The chapter is divided into two parts, Know the Concepts and Know the Models.
There are examples of political state units and nationalism, the organization of states, spatial concepts and borders, electoral representation, political-economic systems, and finally, geopolitics in the concepts section.
The nation and state are two political geography terms that are often used in the same sentence.
Technical definitions of these terms have meaning in the geography of politics.
A culture group is the same as a nation.
"State" means that there is a territory.
A state is considered to have sovereignty if it has international recognition from other states or the United Nations.
The United States and most other states are multi-national states made up of a number of different nations who have migrated and intermixed around the world.
Multinational states are most common in the Americas, where there are no nation-states.
There are many nation-states in which one culture group is represented by a single government.
Many are island countries.
Although no nation-state is truly made up of only one cultural group, places such as Japan, Iceland, Tonga, Ireland, Portugal, and Lesotho have not seen mass immigration from other culture groups in their histories.
Multinational states where the state has come to represent a singular and contemporary culture as opposed to the ancient cultures from which the population originate are referred to as nation-state.
There is an identifiable American culture in the United States, or a unique Brazilian culture in Brazil.
The new political nation is the result of the merging of several culture groups along with the idea of political nationalism.
Nationalism can be derived from an existing culture group that wants political representation or independence, or from a political state that bonds and unifying culture groups.
Nationalism is used by politicians to support the state and oppose foreign influences.
Even though they may be from a different ethnic background, people tend to take pride in their nationalist identities.
Although many culture groups are politically represented or are part of larger political entities, there are some stateless nations where a culture group is not included or allowed a share in the state political process.
There are a few examples.
Kurds are an ethnic group spread across northern Iraq, western Iran, eastern Syria, and southeastern Turkey.
The U.S. led invasion of Iraq in 2003 created a semi-autonomous Kurdistan.
Turkish government resistance to their sovereignty is one of the reasons for limited independence.
Kurds started a semi-autonomous government after the start of the Syrian Civil War.
Basques are an ethnic group in northern Spain and southwestern France who do not have Celtic or Latin cultural or language roots.
Their people's origin is poorly understood by historians.
Spain has granted limited autonomy to the Basque region around the city of Bilbao, but many Basque nationalists want full independence and statehood.
The militant group, ETA, used terror tactics to fight against Spanish rule.
The people of the mountain are isolated from other people in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and southern China.
Many families left their homeland because of their alliance with the United States against the Communists during the Vietnam War.
The upper Midwestern states of Wisconsin and Minnesota are home to many Hmong.
The film Gran Torino features immigrants.
The Karen are one of the stateless nations, along with the Romans, Chechens, and Uygurs.
Some groups have been granted limited independence.
There is a section on irredentism in this chapter for more on independence and sovereignty in the post-Soviet era.
Federal states and confederations have the same approach to government.
The United States, Australia, Canada, Germany, Brazil, Russia, and Mexico are all part of a federal government.
Like an umbrella, the federal state provides military protection, administers foreign diplomacy, and regulates trade as well as a number of internal administrative (executive branch), legislative, and judicial services across the country.
Each state has its own government, legislature, regulations, and services.
The responsibilities of the different roles in the administration seem to be redundant.
States can make rules about the sale of goods within their state, whereas the federal government regulates interstate trade.
The ultimate authority lies with the central government, which may be delegated to regional or local governments.
Although Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland all have some degree of independence, the power of the British Parliament may be altered or overturned.
The largest unitary state is the People's Republic of China, which is larger than many smaller states.
Microstates are states that are small but still hold the same position as larger states like the United States or Canada.
Many are island states, ports, or city-states that don't have access to the sea.
The UN is not a member of the Vatican City.
It is not a nation-state despite the common religion of its residents who are mostly clergy from around the world.
The concept of two or more states aligned together for a common purpose is called supranationalism.
A number of supranational organizations have been formed for a variety of purposes.
The United Nations has a purpose that is primarily diplomatic.
The UN provides a number of services internationally, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the Development Program, and the International Children's Education Fund.
Each of these units is an important supranational organization.
The European Union is an important supranational organization.
The EU grew to 28 member states with a small number of states waiting to join.
The EU was named in 1991 under the Treaty of Maastricht, which expanded the organization's role beyond trade relations.
The European Coal and Steel Community helped strengthen steel production between Italy, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
The Common Market was encouraged by the success of the limited free-trade network.
All tariffs on trade goods were eliminated by the EEC by 1973.
The EU acts like a federal government for Europe but lacks some of the administrative aspects of other confederations.
Goods and services that cross the internal borders of the EU are not subject to taxes or tariffs.
European businesses can save money and be more competitive by eliminating these fees.
There are no border-control stations for immigration or customs between EU member states.
Commercial vehicles and people cross EU borders.
In 1985 the borders of West Germany, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands were opened to one another.
Some professions may be protected from this, as workers can now take jobs in other EU states without applying for work permits.
The first EU members began converting to the Euro in 2000.
Currency exchange fees were eliminated.
Twelve members kept their own currencies.
The United Kingdom kept the British pound because of its high value, which would have caused financial problems in the country.
Before new member states can join the monetary union, they have to meet strict EU economic regulations.
The world financial crisis of 2008 revealed some weaknesses of the Euro as indebted countries were unable to devalue the Euro as they had been able to with national currencies.
Greece, Ireland, and Portugal were part of the Eurozone crisis.
The desirability of using the Euro currency has been questioned.
The European Court of Justice in Luxembourg is a venue for cases between people in different EU member states.
There were bound to be lawsuits and contract issues that would require the EU's decisions with the increase in cross-border trade.
Civil rights can be preserved regardless of local laws in the European Court of Human Rights.
Legislative and regulatory bodies were established by the EU Parliament.
Each member state has one seat on the European Commission.
The policy agenda is set each year by one member state of the presidency.
The European Commission acts as the executive branch of the union to act on programs and regulations set by the EU Parliament and Council.
The European Council appoints the EU Commission president.
EU governance has been successful in creating a singular economy through free trade, open borders, free movement of labor, free exchange of currency, and a level playing field for business and labor in terms of laws and regulations.
The EU acts as one state economy that is highly competitive with the United States, Japan, and emerging economies like Russia, China, India, Brazil, and the proposed Free Trade Zone of the Americas.
The EU had an economy of $18.6 trillion, while the US had a GDP of $17 trillion according to the International Monetary Fund.
A number of problems have emerged from the perspective of its citizens and member states despite the economic success of the EU.
The EU government's main source of revenue is a standard 20 percent sales tax, known as the VAT, even though free trade, open borders, and the Euro reduced the cost of doing business and reduced the cost of goods and services.
The cost of EU governance has increased the cost of many items in Europe.
The European courts have been accused of threatening the sovereignty of national and local courts.
It is difficult to control crime and terrorism because of open borders.
It is difficult to stop and arrest criminals when someone gets inside the EU's borders.
The EU had to strengthen its borders against illegal immigration.
Fortress Europe is a term used to describe the idea of closing EU borders.
Many of the eastern borders of the EU are undefended and only road and rail border crossing are inspected by immigration or customs officers.
Despite the EU's economic success, the issues of immigration, open borders, and British sovereignty in the face of an increasingly centralized European government led many voters to favor a split with the EU.
The European Union Constitution was proposed for approval in 2004.
Members of parliament had to vote on the constitution and it was poorly understood by the citizens.
Concepts like a common EU foreign policy were not clear.
Voters and politicians were concerned about the continued loss of sovereignty for member-state governments.
The constitution was seen as too pro-business by the political left.
Right-wing sentiment against Turkey in the EU resulted in "No" votes against ratification.
The European Commission went back to the drawing board after the Netherlands and France voted down the constitution.
In both the multiple-choice and free-response question sections, the EU is a topic.
You need to be familiar with all things EU.
Territoriality means political control over space.
The concept of the state implies that the government controls the land.
The citizenship of a person is based on where he or she was born and where he or she was naturalized as an immigrant.
When citizens go outside their state's political borders, they retain their citizen status and become an extension of their state, unless they apply for new citizenship as immigrants.
The state is defined as a population represented by a single government.
In the case of a Dutch or Polish government in exile during World War II, space matters, as it's not much of a state if it has no land.
The borders of political states and political sub-unit areas are strictly finite.
Political boundaries must be clear and definable.
Sometimes the physical geography, such as rivers or other water bodies, defines boundaries, and sometimes borderlines are measured based on treaties or other agreements between states.
Cultural divisions are reflected in non-physical boundaries.
The borders can be the result of land holdings from Feudalistic eras, or they can be the front lines at the cessation of armed conflict between states.
The consular services in large foreign cities have to be provided by countries with large expatriate populations.
People living in foreign countries often have to visit their country's embassies to process legal documents.
When citizens get trapped in war zones or disasters in foreign countries, it's up to their government's diplomats and military to get them out.
When the cultural borderlines become fuzzy, they can become quite irregular.
A minority culture group is concentrated inside a country that is dominated by a larger culture group.
It could be as simple as an ethnic neighborhood.
In Bosnia, several enclaves were established to separate warring Serb, Croat, and Muslim communities.
An exclave is a piece of territory separated by land from the main part of the state's territory.
Sometimes neighboring states try to claim exclaves in the name of cultural nationalism.
Sometimes armed conflicts and diplomatic negotiations result in official exclaves.
States can purchase territory under peace treaties.
Exclaves are not considered islands.
There are examples of exclaves.
Each country had its own laws regarding where territorial claims began and ended.
More than one state may claim the same piece of water.
The United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which proposed standard oceanic boundaries for all UN member states, was fully ratified in 1994.
Territorial sea is the area of the sea from shore to the limit.
A state controls all aspects of natural resource exploration within 200 nautical miles of its shores.
This includes permits for such activity.
Most of the time, two hundred nautical miles is beyond the shallow water continental shelf.
The seas are outside of the 12-mile limit.
Past that line, cruise ships can open their casinos and ship captains have the authority to marry couples or arrest thieves on their ships.
admiralty law is a part of international law that dictates legal procedures on the high seas.
International fishing fleets can hook or net whatever ocean life they choose.
International treaties limit the capture of certain species.
Commercial whale hunts were banned after centuries of hunting dangerously deplete populations.
Japan and Norway claim their hunts are for scientific research.
The claim that whale meat still makes its way to market in these countries is heavily criticized by environmental organizations.
The map above shows that the real EEZ boundaries are very different from the normal political boundaries.
The borders around islands are often rectangular.
Territorial seas and EEZs create circular boundaries around islands, which extends a country's EEZ out another 200 nautical miles.
There are provisions for a UN board to settle disputes at sea.
Many countries with sea claims agree to split the lines.
It becomes difficult when there are uninhabited small islets, exposed reefs, and sandbars that are claimed by more than one country.
Sometimes troops are deployed to precariously small pieces of land, just to claim rights to the surrounding EEZ, as it can take years of negotiation to settle such disputes.
Two areas of the South China Sea, the Spratly Islands and the Paracel Islands, are claimed by China, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Brunei.
Oil is believed to be under both island groups, which could lead to future armed conflict.
The terminology used to describe boundary creation and the types of borders can be confusing.
It's not what you know.
It's not enough to memorize definitions.
You have to be able to relate concepts to historical and current events.
There is a resource on one side of the border and another on the other side.
When land was unexplored or unsurveyed, the term frontier was used to describe the area.
There are some small frontier regions in the world.
There is only one large land frontier left in the world, and it is in the southern part of the planet, where the Treaty of the Treaty of the Treaty of the Treaty of the Treaty of the Treaty of the Treaty of the Treaty of the Treaty of the Treaty of the Treaty of the
The western border between Canada and the United States was not defined prior to the Oregon Treaty.
Great Britain and the United States claimed a large part of the frontier region.
There is a claim that the U.S. border should be in the north.
Not all parts of the world have been able to resolve their frontier claims peacefully.
Many border treaties have led to violence later on.
The conflict in Central Africa is an example of a former frontier dispute.
One of the last areas of European colonial expansion was the setting of the internal political boundaries in Africa at the Conference of Berlin.
The interior of the continent was recently explored by Europeans, but most colonies were in coastal areas.
The diplomats at the conference decided to carve up the continent's interior.
The political boundaries in Africa are very similar to the final agreed-upon map.
There are many problems with the 1884 border design that did not emerge until after decolonization.
Between 1960 and the early 1990s, most African colonial states achieved self-determination.
The cultural boundaries in Africa do not match the European boundaries.
The tyranny of the map is what Africans refer to as the superimposed boundary situation.
The reality is that political loyalties in sub-Saharan Africa are based on tribal identity and not on a large scale.
A number of tribes with histories of conflict have been grouped together into confined areas.
In 1994 ethnic Hutus and Tutsis fought to control the small landlocked and mountainous country, which is an example of a postcolonial conflict zone.
After independence from Belgium in 1962, Hutus went about ethnic cleansing, forcing many Tutsi refugees into the former Zaire and to Uganda.
In 1994, after a plane carrying the presidents of Rwanda and neighboring Burundi was shot down, large-scale reactionary violence erupted by Hutus against local Tutsis, who were blamed for the crash.
The refugees flooded back into the country to fight back.
Each ethnic group lost half a million people to the genocide.
Ethnic-based violence and fighting continues today in eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where the conflict between the Hutu and Tutsi groups began in the years following.
The next area of widespread armed conflict in Africa is thought to be the Eastern Congo.
The region's 1884 borders are meaningless due to ethnic fighting in and along the Democratic Republic of the Congo and invasion by the armies of Uganda and Zambia.
There are other postcolonial frontier border disputes in the table.
The shape of a country can help you identify it on a map.
The shape of a country has an impact on society and relations with other countries.
Switzerland has never had a navy due to its landlocked nature.
The term "Swiss Navy" is either oxymoron or pure idiocy.
The historical case appears to be the latter.
The first outside of the U.S. Navy and Marines to fly the F-18 Hornet were pilots from the Swiss Air Force.
The United States gave permission for the Swiss Air Force to use American facilities.
For some it was the ultimate in military flight training, carrier landing school.
Some pilots were given certificates that said "Swiss Navy" upon completion of carrier training.
In addition to wars and border changes, there are other ways in which state territory can change.
The area and number of territories held by the European powers and the United States were reduced after World War II.
Although most areas were granted independence, some colonial holdings were incorporated.
Hawaii, Alaska, and the French departments of Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Reunion are examples.
The residents of these places have the same rights as the other citizens of the United States and France.
Annexation is a term used to describe the addition of territory as a result of a land purchase.
The United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire for $7,000,000 in gold in 1867, and it became a full state in 1948.
The cash sale of St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix resulted in the creation of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Each state has to have a capital city.
There will always be a seat of government where power is concentrated.
Political power is like money in a way.
Politicians need a place to have organized exchanges of power just as market areas need financial centers of exchange.
Occasionally they make laws and have elections.
Federal states can have scales of capitals just as they can have scales of sub-state units.
Some countries have more than one national capital.
This can be done to share power in different parts of the country.
The location of the capital of a country can change.
Sometimes this can be due to a shift in political power, or it can be due to congestion in the old capital.
The capitals were moved for political reasons.
Many countries don't recognize this and don't have embassies in Tel Aviv.
Suffrage in terms of age, race, and gender has varied from state to state.
American women were granted the right to vote in 1920.
Race has historically been a barrier to voting rights.
In South Africa, the voting rights of non-white citizens were denied because of the country's white minority rule.
In 1994, the first full and free elections in South Africa resulted in the presidency of former political prisoner and civil rights activist Nelson Mandela, who was from the African Xhosa tribe.
This was the last case of official government restriction on voting due to race.
There is still racial and ethnic discrimination that restricts voting by minority citizens in many countries.
All democracies have some form of parliamentary system in which at least one lawmaking body has popular representation.
The number of seats and the size of voting districts are not the same in each country.
Each state's population is used to apportion the seats of the House of Representatives.
California has the most congressional districts at 53, while the least-populated state is Wyoming.
In the United Kingdom and Canada, members of parliament (MPs) are selected from local constituencies based on population, but unlike in the United States, these are averaged from across the country.
Ontario has a relatively dense population and holds 106 of the House of Commons' MPs.
Canada has senators appointed.
The electoral college decides presidential elections in the United States.
Electoral votes are assigned state by state in December based on popular vote in each state.
Some states split electoral votes in proportion to the popular vote, like Maine and Nebraska.
The District of Columbia has 3 electoral votes because of the total number of representative seats and the two senators' seats from each state.
California has 55 electoral votes, while Wyoming has 3.
It takes at least 270 electoral votes to win the presidential election.
Congress chooses the new president if the candidates tie or have less than 270 electoral votes.
The seats of the House of Representatives are redrawn every ten years.
Changes to the number of congressional seats and the number of electoral votes can be caused by this.
State governments draw new congressional district borderlines if the number goes up or down, and sometimes even if the number doesn't change.
Sometimes reapportionment mapping can be done in a straightforward manner.
The shapes of new districts are not always straight.
In 1812, Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry attempted to form districts that were irregularly shaped.
Arupted states have a large projecting extension like Florida.
In 1990 and 2000 a number of gerrymanders tried to stack votes in order to make the outcome of elections predictable and in favor of the political majority in state government.
There were attempts to create "minority-majority districts," where lines were drawn to encompass only minority population centers.
The 12th district in North Carolina was drawn in 1992 to connect a number of African-American communities along a narrow corridor over 200 miles long.
In 1993, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the reapportionment was unconstitutional and resulted in a redrawn district for the 1998 election.
It is important to keep in mind the concept of political economy when discussing a country.
It's difficult to discuss the political situation in a state without explaining the economic aspects.
The political-economic systems have important links to other parts of the AP Human Geography material.
A peerage of lords, earls, marquis, barons, dukes, princes, kings, and queens controlled most of the land and wealth in Feudal political economies.
Poor peasants, commoners, serfs, and slaves were the majority of the population.
Peasants paid rent and had their harvests taxed for the right to live and work on the land.
This system kept peasants in debt as they were never able to fully pay off their rents and taxes.
Feudal states tended to have absolute monarchy, in which the head of state and the head of government were the same person.
The concept of absolute monarchy in the Islamic world has diminished over time.
There are only a few absolute monarchies today, including Saudia Arabia, Brunei, and the United Arab Emirates.
Many feudal states were forced to accept democracy during the late 1700s and 1900s.
The French Revolution of 1789 inspired many monarchs to accept power-sharing with commoners to avoid losing control of their states.
The leader of the elected parliament is the head of government under constitutional monarchy.
Most of the time, this is a prime minister or premier who appoints senior members of parliament to be ministers or secretaries of executive-branch departments.
In most monarchies, the monarch retains the power to dismiss parliament, appoint judges, ambassadors, and other officials, and retain significant land holdings and estates.
The monarch's political power is mostly symbolic, and he or she holds a small but important position in making policy and proposing laws.
The current form of monarchy in Great Britain has been in place since 1215.
There was power-sharing between the aristocracy and the commoners in the Magna Carta, as well as elections.
feudal rents are still technically paid in a number of rural areas of the United Kingdom.
A majority of Britons live in urban areas.
Some rural farms are still required to pay feudal rents, though they are now privately owned.
The structure and role of the British aristocracy has changed in recent years.
The House of Lords is the upper house of parliament and serves as the supreme court.
A new seat was added when someone was elevated to the peerage.
They had too many members.
The house was reformed in 1999 by Queen Elizabeth II.
Senior public servants who were rewarded with a title kept their title and seat for the rest of their lives, and hereditary peers who at death pass their title and seat to their firstborn son were reduced in number and life peers.
The lower house of parliament's power has increased since the late 1600s.
The Commons has 650 seats apportioned to local districts across the United Kingdom.
The Prime Minister is also a member of parliament.
The political leader of the party is usually the PM.
The executive branch of government has ministers from this ruling party.
This is an example of how parliamentary democracy works.
The British monarch is the head of state in most Commonwealth of Nations member states.
The head of government in these countries is the parliament.
The governor-general is the crown representative in the country.
Like the monarch, the governor-general's role is symbolic and ceremonial.
These countries are considered independent.
They still provide military support to the United Kingdom in times of war.
Some of the Commonwealth members don't claim the British monarch as their head of state.
Great Britain has parliamentary governments that integrate executive, legislative, and judicial powers.
Special trade, education services, government funding, and preferred immigration status are provided by the Commonwealth of Nations.
Some former colonies have become dependent territories of the United Kingdom.
They are controlled from London and are not a part of the Commonwealth.
The British Virgin Islands are one of the colonies.
The United States, the United Kingdom, and other countries with elected-representative parliamentary systems are classified as free-market democracies.
This system depends on balancing the relationship between the elected-representative government, its citizens, and business interests.
The state has a variable system of regulation and taxation.
The marketplace is not completely free as it would be in a completely unregulated laissez-faire economic system, but it is close enough.
Government regulatory influence of the private lives of its citizens and practices of businesses is usually limited to areas concerning public safety and economic protections.
The point of democracy is that the people have a say in who makes the rules.
France, Germany, Italy, and many former colonial states are technically republics, under the broader category of free-market democracy.
France is governed from a single capital.
The United States and Germany are examples of confederations that give some government power to their component states.
Republics are free of aristocracy or monarchal control.
The governments are under the control of the common people.
Republics have a separation of powers that are different from parliamentary systems.
The executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government are held by separate groups of people.
It reduces the potential for corruption of the whole government.
If one branch's leadership fails or its practices are called into question, the other branches can act to correct problems or replace leadership if necessary.
republics are not perfect systems, as you might feel if you read too much Plato.
The written constitutions of these governments need to be able to deal with crises when they occur.
The Articles of Confederation did not work out in the United States.
Over time, a constitution can be refined by the addition of amendments.
Wealthy business people and corporations have taken over the control of money, land, and resources from the aristocracy.
Many thousands of private citizens are overshadowed by their personal and corporate political influence.
In other democracies, the purchase of political favoritism to influence the setting of regulations is a problem.
The power relations in free-market democracies have been created by this.
The power of the executive branch can be blunted by having separate presidents and prime ministers.
In the United States, Mexico, and Argentina, the president is both head of state and government.
Executive separation is the norm in most other republics.
This can be done in a number of ways.
In Italy, the prime minister is the head of state, whereas in France the president is the head of government.
Make sure to know a couple of examples because there are too many variables to keep straight.
Marx attempted to correct the wrongs of feudalism and inequalities of capitalism in free-market democracies under Communism.
Marxism wanted to create a class-free society where there were no inequalities in terms of wealth or power.
The state would own land and industry, the government would direct economic productivity, and everyone would make the same amount of money.
The planned economy did not rely on supply and demand like capitalism.
The economic needs of the state would be calculated by the central government.
Quotas would be set by the government for each individual operational unit of agricultural or manufacturing production.
The productivity of the economy would result in a collective wealth that would be shared across the population.
Communism failed to reproduce Marx's utopian ideal that the system should create a peaceful social existence.
This is true for Communism.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established in 1917 after the fall of the czar's absolute monarchy in Russia.
The time gap is significant.
If Marx had seen how his ideas were put into practice, he'd have blown a fuse, had a cow, and had kittens.
He could be described as upset or disapproving on a free-response question.
The Russian revolution resulted in a civil war, murders on the part of the Communist government, and the forced relocation of over a million citizens.
Marx's basic principles were the basis of Soviet Communism.
Stalin's Five- Year Plans were a long-term economic plan that dictated all production in minute detail.
The Soviets were doing better in the 1930s than the rest of the world.
The USSR fell apart 50 years later.
The Soviet system was devolution due to a number of political- economic problems.
Marx would have been interested in the fact that three classes of Soviet citizens emerged early in the Soviet Union.
Most of the people were workers.
To get an important position in Soviet society, such as that of a government official, professor, or factory manager, you had to join the Communist Party.
6 percent of the population of the USSR were party members who enjoyed perks such as special stores, nicer homes, and personal cars.
The military officer class had the same high quality of life as the regular working class.
People were resentful.
Open criticism was kept to a minimum because of the heavy-handed secret police and laws that made public protest punishable by hard labor in prison camps.
People were stagnant.
There was a lack of incentive in the system that would motivate people to have better lives.
If you were a brain surgeon or garbage man, you got the same monthly pay.
This was a problem.
Economic productivity was affected by the lack of incentive.
There was no reason for farms or factories to produce more food or products than the government stipulated.
A lack of surplus left many stores with few items on the shelves and people waiting in line for food and clothing.
The effects of the Cold War on the devolution of the USSR are going to be detailed in this chapter.
Cuba and North Korea are the only two cases of Soviet-style Communism left.
Despite the restoration of diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States in 2014, Cuban president Raul Castro continues to proclaim Cuba a communist state.
Chapter 9 shows what has happened with economic reforms in China and Vietnam.
Infrastructure and social welfare were the main positive things that came out of Communism.
Health care is an example.
Prior to Communism in the Soviet Union, China, and Cuba, there was almost no health care for the common people.
Hospitals, clinics, and rural travelling doctor programs were established early on because socialism meant everyone had a right to health care.
Infrastructure programs for public schools, free universities, drinking water, care for the elderly, and public transit were established to improve the efficiency and quality of life in communist society.
The former feudal and corrupt capitalist societies in these countries were able to replace the poverty that existed with it.
The non-communist world was impacted by these socialist successes.
Government leadership and control of health care, education, and pensions are Marxist-socialist ideals which have since been incorporated in Western free-market democracies like Canada and Great Britain.
There are a number of important issues that you need to be prepared for on the exam.
Students mix up these terms all the time.
The social and political fabric of the state is held together bypetal forces.
Think of pedals as a way to propel a bike.
Centrifugal forces tear apart the social and political fabric of the state.
Think of a centrifuge as a separator of blood.
Multiple-choice and free-response questions often ask about centrifugation and centrifugation forces.
There are a number of forces that reinforce and undermine the state in every country.
The survival of the state is at risk if the balance is too far in the category of Centrifugal forces.
While we're quick to think of positive outcomes such as a sense of unity and a well-run economy, an overabundance of centripetal force may lead to nationalism and xenophobia.
Yugoslavia was an artificial state created after World War I that had several different ethnic and religious groups living within its borders.
The Croatian Josip Tito was the communist leader after World War II.
Tito was a good choice as president because he fought with Serbians against the Nazis.
The two largest ethnic groups in the country were represented by him.
A strong nationalist belief in Communism helped build a multiethnic society.
The state was held together by these additional centripetal forces.
The lack of an effective multiethnic leader to replace him created a political power vacuum that allowed different nationalist leaders representing different ethnicities to attempt to seize power for themselves.
The disparate groups had a history of conflicts and warfare.
The fall of Communism in Europe led to the destruction of the social and political fabric of the country.
You can think of his death as a force in itself.
The former Yugoslavia is an example of balkanization.
Yugoslavia sits in the Balkan Peninsula, which has historically been divided between a large number of ethnic and religious groups.
The political landscape can change from a larger state to several smaller states.
In the last 100 years of European history, the continent has gone from being dominated by large empire states to being dominated by small nation-states.
In 1909, there were 27 states in Europe.
There are a lot of questions on the AP Human Geography Exam about the political-economic conflict between democracies and communist countries during the Cold War.
The Know the Models section will be covered at the end of this chapter.
The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the realignment of German borders caused many of the early cases of balkanization.
The number of states did not change after World War II.
After the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in 1991, the political landscape began to break apart.
When a minority ethnic group wants to break away from a multiethnic state and form its own nation-state or align itself with a culturally similar state, it's called irredentism.
Most of the cases discussed in the previous section are in these two categories.
Russia is one of the most significant situations where a number of groups are seeking independence or annexation by a neighboring state that is culturally similar.
Chechnya is one such place.
The Chechens were granted limited local self-governance by the Russian Federation.
Chechens are mostly Muslim and are very different from Eastern Orthodox Christian Russians.
Religion and ethnicity are the forces that make up this case.
Chechens declared independence from Russia after the fall of Communism.
The Russian government moved in troops as a result of the conflict.
Russia is worried about the loss of oil resources in the region.
If Chechnya were to become independent, many of the other republics would push for their own independence, leaving the Russian Federation without much of its land and resources.
Nations or culture groups were torn apart as a result of war or other historical events.
The reunification of Germany, Yemen, and the return of the Canal Zone to Panama were some of the highlights of the post-Cold War era.
Both world wars and the Cold War are covered in the main model of the AP Human Geography course.
The Heartland- Rimland model was proposed in 1904.
The goal of Mackinder's model was to define the global landscape and determine areas of potential future conflict.
He said that states were interested in agricultural land.
Several states with limited land area wanted to expand their territory.
They looked at one another's European farming areas.
The largest of these was the Eastern European steppe, which was mostly controlled by the Russian Empire.
The Heartland is a combination of the mineral and timber-rich region across the Urals into Siberia.
The German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Romania could potentially invade this part of the Earth.
The Rimland had other landwolves that were eager to grab at other territories, such as France and Italy.
Seawolves, such as Great Britain and Japan, were able to leverage their power.
Mackinder accurately predicted the battle lines of the Eastern Front during World War I.
The model was revised further into Central Europe in 1921.
The same situation remained, with land still being the primary commodity of conflict, according to Mackinder.
The areas of future conflict are between the Heartland and Rimland.
The 1931 invasion of Manchuria by the Japanese is thought to be the start of World War II by some Asian scholars.
Poland was invaded by the Germans in 1939 in the European border conflict areas in the model.
Mackinder's legacy lives on in Cold War-era models and theory.
The Shatterbelt theory was proposed by Saul Cohen.
The pivot area and Rimland were changed into the Inner Crescent.
The United States became part of the Outer Crescent.
Cold War conflicts would likely occur within the Inner Crescent according to his land-based concept.
He called the areas of Inner Crescent weakness Shatterbelts.
Cohen's Shatterbelts accurately identified areas where wars emerged between 1950 and the end of the Cold War.
The Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China wanted to create buffer states, lands that would protect them from sympathetic countries, in some of the conflict areas.
The strategic policy of containment was proposed by the U.S. diplomat George Kennan.
The United States and its allies would attempt to build a wall around the communist states.
NATO and other democratic state allies should be deployed to stop the expansion of influence by the USSR or China.
The communist movements in Greece, Iran, and Malaysia were defeated at first.
As part of the containment wall, West Germany, Italy, and Japan were rebuilt as free-market democracies.
The French and Americans were defeated by the communists in Vietnam and Korea, respectively.
As communism spread even to parts of the Outer Crescent, containment theory's limitations were put into practice.
The United States and allied states had to stop Communism from spreading.
They were worried about a domino effect, where one state would fall to Communism and other states would support communist uprisings.
Communism was limited to the pivot area and a number of buffer states despite the failures of the containment approach.
The economy of the Soviet Union and its allies was devastated by the containment effort.
At certain points during the Cold War, it is believed that upwards of 50 percent of the USSR's gross national product was focused on military production and other activities.
The Soviet economy was stressed to the breaking point because of this and created more shortages of food and consumer goods for its citizens, which in turn created more problems within Soviet society and the communist government.
Key Concepts in Political Geography is a political geography book.
The social fabric of the USSR began to crack in the 1980s.
Dissidents criticized the government's expansion efforts.
The mothers of Red Army soldiers killed in the War in Afghanistan protested in the streets of Moscow despite the risk of arrest and deportation.
The mother of a soldier killed in action could not be imprisoned by the most coldhearted communists.
The United States spent a lot of money in the 1980s to arm the Afghan mujahideen with arms, which paid off in the end as the Soviets were defeated.
The soviet government fell two years later in 1991 because of this force.
The use of terrorism to cause fear and change government policy is as old as time.
State terrorism is when governments use violence to control their own people.
Carthage was attacked in 146 B.
Salt was thrown on the fields so no food could be grown.
During the 20th century, Nazi Germany, the Stalinist Soviet Union, and Pol Pot's regime in Cambodia were all examples of state terrorism.
A nation-state is an identifiable cultural group.
Due to ideological or ethnic conflicts, some culture groups are denied a share in the state political process.
The alliance of two or more states for a common purpose is called supranationalism.
The United Nations is the largest supranational organization.
Political boundaries are clearly defined.
Conflicts can erupt when they don't.
Voting districts influence elections at various scales.
Voting districts that are irregularly shaped are used to stack votes in favor of one political party.
feudalism, free-market democracies, and Marxist-socialist systems are some of the major forms of political economies.
Positive factors that hold together a state's social and political fabric are called centrist forces.
They could be unifying forces in the economic, political, or cultural dimensions.
Negative forces tear at the state's social and political fabric.
They may be the result of economic, political, or cultural conflicts.
The likelihood of armed conflict increases when they become too strong.
The Heartland- Rimland model and the Shatterbelt theory accurately predicted areas where conflict was likely to break out.
There are answers and explanations at the end of this chapter.
A country is an identifiable land area.
They refer to populations with a single culture, not location.
A nation-state, which is a single culture under a single government, is a weaker answer that can be eliminated than a state, which is a population under a single government.
To establish a free-trade union, allow open-border policies, create a monetary union, establish a judicial union, and establish regulatory bodies are some of the main purposes of the European Union.
The correct ones can be eliminated.
Reducing the threats of terror cells in member countries is not a primary purpose of the EU.
Border disputes occur when a resource is on one side of the border.
A definitional border dispute, a locational border dispute, and an operational border dispute are referred to as choice.
It refers to religious conflict and can be eliminated.
A stateless nation exists if a cultural group is not allowed to join the political process.
The Basque region of Spain is seeking full independence.
The territorial sea is 12 miles out from land.
The country's laws apply to it.
The EEZ is where the country owns the exclusive rights to exploration and exploitation of natural resources.
The answer is correct.
Since 1948, when the British Partition of India and Pakistan resulted in the largest mass migration in human history, the mountainous region of Kashmir has been a point of contention between India and Pakistan.
Both countries consider it an important part of their societies, and Kashmiris have risen up against the Indian government over the issue of autonomy.
The correct answer is choice.
One of the two centrally planned Marxist economies remaining is North Korea.
China supported the creation of North Korea after World War II.
The central state, controlled by the Kim regime, still controls all food production and distribution, meaning that people are only getting two meals a day.
With the arrival of private markets, there are signs that this is about to change.
Cuba is a different economy.
The model says that the Heartland would always be surrounded by other states that wanted to annex it.
These states were called the Rimland.
The controller of the port of Crimea is an example of a good example.
Russia annexed the peninsula.
The answer is correct.
A superimposed boundary is a line that has been laid down for political reasons.
Nearly 15 million Muslims were forced to migrate across an imaginary border during the partition of India.
When a territorial claim is extended through incorporated, the term annexation is used to describe the addition of territory.
Jefferson's purchase doubled the size of the United States.
annexations do not include illegal invasions and edifices.
There is a force that tears apart a society.
Poor economic conditions, political corruption, and racial or religious differences are some of the causes of those forces.
A strong governmental reaction to a natural disaster is the only answer that indicates a factor holding together the fabric of society.