Chapter 11 is prone to rely on stereotypes in judging others.
Negative moods make people less susceptible to some of the cognitive quirks discussed in this text, such as false memories and the fundamental attribution error.
The strategy helps certain people to improve their performance because it encourages them to work harder.
By cheering defensive pessimists up, Robbing makes them perform worse.
The glasses that optimists wear may prevent them from seeing reality clearly.
optimists tend to recall feedback about their social skills as better than it was, which could prevent them from learning from their errors, like inadvertently offending others
Pessimists and optimists show different responses to stressors, such as bad health news, perhaps because they don't spend enough time preparing for the worst.
Positive psychology is important to many people.
The problem of individual differences reminds us to be wary of "one-size-fitsall" solutions to life's many problems.
Positive thinking is a key ingredient in many people's recipe for happiness, but it may not be for everyone.
You can identify the symptoms of eating disorders.
The world of popular psychology is bursting at the seams with motivational speakers that minimize aversive states who line their pockets with cash from people hoping to receive inspiration in love or work.
There's no evidence that Motivational speakers like Anthony can deliver long-term benefits.
Robbins are able to convince their audience that they can accomplish anything with enough effort and drive.
We need to learn about a few basic principles in order to make 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 is 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 is 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 is 888-739-5110 is 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110 888-739-5110
All of these drives are unpleasant, but that satisfaction of them reduces tension and results in pleasure.
The unpleasant feeling of hunger motivates food seeking and eating, which in turn produces satisfaction and pleasure.
Evolutionary theory states that drives are geared to ensure survival and reproduction.
Some drives are more powerful than others.
Our drive to quench our thirst is stronger than our drive to satisfy our hunger because most of us can survive only a few days.
Think of how a thermostat works to control the temperature in your relation between arousal on one hand and performance or affect on the house or apartment.
It's set to either a given temperature or the other.
When we experience or heating system to restore the equilibrium, the thermostat tells us when the room temperature deviates up or down from that set point.
We are motivated to intermediate levels of arousal when we are hungry.
If we eat too much, our brain tells us that we've eaten too much and we can't get hungry again.
The strength of our drives is affected by arousal.
Complex tasks don't perform well.
The ideal balance of motivation and control can only be achieved when we are aroused.
The law is popular among sports psychologists.
She's not sufficiently motivated to do her best, so she's unlikely to perform as well as she could.
Her sports psychologist may try to get her into the "psyched up" range of the Yerkes-Dodson curve, where she's feeling and performance on the other just aroused enough to want to do well but not so aroused she can.
"Stimulus hunger" is a drive for stimulation according to the Yerkes-Dodson law.
Daniel Berlyne said that underarousal can heighten our sense of curiosity, like a challenging book or a piece of abstract art.
Many experienced rich sensory images, athletes who are too calm often don't, and a few began to see or hear things that weren't there.
Their brains stopped them from performing at their full potential.
Getting athletes pumped up isn't the low end of the curve.
It's past midnight.
We're so tired that we can't pop a dessert into the microwave.
We sat there frozen in place and had to decide whether to stay on the couch or walk 10 feet to the kitchen.
We are experiencing the effects of conflicting drives.
Kurt Lewin observed that approach and avoidance drives conflict when we want to introduce ourselves to an attractive person but are terrified of rejection.
Two approach drives can conflict in other cases.
As we get closer to our goals, our tendencies to avoid increase more rapidly than our tendencies to approach.
It helps explain why we agree to do things months in advance only to regret them later.
The idea of organizing our club's holiday party in December sounds like a lot of fun when we volunteer in June.
As the date of the party draws near, our sense of enjoyment is swamped by our sense of dread.
Drive reduction theories don't explain why we engage in behaviors even when our drives are Avoidance Over Time.
As we get closer to a goal, the avoidance Picasso, or Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart completed a masterpiece, their desire to generate gradient becomes greater than the approach another one would decrease, because they would've quenched their creative thirst.
Creative success seems to breed an even greater desire to create, as projects that seem desirable a opposite often happens.
As the deadline approaches, psychologists have come to realize that reduction theories are undesirable.
The pleasure of creating a great painting or finishing first in a track meet are motivators.
If we're motivated to do well in a psychology class by our desire to master the material, we're more likely to do well in this class.
The behavior that preceded it is more likely if it is near an outcome.
Children were given the chance to draw pictures and observe them behind a one-way mirror two weeks later.
Children in the first condition who engaged in the activity to achieve a reward showed less interest in drawing than did children in the other two conditions.
Many psychologists and popular writers have interpreted the findings to mean that when we see ourselves performing a behavior to obtain an external goal, we conclude that we aren't interested in the behavior in the first place.
Some researchers haven't replicated the effect.
Rival explanations for the findings have been offered.
We expect reinforcement to have an important alternative again once we receive it.
The explanations for the findings are less likely to perform if the reinforcement is suddenly withdrawn.
In everyday life approach and avoidance from a rat that's reinforced with a chunk of cheese can cause conflict, making it difficult to complete a maze.
The rat finds no decisions when it gets to the end of the maze.
It may be an oversimplification to say that both may be tempted to eat an apple because of their motivation.
A mix good for us and also of both motives is reflected in a lot of what we do.
The most rewarding activities are ones where our true passions may be tempted to avoid if we aren't fond of apples.
Some human needs take precedence over others when it comes to motivation.
People who show higher achievement related imagery in response to ambiguous drawings are more successful than other people in leadership positions.
The more complex needs the fun of it rather than for an outside include desires for belongingness and love, self-esteem, and cognitive needs.
When people are starving and don't have enough food, they don't pay much attention to the principles of psychological growth safety and security.
First things must happen.
It is not based on biological reality as it excludes important evolutionary needs like sexual and parenting drives.
Some needs are more important than others, and people who haven't achieved lower levels of this hierarchy can sometimes attain higher levels.
There are many cases of starving artists who continue to paint masterpieces despite being hungry and poor.
Billions of less privileged people are hungry every day.
Our survival depends on our feelings of hunger.
We experience hunger and thirst in order to get the food and drink we need to be active and alert.
We eat when we're hungry.
A complex series of events governing hunger and eating unfolds inside our bodies.
The idea of stomach contractions, which occur when our stomach is empty, was suggested by Walter Cannon and Alfred Washburn.
Washburn, Cannon's graduate student, swallowed a balloon that was inflated inside his stomach in order to test the hypothesis.
The intrepid student's reports of hunger were related to the pressure on the balloon.
Causation can't be inferred from a correlational finding.
Scientists have known for more than 60 years that two areas of the hypothalamus play different roles in eating.
There are two rats in the same cage.
Some might say Rat 1 is humongous.
Rat 2 needs to 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 The first rat was supersized by stimulating the side parts of its hypothalamus.
When researchers destroyed the rat's hypothalamus, it became 888-282-0465 888-282-0465, making it 888-282-0465 888-282-0465.
Scientists concluded that the hypothalamus plays a key role in initiation of eating.
The rats look like they're about to burst when researchers use the same part of the brain.
Rats seem to know when to stop eating.
The ventromedial hypothalamus has been labeled a "satiety center" by many psychology books, but this distinction is too simple.
The hypothalamus also responds to hunger and satiety signals.
A complex sequence of events in the brain areas and body regions leads to eating.
We resist our impulses to reach for the second cookie when we have a full stomach.
Blood sugar provides our cells with energy to score a touchdown or flee from a hungry lion.
Our bodies produce a lot of sugars in the foods we eat.
To get the balance of energy we take in and the amount we use, we need to eat.
When the body's ability to "burn" excess calories through metabolism is not optimal, people gain weight.
We feel hungry when our glucose levels go down.
It's not always possible to see the amount of food we eat and the amount of blood sugar we have.
People who aren't infused with glucose don't have the same feelings of hunger, appetite, or fullness as volunteers who are.
It's possible that eating when we're Correlation vs. Causation hungry influences levels of glucose.
It's clear that more is involved in regulating eating than just sugar.
We can't help but notice that adults and children come in more shapes and sizes than Campbell's soup.
If that mall or supermarket is in the US, we'll see that most of the people are overweight or obese.
In our evolutionary history, stocking up on tasty and energy-laden fatty foods was probably necessary for survival and may explain our preference for such foods.
We'll look at the psychology of eating and over eating.
Some of the sugar in a candy bar can convert into fat, which stores energy for the long term.
When researchers found that mice lacking the leptin and muscle mass genes were more likely to become obese at an early age, it was a clue to the causes of obesity.
People who are obese are resistant to leptin.
People who are obese find it hard to resist food because they think about it a lot and find it rewarding.
The brain's pleasure circuits can be activated by the mere sight, taste, smell, and thought of plentiful food.
People who are obese may be able to distract themselves from negative emotions.
When we eat too little and drop below our set point, regulatory mechanisms kick in to increase our appetite or decrease our metabolism.
Our bodies defend against weight loss.
It's not clear what the set point is, but obese people may be born with more fat cells, less sensitivity to leptin, or both, compared with thin people.
Some people seem to gain weight no matter how little they eat, while others seem to be thin no matter how much they eat.
Some findings raise doubts about the set point hypothesis.
Levitsky and his colleagues overfed the study participants so that they consumed 35 percent more calories than they did at baseline.
During the third period in which people differed in their genetic tendency, they didn't restrict their food intake enough to be obese, so differences in food return to baseline levels, as predicted by set point theory.
Most of us can start at an early age.
Staying active and eating a healthy diet can modify our weight within limits.
Our set point of obesity is probably influenced by genes.
Brian Wansink, shown here, has either half a strawberry pie or a full one, regardless of whether he's eaten a strawberry or not.
Their brains don't let them know when to stop eating.
People tend to eat more when they are hungry, but a combination of many genes associ popcorn when it's served in a large rather ated with appetite, amount of fat stored in the body, and metabolism probably work together to than
"You can get an extra-large por, but genes don't completely determine our weight."
The supersizing of Americans is thought to have contributed to this.
The portion sizes of food served on dinner plates in restaurants in the United States increased by 25 percent from 1977 to 1996.
Coca-Cola bottles have increased in size from the original 6.5 ounce bottle to the modern 10 ounce bottle, with options up to 20 ounces available for very thirsty consumers.
When people are served M&Ms with a large spoon, they eat more of them than when they are served in a small spoon.
Participants were tricked into drinking soup from bowls that were full by means of a flowing tube, by Brian Wansick and his colleagues.
They consumed 73 percent more soup than participants did.
When people eat a single item with the same amount of chocolate, they eat 25 percent less chocolate.
Many readers would be willing to participate in that study.
Eating on a smaller plate will make portions appear bigger and limit the amount of food we eat.
According to this theory, individuals are at risk for being obese when they continue to eat even after being full and base their food choices on appealing qualities of food, time of day, or social circumstances.
In laboratory studies, people who are obese are more likely to eat than people who are normal weight.
It is possible that the oversensitivity Correlation is not the cause of eating patterns.
Complications can occasionally arise, but the surgery is generally safe.
The procedure facilitates smaller meals because the "new stomach" is considerably smaller than the original stomach.
People with eating disorders are often motivated to stay thin or lose weight while they experience guilt and other negative emotions after eating.
During a binge, some people gorge themselves with food equaling more than 10,000 calories in a 2 hour period and average about 3,500 calories per binge.
That's about six Big Macs.
Binge eating disorder can be diagnosed if a person binges at least once a week for three months.
Binge eating disorder afflicts more than 3 percent of the population, whereas bulimia afflicts 1 to 3 percent of the population.
Women are more likely to have these disorders than men.
In such cases, Gastric bypass surgery can help severely obese people lose weight by helping them to lose control of their emotions after eating a lot of food, and can also help them lose weight by helping them to purge their negative emotions after eating a lot of food.
Most people with eating disorders feel guilt and anxiety over the loss of control and the prospect of gaining a pattern of bingeing and purging.
Sometimes, their answer to this problem is to purge, which typically takes the form effort to lose or maintain weight, but sometimes involves abusing laxatives or diet pills or exercising excessively.
A vicious cycle is set up by bingeing and purging.
Purging helps relieve negative feelings such as guilt, fear, and sadness after weight gain.
The stage is set for bouts of over eating.
It is possible for people with bulimia to "undo" the binge and negative feelings by vomiting.
They may want to go on a strict diet after bingeing.
Severe, medically supervised diet can lead to hunger and increases preoccupation with food and the temptation to binge.
The self-destructive circle can be completed when eating spirals out of control.
This binge-purge cycle can cause physical problems such as heart problems, asthma, tears to the esophagus, menstrual problems, and wearing away of tooth enamel.
People with binge eating disorders often see themselves as obese when they're normal weight, because of their high levels of body dissatisfaction.
The best predictor of an eating disorder is body dissatisfaction.
Twin studies suggest that eating disorders are influenced by genetic factors and that they're triggered by expectations of the ideal body image.
Media beauty is seen as a slender female figure in modern society.
15 percent below women's average weight is the average weight of extremely underweight females in movies, sitcoms, and magazines.
It's no wonder that women who frequently view television programs featuring extremely thin women experience higher levels of body image dissatisfaction than do other women.
It's possible that women who are already concerned about their body image may watch television programs featuring idealized images of women, so the causality arrow could run Correlation vs. Causation in the opposite direction.
There is compelling circumstantial evidence that the media has an effect on eating disorders.
In cultures not exposed to the ideal of a thin body type, bulimia is rare.
Anoremia is usually caused by excessive weight loss and the pressures to be thin, and it begins in adolescence.
It's irrational to think that 25 percent of people diagnosed with an eating disorder are male adolescents.
Individuals with bulimia tend to be in the normal weight range, while those with Anorexia become thin in their relentless pursuit of thinness.
Individuals with a fear of fatness and a distorted perception of their body size have an eating disorder.
People with bones may describe themselves as fat.
A refusal to maintain body weight at or above a healthy weight expected for age and height, with a significantly low body weight due to restriction of food or energy intake is a sign of an eating disorder.
People with Anorexia lose between 25 percent and 50 percent of their body weight.
Symptoms of eating disorders can be produced by starvation.
36 healthy young men volunteered to restrict their food intake for half a year as part of the "starvation study."
It's an alternative to serve in the military.
Their preoccupation with food distortion increased dramatically.
Some people ate or ate down.
Some men broke the eating of being fat even though they were severely rules and binged.
With continued low weight, a loss of menstrual periods, hair loss, heart problems, life threatening electrolyte imbalances, and fragile bones may result.
A patient with an eating disorder who was treated by your text's second author broke her thigh bone during a tennis game.
According to some researchers, the mortality rate for Anorexia is between 5 and 10 percent, making it one of the most life-threatening of all psychological conditions.
Anorexia is present not only in Western countries but also in regions that have had little exposure to Western media, including some Middle Eastern nations and parts of India.
Some young Catholic nuns in medieval times may have had an eating disorder.
They explained that their fasts were to purify their souls for God.
The creators weight participants lose, and to its credit, reduc Inter of weight-loss plans are happy to oblige.
Some people claim we can lose weight by avoiding smal er portions of healthy foods, while others say we need to drink and exercise to lose weight.
A friend of yours seems to be on one diet and is losing a lot of weight.
For a while, be exaggerated.
You read about weight lost.
Enrol ees may lose weight for reasons other than the program but are instead a consequence of their tendency to be more aware of their food consumption and health and to exercise more as a result.
Natural fluctuations in weight could be the reason for weight loss.
This principle of scientific thinking is relevant to the extent that weight loss may appear to be associated with participation in the program, but may not occur as a result of the interventions or the principles claimed to produce weight loss.
Some people are randomly assigned to receive the program and others are randomly assigned to a control intervention, which could be used to prove the effectiveness of the program.
You can learn how to eat portions and cut calories.
We collaborated with sci to develop a revolutionary program that is easy to bring pendent studies.
There is not enough information in the ad to allow us to draw principles of effective diet.
Our online video series takes any conclusions about whether the claim is based on rep you through each principle, one-by-one, and provides the licable findings.
The enrolees lost 98 pounds in 4 months.
The ad doesn't open mind, but to insist on compelling evidence before accepting mention of potential adverse health effects of such dramatic them.
The principles of scientific thinking can help us with weight loss.
The six principles of scientific thinking are based on "revolutionary" new studies.
The principle is used to evaluate this claim.
It was ruled out of Rival Hypotheses research.
The ad does not state that the collaboration with sci has important alternative explanations for the findings.
The steps that were specified in the ad were grounded in the weight loss program.
There is not much data presented, and several simple explanations for at least moderate weight loss are plausible, and potential consumers of the video series should be aware of the loss that occurred during or after the intervention.
The desire for sexual activity and sexual pleasure is called a wish or craving.
Sexual desire is a result of our genes and biology, but it's also influenced by social and cultural factors.
The sex hormone testosterone can sometimes increase sexual interest in the short term, particularly in males, but other biological influences are also at play when it comes to sexual desire.
High levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin are associated with low levels of sexual desire.
Students' reports of sexual desire and arousal are correlated with variations in a gene that produces DRD4.
The scientists estimated that 20 percent of the population has a variation of the gene that makes them want to have sex more.
Increased reports of promiscuity, such as "having a one night stand" and infidelity, are associated with variations in the gene.
dopamine plays a key role in reward, according to research.
Drugs that increase the release of dopamine and norepinephrine can be used to treat low sexual desire in premenopausal women.
People think that men have a stronger desire for sex than women.
The stereo type may hold more than a kernels of truth.
Compared with women, men are more likely to think about sex more often.
Women with high sex drives tend to be attracted to both men and women and are more fluid in their sexual orientation.
Men with high sex drives tend to prefer one sex over the other.
After they form a secure relationship, women's appetite for sex appears to decline.
There is tremendous variability in sexual interest among men and women, but none of these findings apply to any individual man or woman.
Socialization may help explain why men and women have different sexual desires.
Women are socialized to be less assertive and aggressive in many spheres of life.
Women and men have similar sexual drives, but women don't admit their desires as much.
The data supports the idea that men have a stronger sex drive than women.
The husband and wife team of William Masters and Virginia Johnson launched their investigations of sexual desire and the human sexual response in 1954.
Sexual behaviors under virtually every imaginable condition were included in their observations.
Monitoring equipment was included to measure the response cycle.
There are three different changes in the vagina depicted in this figure.
Most people who volunteered were represented by a different color.
Two of the three were accommodated to the laboratory.
The basic sexual arousal response is traced by the blue line, but the cycle was the same for men and women according to Masters and Johnson.
Based on their research.
Human Sexuality In A World Of Diversity, 7th Ed., (c)2008 is a source.
People experience little sexual desire when they are tired, stressed, or ill.
Sexual desire can be affected by anxiety, orgasm, and resentment.
The fact that people's sexuality is deeply embedded in their relationships is not captured in Masters and Johnson's work.
People experience more frequent and consistent orgasms when they love their partner and feel loved in return.
We can question the correlation between relationship quality and the regularity of orgasms.
It is possible that frequent orgasms contribute to healthy relationships.
Couples have sex on average twice a week early in their marriage.
Sexual satisfaction doesn't decrease as people age, but the frequency of their sexual activities does.
Maybe people expect their sexual activity to decrease as they age, so they're not disappointed by this change.
Many senior citizens are sexually active well into their 70s and 80s, especially when they're healthy, are not depressed, and think their partner wants a sexual relationship.
There's an explanation for the difference between older men's and Ruling Out Rival Hypotheses women's sexual activities because of the changes in pleasure and hormones experienced by women who experience sexual experience complex and sometimes striking.
People's ideas of what's marked by rhythmic sexually appropriate or inappropriate are influenced by cultural norms.
When members of the Tsonga tribe in Africa first saw Europeans kissing, they laughed and said, "Look at them--they eat each other's saliva genitals in both men and women and dirt" (Ford & Beach, 1951).
They have a point.
Women of the island Turk poke a finger into the man's ear when they're excited about sex.
Western European countries include Sweden, Holland, and France.
If they approve or disapprove of premarital sex, it's called Emotion and Motivation.
The prevalence of premarital sex in the United States is between 80 and 94 percent, with men reporting rates between 85 and 96 percent and women reporting rates between 80 and 94 percent.
Since the dawn of recorded history, same-sex romantic relationships have developed in virtually all cultures.
Some 450 species have documented homosexual behaviors by biologists.
Heterosexual orbisexual people differ in their sexual orientation or interest.
Sexual orientation isn't the same as sexual activity.
People may restrict their sexual partners to opposite sex individuals, but still be attracted to same-sex individuals.
People think and feel differently about homosexuality.
Many people who engage in occasional homosexual activities don't view themselves as gay, and many people participate in both homosexual and heterosexual activity and consider themselves bisexual.
According to research, gay people are as likely as heterosexual people to provide supportive environments for children.
Even the best estimates may not represent the general population because researchers often conduct surveys in prisons, college dorms, or military barracks, all of which may result in sampling bias.
Since Alfred Kinsey's famous "Kinsey Report" of the 1940s and 1950s, scientists have acquired a better understanding of homosexuality and challenged common misconception about gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals.
Less than a fourth of gay men and women fit neatly into the categories of masculine and feminine, which is contrary to the stereotype.
A lot of media coverage implies that gay people are more likely to sexually abuse children and adolescents than other people.
There is no scientific evidence that supports these views.
There were 200 cases of people who underwent sexual reorientation therapy.
He reported many instances in which people changed their orientation for five years or more.
The fatal flaw in the study was that he had no way to gauge the validity of participants' claims of changed sexual orientation.
It is possible that Rival Hypotheses have been lying to investigators or deceiving themselves about their sexual orientation.
If you have gay individuals who wasted time and energy engaging in reparative therapy based on explanations for the findings, you should have them.
The Psychological Association concluded that there was insufficient evidence to support the use of psychological interventions to change sexual orientation.
Although gay men and women report relatively high rates of anxiety, depression, and suicide, in many or most cases, gay individuals' psychological problems may reflect their reaction.
Gay individuals who don't achieve the changes they seek may become even more dissatisfied.
Evidence-based treatments that value cultural diversity can help people who are currently distressed accept and live with their homosexuality, rather than changing their sexual orientation.
Although heritability doesn't imply that a characteristic can't be changed, most scientists are skeptical about the ability of gay individuals to change their sexual orientation because of inborn differences between homosexual and heterosexual individuals.
For example, gender nonconformity in childhood is a well replicated finding across different cultures.
There is support for the hypothesis that genetic differences account for a third of the variation in sexual orientation.
Environmental influences play a key role in homosexuality, despite the fact that a lot of variation in sexual orientation can't be explained in terms of genetic differences.
Sex hormones play a role in whether the brain sets the child on a path toward more masculine or feminine characteristics.
Girls exposed to excessive testosterone in the womb develop masculinized brains, while boys exposed to too little testosterone develop feminized brains, according to one theory.
The hormonal influences affect temperament and set the stage for both childhood gender nonconformity and a homosexual orientation in later life.
Most, but not all, researchers have succeeded in replicating this effect.
The original finding that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in right-handed but not left-handed males was recently qualified by researchers.
The mothers of left-handed fetuses may not produce the anti-male antibodies.
Gay and heterosexual individuals differ with respect to their fingerprints, finger length, and handedness, which are all determined largely before birth.
Even though we don't know which influences are most important, we can point the finger at prenatal influences.
Simon LeVay caused a stir in 1981 when he reported that a small cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus was less than half the size of gay men.
LeVay examined gay men's brains at autopsy, and the men died from AIDS-related complications.
It's unlikely that the differences LeVay uncovered are due to AIDS, because a number of the heterosexual men also died of AIDS-related complications.
The cause of homosexuality and differences in lifestyles between gay and heterosexual men have been the result of the changes LeVay observed in the hypothalamus.
Researchers have looked beyond the hypothala mus to find biological indicators of sexual orientation and discovered that the brain's callosum is larger in homosexual men than in heterosexual men.
People can guess sexual orientation by looking at faces.
The size of the callosum is inherited.
We should keep in mind that brain size and brain activity can be a consequence of sexual orientation.
Scientists haven't found a reliable biological marker of sexual orientation.
Many gay men have more older sisters than their older brothers, and the size of the hypothalamus is the same in gay and non-gay individuals.
Social, environmental, and cultural influences that remain to be understood, in conjunction with genetic factors, play an important role in shaping people's sexual orientation.
In 1975, psychologists Ellen Berscheid and Elaine Hatfield received a dubious distinction.
The first individuals to receive the Golden Fleece Award were them.
This award was cooked up by Proxmire to draw attention to projects that he considered to be huge waste of taxpayer money.
This award was won by Berscheid and Hatfield for their government-funded research on the psychological determinants of attraction and love.
They wouldn't get an answer that anyone would believe if they spent 84 million or 84 billion.
Over 5,000 years ago, we've come a long way in this respect.
It doesn't take away from the profound mysteries of falling in love, but it suggests that love may not be as inexplicable as we think.
We need to feel chemistry with someone before we can decide if we're compatible with him or her in our core values and attitudes.
Scientists suggest that friendship, dating, and mate choices aren't random, even though we might ascribe finding our true love to the fickle finger of destiny.
College students who viewed equal numbers of homosexual and heterosexual women on Internet dating sites guessed correctly about 64 percent of the time.
The finding was confirmed by a study with male faces.
It's not clear whether people perform above chance because of subtle social cues, biologically influenced differences in facial appearance, or differences in posed facial expressions.
A simple truth of human relationships is that our closest friends live, study, work, or play close to us.
The second author of your textbook married a woman who sat in front of him in many classes.
After 30 years of high school reunions, they fell in love and married.
According to psychological research, last names that start with the same letter are more likely to be seated next to each other.
We are most likely to be attracted to and befriend people nearby to each other in a classroom or work place.
Leon Festinger and Stanley can set the stage for Schachter, and Kurt Back asked people living in apartments for married students attraction and relationship formation.
65 percent of these friends lived in the same building, while 41 percent lived next door.
The effects of mere exposure may explain why physical nearness is a predictor of seeing someone on a frequent basis.
Four women with similar appearances posed as students in a college classroom and attended zero, 5, 10, or 15 sessions.
At the end of the semester, the experimenters showed participants slides of the women and asked them to rate their attractiveness.
The posers didn't interact with the students, but the participants judged women who attended more classes to be more attractive.
If you like Mozart and your island mate likes rap, you'd have a lot to talk about.
It might be hard to establish a personal connection with little in common.
We are more likely to befriend, date, and marry compatible people.
Although not all researchers are convinced by the principle of similarity, most commercial online dating sites use it to their advantage.
The online dating services have caught on to the fact that similarity breeds content.
One service, eHarmony.com, matches prospective poorly supported scientifically, in part partners on the basis of personality similarity, although there's little evidence that they're because similarity is a better predictor of successful at doing so.
It pays to have actual similarity.
Similar couples are more likely to stay together than different couples.
There are a few reasons similarity greases the wheels of social interaction.
The foundation is paved for mutual understanding when people's interests and attitudes overlap.
We think we'll be accepted and liked by others who see eye to eye with us.
Similar people may share common goals, and achieve shared goals, in turn, enhances attraction; likewise, attraction may bring people together to achieve common goals.
People who share their likes and dislikes help us feel good about ourselves.
The saying "The enemy of my enemy is my friend" may be true.
Negative gossip can foster feelings of familiarity with another person and allow us to elevate ourselves at the expense of others.
The rule of give and take begins to kick into motion as early as 11 years of age in many cultures.
We tend to feel obligated to give what we get and maintain equity in a relationship.
Liking begets liking, and revealing personal information, regardless of whether the communication is an online chat, an email, or a conversation with a partner.
We feel attracted to people we believe to be like us.
When we believe that our partner finds us attractive or likable, we act nicer.
Most friends talk about meaningful things.
In particular, disclosure about intimate topics can bring about intimacy.
Low levels of disclosure often result when one person talks about superficial topics or intimate topics in a superficial way.
When one partner responds to our disclosures with sympathy and concern, there is no need for absolute reciprocity.
Elaine Hatfield and her colleagues conducted a study more than 50 years ago.
Hatfield and her coworkers gave these students the chance to get to know each other on a date.
They were surprised that the only variable that predicted attraction was people's level of physical attractiveness as rated by their partners.
Physically attractive people are more popular than physically unattractive people.
We can learn more about their physical attractiveness.
Although physical attractiveness is important to both sexes when it comes to choosing our romantic partners, it's especially important to men.
David Buss conducted a survey of mate preferences among heterosexuals in 37 different cultures across six continents.
He found that men place more importance on looks in women than they do on looks in men.
They are inter fact fiction.
Buss found that women place more importance on having a partner with a high level of financial resources than men.
Women prefer partners who are older than them.
Both sexes put a premium on having a partner who is kind.
Evolutionary theorists point out that because most men produce an enormous number of sperm--an average of about 300 million per ejaculation--they typically pursue a mating strategy that maximizes the chances that at least one of these sperm will find a receptive egg at the end of its long journey.
Evolutionary psychologists say that men are on the lookout for signs of potential health and fertility such as physical attractiveness and youth.
Women typically produce only one egg per month, so they must bechoosy.
The technique of speed dating was invented by Los Angeles Rabbi Yaacov Deyo in 1998 to help Jewish singles get to know each other.
Men were more likely to have further contact with half of the women they met, while women were more likely to meet again with one in three men.
The chances that the man with whom they mate will provide well for their offspring are maximized by women.
Women prefer men who are well off and have experience in the ways of life.
Evolutionary models of attraction have been offered by some researchers.
The roles that women and men adopt are constrained by biological factors.
Because men are more likely to wear pink or red when they are bigger and stronger than women, they end up playing shirt when they are at their peak.
Men don't bear low risk for having a child because they have opportunities to pursue high-status positions.
Some of the differences in traditional roles may help explain why men and women prefer different mates.
Women may prefer men who are dependable financial providers because they have held fewer high-status positions.
Over the past half-century, men and women have become more similar in their mate preferences, possibly reflecting the increasing social opportunities for women.
Nature may channel men and women into different roles, but nurture may shape these roles and preferences in significant ways.
The resume was sent to potential employers with photos of either an attractive female, a plain- looking female, or a woman with no photo included.
Women with no photo were more likely to be called back than women with a photo.
Female jealousy and envy are likely reasons for this finding.
The attractive men with photos were called back at a higher rate than the plain-looking men with photos.
It is true to some extent.
It's also an oversimplification.
People tend to agree on who is and isn't physically attractive.
Caucasian and Asian American men tend to agree on which women are attractive, as do African American men.
Men and women tend to agree on who they find attractive in different cultures.
Women with a waist-to-hip ratio of 0.7 are more beautiful than women with a waist about 70 percent.
Women prefer men with a higher waist-to-hip ratio.
Women's waist-to-hip ratio tends to decline as they get older, so this is a cue.
There are differences in physical preferences between cultures.
Men from African American and Caribbean cultures are more likely to find women with a large body size more attractive than men from European cultures.
Over the past few centuries, preferences toward thinness have frequently shifted, as even a casual inspection of paintings of nude women over the past few centuries reveals.
Being "just average" is fine.
You would assume that you are like most people.
Being average has its pluses.
The researchers used a computer to combine the faces of students and found that people prefer faces that are average.
The people preferred average faces 96 percent of the time.
Our Ruling Out Rival Hypotheses preferences for average faces might be due to their greater symmetry.
People prefer faces that are more explanations for the findings age.
Evolutionary psychologists theorize that averageness in a face is due to an absence of genetic defects.
Studies show that people prefer animals like birds and fish, and even average objects like cars and watches.
The investigators found that average voices were more attractive than individual voices.
Our preference for average faces may be due to an alternative mechanism.
It's possible that average stimuli are easier to understand because they reflect stimuli we've seen before.
We may not need to count all that high according to some psychologists.
The rest of us are not different from psychologists.
They've tried to understand the many types of love, with some concluding that there's only one type of love; others, that love comes in many shapes and sizes.
According to Elaine Hatfield and Richard Rapson, there are two types of love.
As we'll soon see, Robert Sternberg puts the number at seven.
PASSIONATE LOVE: LOVE AS A HOLLYWOOD ROMANCE is more than just a human face.
Cars that show a certain facial expression, longing for one's partner, are powerful.
When we're around the object of our desire and not the other way around, we have a strange mix of delirious happi characteristics.
It's the stuff of a small nose and a large amount of Hollywood movies.
When obstacles, such as seemingly insurmountable physical distance or the strenuous tend to elicit the so-called "cute response" objection of parents, are placed in the way of romance, passionate love "head" relative to the rest of the body is fueled.
Companionate love may be more important in older couples.
Companionate love is often the primary independent.
Studies show that people can fall in love with their partners when they are elderly.
It can be caring about them, but not having a sexual desire for them.
These two forms of love are associated with different brain systems.
According to animal research, emotional attachment to others is influenced by hormones that play a key role in pair bonding and trust.
Sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen affect sexual desire.
The "two types of love" model is too simple according to Robert.
The elements combine to form seven different types of love.
It's a helpful road map for understanding one of life's great mysteries, but it's more a description of love types than an explanation of why people fall in love.
Natural selection may have made us find these features irresistibly adorable because they are the same facial features we find in infants.
Liking about hate.
At times, commitment and intimacy can be at odds, at the point of wanting to destroy them.
Extreme forms of racism, sexism, anti-Semitism, homophobia, and political partisanship are just some of the forms of hate that can be assumed.
Virtual communities of like-minded people who share similar hostile views can be created by the Internet and social media.
There are empty love ous chapters.
The triangular theory of love was developed by Robert Sternberg, who used it as a starting point to develop a theory of hate, with and commitment combine to form seven varieties of love.
"burning hate" is the most severe form of hate that arises from combinations of these three elements.
propaganda is the key to fueling hate.
Groups and governments that teach hatred of other groups are experts at portraying these groups as evil and worthy of disdain.
The good news is that we can learn to hate.
The first step in overcoming their confirmation bias is to teach them to dislike only the negative attributes of individuals or groups.
"There's good and bad in everyone," as the saying goes, may help us combat our deep-seeded animosity toward our enemies, and more broadly, members of other races, cultures, and groups whose views differ from our own."
According to cognitive theories such as the James- Many emotional experiences are generated automatically and Lange theory, emotions result from our interpretation of stimuli unconsciously, as illustrated by research on the mere or our bodily reactions to them.
The Cannon-Bard exposure effect is related to the facial feedback hypothesis.
Drive reduc Much of emotional expression is non-verbal; gestures highlight tion theory that drives speech, such as hunger and thirst, touch our bodies, and pull us to act in certain ways.
Specific meanings are conveyed by the Yerkes-Dodson law lators.
Approach and avoidance are words.
Positive goals are motivators according to incentive theories.
The polygraph test is used to expose lies.
The ventromedial hypothalamus has been called a "satiety center" and a "feeding center" in response to relevant questions.
General descriptions oversimplify scientific reality.
Hunger results in many false-positives because it is associ arousal rather than guilt.
The melanocortin-4 Guilty Knowledge Test is based on the idea that criminals have concealed knowledge about the crime.
The GKT has low expectations.
The prime determinant of happiness is what low body weight is expected for age and height.
We tend to underestimate the long-term impact response cycle.
Sexual activity decreases with age, but the root of unhappiness is low self-esteem.
Modestly satisfaction doesn't mean self-esteem.
Sexual desire is shaped by mental health but is associated with more social norms and culture.
Critics argue that positive parents are usually inadequate.
Sex orientation is an inherited tendency toward child have its downsides, in part because excessive happiness may hood gender nonconformity, sex hormones, and pregnant women.
The major love types are passionate.
The major hate elements of attraction and relationship formation are lack of passion, proximity, similarity, and commitment.
Explain how stress is defined and how physical disorders are different in different ways.
Explain the role of personality in everyday stress.
There are four behaviors that contribute to a healthy lifestyle.
Explain the role of social support and different types of control in dealing with stress.
It is difficult to change our lifestyles.
Explain how our attitudes, beliefs, and personality can affect our responses.
Explain how stress affects the immune system.
Few Americans will remember September 11, 2001.
People across the country were watching in horror as two passenger planes flew into the World Trade Center in New York City.
The World Trade Center was the site of the worst terrorist attack in American history.
The terrorists crashed two other planes into the Pentagon and a field in Pennsylvania, killing hundreds of people.
There were inspiring stories of first responders who risked their lives to save others.
On 9/11, nearly 400 people died in rescue operations.
Jonathan Lelpi was a firefighter who died trying to save others.
The video shows his life and courage from his father's perspective.
Mr. Lelpi spent months looking for his son.
Bob Small, an investment company executive, barely survived the destruction of the World Trade Center, but he suffered from recurrent dreams of another plane hitting the building and dreams of himself or other people jumping off the Twin Towers, an unforgettable scene that he actually witnessed.
To keep the memories of that day alive and remain a part of him--to never lose touch with the reality he experienced, give it meaning, and feel grounded--he has filled one of his rooms with mementos, pieces from the WTC, newspaper stories, and small things yet
These stories stir questions in our minds.
The stories of Lee Lelpi and Bob Small show how people deal with adversity.
We will take a closer look at how people cope with trying experiences, from the annoyance of a computer crash to the terror of surviving a plane crash.
We will look at the interplay between stress and physical health.
Nearly 90 percent of respondents to the survey had experienced at least one potentially traumatic event, such as a sexual or physical assault or car accident.
The person who doesn't experience severe stress in his or her 454 Chapter 12 lifetime is actually an unusual person.
The young, the unmarried, and people of low socio-economic status are at high risk for stress.
Women are more likely than men to experience sexual assault and child abuse, but less likely to experience nonsexual assaults, accidents, disasters, fires, or wartime combat.
Interpersonal violence, such as sexual assault and combat exposure, is more likely to bring about long-term distressing aftereffects than are natural disasters, after which members of the community often band together to provide mutual support.
Many people assume that people who live in rural areas have less stress than people who live in urban areas.
Scientists have found little support for the popular belief that stress-produced events are common among all sectors of society.
Exposure to events like Hurricane Katrina, frontline combat in Afghanistan, the catastrophic flooding in Louisiana in 2016 don't guarantee that people will be traumatised for the rest of their lives.
Another case in which scientific research disagrees with popular psychology is here.
Most people need psychological help in the face of stress, according to many selfhelp books.
Most witnesses to trauma are doomed to psychological problems if these companies don't give them psychological help.
In 2007, grief counselors arrived at the scene to help students who had been traumatized by the Virginia Tech shootings, and in 1998, counselors experienced high levels of stress.
In this chapter, we'll discover that most of us are surprisingly resilient even in the face of terrible circumstances.
Most child sexual abuse victims turn out to be psychologically healthy adults.
We will consider the fundamental question of what stress is before we discuss why some people thrive and others don't.
We'll look at competing views of stress, the mind-body link responsible for stress-related disorders, how we cope with stress, and the rapidly growing fields of health psychology and alternative medicine.
Different approaches to measuring stress can be identified.
Symptoms arise when our ability to cope effectively is disrupted.
If the building didn't collapse under intense pressure, it would be able to survive.
If the body were like a machine and machines were subject to wear and tear then so too would be the body.
People are different in their resources, significance, and ability to deal with stress, just as two buildings are different in their resilience.
The study of stress in three different ways has been approached by researchers.
Each approach has yielded valuable insights and, when considered together, they illuminate the big and small events that generate distress and the ways we perceive and respond to stress.
The approach has identified categories of events that most of us find dangerous.
For example, pregnant women are often fraught with uncertainties, including concerns about the child's health.
Women who experience negative life events during their pregnancies are more likely to deliver their babies early than women who don't.
The combination of low income and physical disability can make matters worse when people retire.
The people who are most susceptible to stress being strained when under stress are identified by the stressors.
People's psychological and physical reactions to stress are assessed.
Typically, scientists expose participants to stress-produced stimuli in the laboratory; in other cases, they study people who've encountered real-life stressors.
Disasters can have positive and negative effects on people and communities.
Researchers have found that people who are looking for a new job are more likely to be looking for a new job than they are to be looking for a new job.
Following a reduction in income.
Some people experience positive, profound, and enduring personal changes in the wake of highly aversive events.
Disasters can bring out the best in us.
After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, a survey of character strengths of 4,817 Americans was conducted by Christopher and Martin Seligman.
Teamwork, leadership, gratitude, hope, love, and spirituality increased after the attacks.
Two months before and two months after the 9/11 attacks, one team of researchers performed a linguistic analysis on the diaries of 1,084 users of an online journal service.
Stressful circumstances that affect the lives of an entire community can increase social awareness, cement bonds, and enhance a variety of positive personal characteristics according to these findings.
The effects of highly aversive events are often temporary, with the most negative aftereffects seen in people with prior trauma exposure.
Life satisfaction can be improved by engaging in pleasurable activities, finding purpose in life, and establishing and taking comfort in close relationships.
Some people are devastated by the break-up of their relationship and others are optimistic about the future.
Richard Lazarus and his coworkers argued that the evaluation of the event is a critical factor in determining whether or not we experience an event as stressed out.
People who've divorced may want to start dating again.
It's difficult to measure stress because an argument with a boss may be just an annoyance for another person.
The social readjustment rating scale is used to gauge the nature and impact of stress.
The first of many efforts to measure life events systematically was developed by David and his colleagues after they adopted the view that stressors are stimuli.
Stress, Coping, and Health were ranked in terms of their stressness.
The number of stress events people report over the previous year is associated with a variety of physical and psychological disorders.
The sheer number of life events is not a good predictor of who will become physically or psychologically ill.
The approach to measuring stressors doesn't consider other important factors, such as people's interpretation of events, and difficulty recalling events accurately.
Some of the more chronic, or ongoing, stressors that many individuals experience are not taken into account.
Misplacing cell phones and other subtle forms of discrimination or differential treatment based on race, gender, and possessions is one of many hassles we encounter in our daily lives.
Research sexual orientation, or religion, for example, can be a significant source of stress even though they rarely are prompted by or lead to a single stress event we can check off over the long haul.
Don't eat the small stuff.
Major life events and hassles are associated with poor general health, but the severity of hassles is better predictors of physical health, depression, and anxiety than are major life events.
10 years later, negative reactions to minor stressors predict anxiety and depression.
It is possible that this finding is related to the fact that people who are prone to negative emotions react negatively to stressors.
The scale developers removed words related to psychological symptoms and found that hassles were still associated with health outcomes.
If researchers are correct, Ruling Out Rival Hypotheses events are the real culprits because they set us off when we already feel hassled or need to cope.
The findings suggest that hassles contribute to stress.
Interview-based methods have been devised to give a more in-depth picture of life stress than self-report measures.