The fish die from lack of oxygen when a portion of the cyanobacteria die off.
The atmosphere of early Earth may have been affected by cyanobacteria.
At one time, archaea were considered to be a unique group ofbacteria.
As evolution occurs, any changes in rRNA sequence probably occur at a slow, steady pace.
Section 19.2 states that the tree of life contains three different parts.
Archaea and somebacteria are found in extreme environments such as hot springs and thermal vents, which may have caused them to differ from a common ancestor.
The archaeal line of descent gave way to the eukarya.
The archaea are more closely related to the eukarya.
Both Archaea and Eukarya share some of the same ribosomal proteins, initiate transcription in the same way, and have similar types of tRNA.
Archaea have biochemical characteristics that distinguish them from other organisms.
Many of the unusual lipids in the archaea plasma are able to function at high temperatures.
The lipids of archaea are linked to branched chain hydrocarbons, while the lipids ofbacteria are linked to fat.
Diverse cell wall types allow Archaea to survive under extreme conditions.
The cell walls of archaea do not contain peptidoglycan.
In some archaea, the cell wall is mostly made of polysaccharides, and in others, it is mostly made of proteins.
The Archaea were found living in extreme environmental conditions.
The three main types of archaea are methanogens, halophiles, and thermoacidophiles.
There are salt lakes where halophilic archaea can live.
There are hot springs in the park.
They live in swamps and in the guts of animals.
The need for high salt concentrations is usually 12-15%.
These archaea are able to survive in environments that are high in salt.
To prevent osmotic water loss to the hypertonic environment, halophiles increase solutes such as chloride ion, potassium ion, and organic molecule within the cell, creating an internal environment more isotonic to the outside salt water.
The halophiles don't have to compete with as many organisms as they would in a more moderate environment.
Some of these organisms can carry out a unique form of photosynthesis if their oxygen supply becomes scarce, but they are aerobic chemoheterotrophs.
The halophiles use a purple color called bacteriorhodopsin to capture solar energy for use in synthesis.
halophiles are adapted to a high-saline environment and will die if placed in a solution with a low salt concentration.
They use hydrogen and sulfur as terminal electron acceptors for their electron transport chains.
It is not surprising that thermoacidophiles grow best at extremely low pH levels.
The methanogens are obligate anaerobes found in environments such as swamps and marshes.
Methanogenesis is a type of metabolism performed by some archaea.
H2 is used by methanogens to reduce carbon dioxide and methane to methane and to couple the energy released to ATP production.
The greenhouse effect and climate change are caused by methane being released into the atmosphere.
Methane is produced by the methanogenic archaea.
Methanogenic archaea can help us anticipate what life will be like on other bodies.
In eastern Idaho, there is an unusual microbial community in the Lidy Hot Springs.
The springs are rich in H2 but lacking in organic nutrients.
The majority of the springs are inhabited by methanogens and archaea.
Similar methanogenic communities may one day be found beneath the surface of Mars and one of Jupiter's moons.
The most abundant element in the universe is hydrogen, which is readily available for use by methanogens.
archaea are found in all moderate environments, even though they are capable of living in extremely stressed conditions.
Some archaea have been found living with sponges and sea cucumbers.
The roles of archaea are still being explored.
A group of nitrifying marine archaea has recently been discovered.
Some scientists think that the archaea may contribute to the supply of nitrite in the oceans.
Plants and other producers can use nitrate, a form of nitrogen that can be used to make nucleic acids, by converting nitrite to nitrate.
The Archaea have also been found in the soil and in the rice paddies.
There are differences between archaea andbacteria.
The three types of archaea are distinguished by their unique habitats.
Viruses are non living and can change quickly.
Some contain an outer membranous envelope with spikes used for attachment to host cells.
Viruses can only attach to the cells of certain organisms.
The host cell is forced to make new virus copies when a virus hijacks it.
The spikes lock the capsid to the cell.
The cell has a viral genome.
New viral components are created by using host cell and ribosomes.
New viruses are made from viral components.
The host cell is the exit point for new viruses.
The lytic cycle of the viral genome will continue for a long time.
The genomes of animal cells need to be free from the capsid of the viruses that cause them, either budding or lysis.
The first living cells did not have a nucleus and did not have a cytoplasm.
The difference between cell wall types is highlighted by gram staining.
Gram-positive and Gram-negativebacteria have different cell wall densities, with Gram-positivebacteria having a thick peptidoglycan cell wall and Gram-negativebacteria having a thinner cell wall.
The three basic shapes ofbacteria are spiral-shaped, rod-shaped and round.
Prokaryotes have differing needs for oxygen.
The archaea appear to be more related to the eukarya than to the bacteria.
The Archaea do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls, while thebacteria do.
Moderate environments are where Archaea are found.
Pick the best answer for the question.
Viruses do not live.
The host cell is the source of the animal virus envelope.
They are not dead.
They don't have a nucleus.
The lytic cycle is used to reproduce prokaryotes.
The peptidoglycan cell wall is thinner.
The cell wall ofbacteria is made of lipopolysaccharide.
A constant supply of oxygen is required for cultivateative anaerobes.
There are prokaryotes.
A prokaryote that gains organic molecule from other living organisms is called a photoautotroph.
Methanogens are Gram-negativebacteria that first introduced oxygen into the atmosphere.
Some archaea form methane.
Most viral infections are untreatable.
Severe side effects on the patient are possible with few antiviral drugs.
Antibiotics work by targeting specific structures and functions.
The side effects on the patient are usually minimal because their cells do not have the same structures and characteristics.
The consumption of organic waste and carbon dioxide and the creation of oxygen, alcohol, methane, nitrates, and antibiotics are just some of the things that archaea andbacteria can do.
The known capabilities come from only a small portion of prokaryotes.
Scientists theorize that at least 10% of the population are undiscovered and have the potential to benefit human life.