ChAPTER 11 -- Part 9: The First Global Civilization: The Rise
Muslim merchants formed partnerships with Christians and Jews.
The firm was able to do business all week because each merchant had a different Sabbath.
Merchants supplied the cities of the empire with provisions.
The long-distance trade specialized in luxury products for the elite classes.
The baths shown in the Persian painting were frequented by some wealth.
The caliph, haroun al-Rashid, received a haircut while his servants built and ran mosques and religious schools.
The Abbasid elite could rest at the baths.
Large donations were exchanged and enjoyed expert massages.
Muslim towns and cities can be identified by the domes and minarets of the mosques where the faithful are called to prayer five times a day.
The mosque and its architec ture were the crowning glory of Islamic material culture during the early centuries of Muslim expansion.
The functions of the mosque and the evolving style of mosque architecture can tell us about Muslim beliefs and values, as well as the impact of earlier religions, such as Judaism and Christianity, on Islam.
It is not surprising that the earliest prayer houses were simple to build because of the low level of material culture in pre-Islamic Arabia.
Muhammad's own house suggested the lines for the first mosques.
They had a shaded porch on one side, a columned shelter on the other, and an open courtyard in between.
The outer perimeter of the earliest mosques was made of reed mats, but soon more permanent stone walls surrounded the courtyard and prayer areas.
After Mecca was taken and the Ka'ba became the central shrine of the new faith, each mosque was oriented to the Mecca wall, which was always faced in the direction of the holy city.
The chair that the prophet used in the last years of his life was located so that the faithful could see and hear him.
During the time of the first caliphs, the raised area became the place from which the Friday sermons are delivered throughout the Muslim world.
The practice of building a special and often elaborately decorated niche had been going on for a while.
Mosques became more elaborate over time.
The remains of Greek or Roman temples or abandoned Christian churches can be found in the core of major mosques.
In the larger cities, the courtyards of the great mosques were surrounded by columns and arches, and eventually they were enclosed by Domes and minarets.
The mosque design was drawn.
The first minarets, or towers from which the faithful were called to prayer, were added in the early 8th century and became a key feature of the mosque complex.
Geometric designs, passages from the Qur'an in swirling Arabic, and flower and plant motifs were favored because human and animal images were forbidden.
The mosques of Persia had the most splendid decorations.
In the early centuries of Islam, the great houses of worship became the focal points of Islamic cities, key places of community worship and socialization, and the schools that were often attached, vital intel and educational centers of the Islamic world.
Discuss the influences of Christianity and Judaism in the design of the mosque.
There is a decorated section facing Mecca.
The increase in handicraft production fed the growth of Abbasid cities.
Both government-run and privately owned workshops produced a wide range of products, from necessities such as furniture and carpets to luxury items such as glassware, jewelry, and tapestries.
From the glare and heat of the southern Mediterranean climate, a woman from the gurgling fountains and elaborate gardens is described in great detail.
There was an honorable woman standing before him.
There was a huge artificial tree made entirely of gold and silver and rich cloth with a raised design in the Hall of the Tree.
Her walk was filled with gold mechanical birds that chirped to keep her shoes on, and her hair floated in good cheer.
She wore a face veil.
Some of the jetty lashes were soft and dull, and the perfect beauty was bland.
The luxuries, frivolities, and vices of the Abbasid age were very accessible to the rich and powerful.
Each is selected to show a different aspect of high society in the Abbasid era.
She stopped at the fruiter's shop and bought from him the first book, which describes the sumptuous interior of a mansion in Baghdad, indi apples and Osmani quinces and Omani peaches.
I am a king, son of a king, and was brought up like a prince.
The New Faith and New Commerce workshops were not slaves.
They were highly valued for their skills and owned their own tools.
The most accomplished artisans formed guildlike organizations, which supported their members in times of financial difficulty or personal crisis, and negotiated wages and working conditions with merchants.
It was possible for slaves to rise to positions of great power, and many were granted their freedom or were able to buy it.
Slaves were forced into lives of hard labor on rural estates and government projects, such as those devoted to draining marshlands, or into a lifetime of labor in the nightmare conditions of the great salt mines in southern Iraq.
Non-Muslims were captured on slaving raids in east Africa.
Many of the landlords were established.
Arab soldiers who invested their share of the land in land or merchants and administrators decades of Abbasid rule were some of the new elite that emerged in the early comers.