Portugal became an economic dependency of England as the supply of gold began to dwindle.
Indians, Europeans, and Africans all had occupation.
By the 18th century, the castas, people were brought together under very different conditions: the Europeans as voluntary conquerors and the Indians as conquered peoples.
The situation created a major archies of masters and servants, Christians and pagans, that reflected the relationships of power and segment of the population.
The preconquest social organization in central Mexico was maintained because they served the ends of the Spanish government.
The "republic of the Spaniards" was supposed to have its own rules and laws, while the "republic of the Indians" was supposed to have its own.
The "republic of the Indians" formed the base on which all society rested, even though the separation was never a reality.
Indians paid tribute only to the mulattos in some places.
American realities Exchange changed the concept of society for the Spaniards, who had an idea of society from their own experience.
There was a key to it.
There were alliances formed by the giving of concubines and female servants during the conquest.
Marriages with indigenous women, especially of the Indian nobility, were not unknown.
Mixed marriages and informal unions were common with few European women available.
The mestizos grew because of the result.
Their status was higher than that of Indians in the early years.
American mestizos became members of an intermediate category, not fully accepted social system based on racial as equals to Spaniards and yet expected to live according to the standards of Spanish society and origins; europeans or whites at top, often acting as auxiliaries to it.
In areas such as Brazil and the Carib black slaves, large numbers of African slaves were imported.
Slave owners used their bottom and mixed races in the middle.
The population grew due to the result.
European categories of noble, priest, and commoner continued throughout the Spanish Indies.
Race and place of birth played important roles in American realities.
The cultural fusion in Latin America was accompanied by this.
Many combinations and crosses were possible from the original ethnic categories.
By the 18th century, this segment of the population had grown rapidly and there was a lot of variation in terminology.
A whole genre of painting is to identify and classify the various combinations.
The people of mixed origins were called the castas, and they tended to be shopkeepers and small farmers.
In 1650 castas made up 5 to 10 percent of the population of Spanish America, but by 1750 they made up 35 to 40 percent.
The proportion of free people of color in Brazil was equal to that of whites.
Blacks and mulattos made up two-thirds of the inhabitants of Brazil in the late 18th century.
As the mixed population grew in Spanish America, more restric tions were placed on them, but their social mobility could not be stopped.
A successful Indian might call himself a mestizo, a mestizo who married a Native American might be called white, and a Spanish woman might be called white.
People of mixed racial origin were considered to be in the ranks of the castas.
By the 18th, a genre of painting flourished and by Indians who left their communities, spoke Spanish, and lived within that depicted a husband and wife of different racial categories.
Their child would fit one of the casta designations if they had physical characteristics.
European or white status was a great example of domestic relations and material culture.
What seems to be iards, Indians, and Africans began to complicate the demographic precise demographic measurement may, in fact, be imprecise and social structures of the American colonies.
There are changing ratios of ethnic categories in Mexico.
Creoles thought of themselves as loyal American Spaniards, but with so many mestizos around, the shadow of a possible Indian Ancestor made their status suspect as far as the Europeans were concerned.
Creoles dominated the local economies, held sway over large numbers of dependents at their haciendas and stood at the top of society.
They were sensitive to any suggestion of being inferior because of their American birth, and they developed a sense of identity and pride.
The movements for independence in Latin America were caused by a growing sense of self-identity.
The Iberian dis tinctions are based on gender, age, and class.
The father of a family had legal authority over his children until they were 25.
Women were not allowed to serve in government and were expected to take care of their families.
After marriage, women came under the authority of their husbands, but many a widow assumed the direction of her fam ily's activities.
Lower-class women worked in the fields, worked at the looms of small factories, and controlled small-scale com merce in towns and villages.
The bride's property remained the property of the woman throughout the marriage as a result of the payment of a dowry.
Women in Latin America were involved in agriculture.
Convents were put in place to prevent contacts or marriages between upper-class women who did not marry at a young and manufacturing age, and unsuitable partners, because the household and the kitchen were the proper sphere for partners of unsuitable background.