reformations The Protestant Reformation The Catholic Reformation Religious Violence Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding The Social Order and Peasant Life Economic Crisis and Popular Revolts The Thirty Years' War European Achievements in State-Building Absolutist States in Western and Central Europe Spain The Foundations of French Absolutism Louis XIV and Absolutism Global Viewpoints: Descriptions of Louis XIV of France and the Kangxi Emperor of China Thinking Like a Historian: What Was Absolutism? The Wars of Louis XIV The Economic Policy of Mercantilism The Austrian Habsburgs The Absolutist Palace Constitutionalism and Empire in England and the Dutch Republic Religious Divides and Civil War The Puritan Protectorate Constitutional Monarchy The Dutch Republic Analyzing the Evidence: Gonzales Coques, The Young Scholar and His Wife Individuals in Society: Gluckel of Hameln Colonial Expansion and Empire The Dutch Trading Empire Colonial Empires of England and France Mercantilism and Colonial Wars People Beyond Borders The Russian Empire Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow Building the Russian Empire Peter the Great and Russia's Turn to the West Analyzing the Evidence: Peter the Great and Foreign Experts Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
19 New Worldviews and Ways of Life 1540-1790 The Scientific Revolution Why Europe? Scientific Thought to 1550 Astronomy and Physics Newton's Synthesis Natural History and Empire Magic and Alchemy Important Changes in Scientific Thinking and Practice The Methods of Science Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry Science and Religion Science and Society The Rise and Spread of the Enlightenment The Early Enlightenment The Influence of the Philosophes Enlightenment Movements Across Europe Key Issues of Enlightenment Debate Shifting Views of the Non-Western World New Definitions of Race Analyzing the Evidence: Denis Diderot, "Supplement to Bougainville's Voyage" Women and the Enlightenment Analyzing the Evidence: Enlightenment Culture Enlightened Absolutism and Its Limits Thinking Like a Historian: The Enlightenment Debate on Religious Tolerance Economic Change and the Atlantic World Economic and Demographic Change The Atlantic Economy Global Viewpoints: Malachy Postlethwayt and Olaudah Equiano on the Abolition of Slavery Urban Life and the Public Sphere Culture and Community in the Atlantic World Individuals in Society: Rebecca Protten The Atlantic Enlightenment Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
20 Africa and the World 1400-1800 West Africa in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries The West Coast: Senegambia and Benin The Sudan: Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausaland Global Viewpoints: European Descriptions of Timbuktu and Jenne The Lives of the People of West Africa Trade and Industry Cross-Cultural Encounters Along the East African Coast Muslim and European Incursions in Ethiopia, ca. 1500-1630 The Swahili City-States and the Arrival of the Portuguese, ca. 1500-1600 Analyzing the Evidence: Lamu Old Town, Lamu Island, Kenya Analyzing the Evidence: Duarte Barbosa on the Swahili City-States The African Slave Trade The Institution of Slavery in Africa The Transatlantic Slave Trade Individuals in Society: Olaudah Equiano Thinking Like a Historian: Perspectives on the African Slave Trade Impact on African Societies Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
21 Continuity and Change in East Asia 1400-1800 Ming China, 1368-1644 The Rise of Zhu Yuanzhang and the Founding of the Ming Dynasty Problems with the Imperial Institution The Mongols and the Great Wall The Examination Life Individuals in Society: Tan Yunxian, Woman Doctor Everyday Life in Ming China Global Viewpoints: Chinese and European Commentators on Urban Amusements Ming Decline The Manchus and Qing China, to 1800 The Rise of the Manchus Competent and Long-Lived Emperors Imperial Expansion Japan's Middle Ages, ca. 1400-1600 Muromachi Culture Civil War The Victors: Nobunaga and Hideyoshi The Tokugawa Shogunate, to 1800 Tokugawa Government Commercialization and the Growth of Towns The Life of the People in the Edo Period Analyzing the Evidence: Interior View of a Kabuki Theater Thinking Like a Historian: Attention to Dress in Edo Japan Maritime Trade, Piracy, and the Entry of Europe into the Asian Maritime Sphere Zheng He's Voyages Piracy and Japan's Overseas Adventures Analyzing the Evidence: Keinen's Poetic Diary of the Korea Campaign Europeans Enter the Scene Christian Missionaries Learning from the West The Shifting International Environment in the Eighteenth Century Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
22 Revolutions in the Atlantic World 1775-1825 Background to Revolution Social Change Demands for Liberty and Equality Thinking Like a Historian: The Rights of Which Men? The Seven Years' War The American Revolutionary Era, 1775-1789 The Origins of the Revolution Independence from Britain Framing the Constitution Limitations of Liberty and Equality Revolution in France, 1789-1799 Breakdown of the Old Order The National Assembly Analyzing the Evidence: Abbe Sieyes, What Is the Third Estate? Constitutional Monarchy The National Convention Analyzing the Evidence: Contrasting Visions of the Sans-Culottes The Directory Napoleon's Europe, 1799-1815 Napoleon's Rule of France Napoleon's Expansion in Europe The Grand Empire and Its End The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804 Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue The Outbreak of Revolt Individuals in Society: Toussaint L'Ouverture The War of Haitian Independence Revolutions in Latin America The Origins of the Revolutions Against Colonial Powers Resistance, Rebellion, and Independence Global Viewpoints: Declarations of Independence: The United States and Venezuela The Aftermath of Revolution in the Atlantic World Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
23 The Revolution in Energy and Industry 1760-1850 The Industrial Revolution in Britain Why Britain? Technological Innovations and Early Factories Individuals in Society: Samuel Crompton The Steam Engine Breakthrough Steam-Powered Transportation Analyzing the Evidence: Rain, Steam, and Speed--the Great Western Railway Industry and Population Industrialization in Europe and the World National and International Variations Industrialization in Continental Europe Agents of Industrialization The Global Picture Global Viewpoints: Indian Cotton Manufacturers New Patterns of Working and Living Work in Early Factories Working Families and Children The Sexual Division of Labor Analyzing the Evidence: The Testimony of Young Mine Workers Living Standards for the Working Class Thinking Like a Historian: Making the Industrialized Worker Relations Between Capital and Labor The New Class of Factory Owners Responses to Industrialization The Early Labor Movement in Britain The Impact of Slavery Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
24 Ideologies of Change in Europe 1815-1914 A Conservative Peace Gives Way to Radical Ideas The Political and Social Situation After 1815 Conservatism After 1815 Liberalism and the Middle Class The Growing Appeal of Nationalism The Birth of Socialism Reforms and Revolutions, 1815-1850 Social and Economic Conflict Liberal Reform in Great Britain Revolutions in France Analyzing the Evidence: The Triumph of Democratic Republics The Revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe Nation Building in Italy, Germany, and Russia Global Viewpoints: German and Italian Views on Nationalism Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Unification of Italy Individuals in Society: Giuseppe Garibaldi Bismarck and German Unification The Modernization of Russia Urban Life in the Age of Ideologies Urban Development Social Inequality and Class The Changing Family Analyzing the Evidence: Stefan Zweig on Middle-Class Youth and Sexuality Science for the Masses Thinking Like a Historian: The Promise of Electricity Cultural Shifts Nationalism and Socialism, 1871-1914 Trends in Suffrage The German Empire Republican France Great Britain and the Austro-Hungarian Empire Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism The Socialist Movement Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
25 Africa, the Ottoman Empire, and the New Imperialism 1800-1914 Africa: From the Slave Trade to European Colonial Rule Trade and Social Change Islamic Revival and Expansion in Africa The Scramble for Africa, 1880-1914 Global Viewpoints: The Congo Free State Southern Africa in the Nineteenth Century Colonialism's Impact After 1900 The New Imperialism, 1880-1914 Causes of the New Imperialism Analyzing the Evidence: A French Leader Defends Imperialism A "Civilizing Mission" Analyzing the Evidence: Pears' Soap Advertisement Critics of Imperialism African and Asian Resistance Thinking Like a Historian: African Views of the Scramble for Africa The Islamic Heartland Under Pressure Decline and Reform in the Ottoman Empire Egypt: From Reform to British Occupation Individuals in Society: Muhammad Ali The Expanding World Economy The Rise of Global Inequality The World Market The Great Global Migration Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
26 Asia and the Pacific in the Era of Imperialism 1800-1914 India and the British Empire in Asia The Evolution of British Rule The Socioeconomic Effects of British Rule The British and the Indian Educated Elite Thinking Like a Historian: English-Language Education for Indians Competition for Southeast Asia The Dutch East Indies Mainland Southeast Asia The Philippines Individuals in Society: Jose Rizal China Under Pressure The Opium War Internal Problems Global Viewpoints: Chinese and British Efforts to Reduce Infant Deaths The Self-Strengthening Movement Republican Revolution Japan's Rapid Transformation The "Opening" of Japan The Meiji Restoration Analyzing the Evidence: Fukuzawa Yukichi, "Escape from Asia" Industrialization Analyzing the Evidence: Japan's First Skyscraper Japan as an Imperial Power The Pacific Region and the Movement of People Settler Colonies in the Pacific: Australia and New Zealand Asian Emigration The Countries of Asia in Comparative Perspective Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
27 The Americas in the Age of Liberalism 1810-1917 New Nations Liberalism and Caudillos in Spanish America Mexico and the United States Global Viewpoints: Perspectives on the Mexican-American War Liberal Reform in Mexico Brazil: A New World Monarchy Slavery and Abolition Slave Societies in the Americas Analyzing the Evidence: Slaves Sold South from Richmond, 1853 Independence and Abolition Abolition in Cuba and Brazil Thinking Like a Historian: The Abolition of Slavery in Brazil, from Above and Below Export-Led Growth and Social Unrest Latin America Re-enters the World Economy Individuals in Society: Henry Meiggs, Promoter and Speculator Liberal Consolidation in South America The Porfiriato and Liberal Stability in Mexico The Mexican Revolution Immigration Immigration to Latin America Immigration to the United States Immigration to Canada A New American Empire U.S. Intervention in Latin America The Spanish-American War Analyzing the Evidence: Reyita Castillo Bueno on Slavery and Freedom in Cuba The Panama Canal Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
28 World War and Revolution 1914-1929 The First World War, 1914-1918 Origins and Causes of the Great War The Outbreak of War Stalemate and Slaughter Global Viewpoints: British and Canadian Poetry of the Great War The War Becomes Global The Home Front Mobilizing for Total War Analyzing the Evidence: The Experience of War The Social Impact of War Individuals in Society: Vera Brittain Growing Political Tensions Analyzing the Evidence: "Never Forget!" The Russian Revolution The Fall of Imperial Russia The Provisional Government Thinking Like a Historian: Russian Views of War and Revolution Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution Dictatorship and Civil War The War's Consequences The End of the War The Paris Peace Treaties American Rejection of the Versailles Treaty The Search for Peace and Political Stability, 1919-1929 Germany and the Western Powers Hope in Foreign Affairs Hope in Democratic Government The Age of Anxiety Uncertainty in Philosophy and Religion The New Physics Freudian Psychology Twentieth-Century Literature Modern Architecture, Art, and Music Movies and Radio Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
29 Nationalism in Asia 1914-1939 The First World War's Impact on Nationalist Trends Asian Reaction to the War in Europe The Mandates System Nationalism's Appeal Nationalist Movements in the Middle East The Arab Revolt Analyzing the Evidence: Resolution of the General Syrian Congress at Damascus The Turkish Revolution Modernization Efforts in Persia and Afghanistan Gradual Independence in the Arab States Arab-Jewish Tensions in Palestine Toward Self-Rule in India British Promises and Repression The Roots of Militant Nonviolence Gandhi's Resistance Campaign in India Global Viewpoints: Gandhi and Mao on Revolutionary Means Nationalist Struggles in East and Southeast Asia The Rise of Nationalist China Thinking Like a Historian: Interpreting the May Fourth Movement China's Intellectual Revolution Analyzing the Evidence: The Fate of a Chinese Patriot Individuals in Society: Ning Lao, a Chinese Working Woman From Liberalism to Ultranationalism in Japan Japan Against China Striving for Independence in Southeast Asia Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
30 The Great Depression and World War II 1929-1945 The Great Depression, 1929-1939 The Economic Crisis Mass Unemployment The New Deal in the United States The European Response to the Depression Analyzing the Evidence: British Conservative Party Poster Worldwide Effects Global Viewpoints: Socialism and the Working Class Authoritarian States Conservative Authoritarianism Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships Stalin's Soviet Union From Lenin to Stalin The Five-Year Plans Thinking Like a Historian: Peasant Resistance to Stalin's Collectivization Plan Life and Culture in Soviet Society Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges Mussolini and Fascism in Italy The Seizure of Power The Regime in Action Hitler and Nazism in Germany The Roots of Nazism Hitler's Road to Power The Nazi State and Society Hitler's Popularity Aggression and Appeasement, 1933-1939 The Second World War, 1939-1945 Hitler's Empire in Europe, 1939-1942 The Holocaust Individuals in Society: Primo Levi Japan's Asian Empire Analyzing the Evidence: Ultranationalist Pamphlet for Japanese Students The Grand Alliance The War in Europe, 1942-1945 The War in the Pacific, 1942-1945 Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
31 Decolonization, Revolution, and the Cold War 1945-1968 The World Remade The Cold War The United Nations The Politics of Liberation Dependency and Development Theories Global Viewpoints: U.S. and Latin American Views on Development Interpreting the Postcolonial Experience Nationalism in South Asia and the Middle East Independence in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh Arab Socialism in the Middle East The Arab-Israeli Conflict Revolution and Resurgence in East and Southeast Asia The Communist Victory in China Analyzing the Evidence: Poster Art in Communist China Conflict in Korea Japan's American Reconstruction The Vietnam War Thinking Like a Historian: Global Perspectives on the Vietnam War Decolonization in Africa The Growth of African Nationalism Analyzing the Evidence: C. L. R. James on Pan-African Liberation Ghana Shows the Way French-Speaking Regions Populist and Revolutionary Pathways in Latin America Economic Nationalism in Mexico Populism in Argentina and Brazil Individuals in Society: Eva Peron Communist Revolution in Cuba The Limits of Postwar Prosperity The Soviet Union Struggles to Move Beyond Stalin Postwar Challenges in Western Europe and the United States The World in 1968 Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
32 Liberalization 1968-2000s Oil Shocks and Liberalization The OPEC Oil Embargo Mexico Under the PRI Nigeria, Africa's Giant War and Revolution in the Middle East The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict Egypt: Arab World Leader Revolution and War in Iran and Iraq Latin America: Dictatorship, Debt, and Democratization Civil Wars in Central America Boom and Bust in Chile The Dirty War in Argentina Development and Dictatorship in Brazil Resistance to White Rule in Southern Africa Portuguese Decolonization and Rhodesia South Africa Under Apartheid Thinking Like a Historian: The Struggle for Freedom in South Africa Political Change in Africa Since 1990 Growth and Development in Asia Japan's Economic Miracle and the Emergence of the "Asian Tigers" China's Economic Resurgence Analyzing the Evidence: A Member of China's Red Guards on Democratic Reform Analyzing the Evidence: Tiananmen Square Global Viewpoints: Dissidents in Burma and China Development Versus Democracy in India and Pakistan The End of the Cold War The Limits of Reform in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Individuals in Society: Vaclav Havel Recasting Russia Without Communism Integration and Reform in Europe Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
33 The Contemporary World in Historical Perspective The End of History? Complexity and Violence in a Multipolar World An Expanding Atomic Age Al-Qaeda and Afghanistan Global Circulation and Exchange Migration Individuals in Society: Sieng, a Mnong Refugee in an American High School Urbanization Multinational Corporations Analyzing the Evidence: A Brazilian Band on Globalization Social Movements Environmentalism Analyzing the Evidence: Protest Against Genetically Modified Foods Lesbian, Gay, and Transgender Rights Women's Right to Equality Global Viewpoints: Women Activists in Chiapas, Mexico Children: The Right to Childhood Science and Technology: Changes and Challenges Intensified Agriculture and the Green Revolution The Medical Revolution Thinking Like a Historian: The Relationships Between Mosquitoes, People, and Epidemics A Digital Revolution Chapter Summary Connections Review and Explore
Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Timeline A History of World Societies: An Overview