Since the beginning of human government, authoritarian rule has existed.
Nondemocratic rule is what it is.
The political system that has existed since the twentieth century is called democracy.
The "common man" who didn't own a lot of property was only given the right to vote in elections in the early and mid-nineteenth century.
Since their establishment, states with democratic tendencies have been on an ever expanding path of increasing participation, increasing input, and increasing speach for all of their citizens.
The way in which authoritarian regimes invest political authority into a small group of individuals without any responsibility to the public distinguishes them.
The evidence of authoritarianism is that the people don't have a viable way to remove one government and replace it with another.
Prior to the 18th century, it was said that all political regimes in the world were authoritarian.
In the modern world, authoritarian regimes are on the decline, but some states are showing a resurgence.
No two authoritarian systems are the same.
The process to determine the winner is rigged by some regimes.
The election is meant to look democratic, but will never be accurately counted.
Others don't bother with the facade.
The causes, methods, and results of authoritarian rule will be examined in this chapter.
itarian systems don't give the people a chance to change the government and replace it with another.
authoritarianism is not the same as totalitarianism.
Totalitarian regimes attempt to control and dominate every aspect of their people's lives, including their career choices, family life, and political and religious beliefs.
Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Soviet Union, and Mussolini's Italy were all totalitarian regimes.
The Cultural Revolution in China from 1966 to 1976 is often referred to as a totalitarian system.
Most authoritarian regimes are not fascist.
The political elites stay in power even if the public doesn't like them, but they will still stay out of the everyday lives of their subjects.
In most authoritarian regimes, people are free to marry whoever they want, choose where to live and what to do for work, and continue practicing their religious beliefs.
There are some common factors that authoritarian societies tend to have.
Wealthy societies of the developed world are liberal democracies.
People with their own wealth have a strong desire for their demands to be heard in the policymaking of the state, which is why authoritarian systems are undermined.
They have the ability to take political action through civil society.
The history of the developed world after the Industrial Revolution shows that a large middle class makes nondemocratic rule nearly impossible to maintain.
A large and broad middle class can undermine authoritarian rule.
There are two likely political paths for societies with widespread poverty and deep inequality.
In one scenario, the few in the wealthy elite will use the power of the state to suppress demands for reform, and hold onto their positions on top, resorting to tyranny or potentially to violence.
In the other scenario, the "have-nots" organize a movement to seize control of the state from the elites, possibly through revolutionary violence.
In the emergence of democratic or authoritarian regimes, the impact of political culture cannot be overstated.
With their long histories of political development, societies have created rules and tendencies around how politics are assumed to operate.
Some societies have existed for thousands of years with authoritarian practices that were necessary for security and survival.
Statism emerged in Russia after centuries of foreign invasion and oppression.
In the last two centuries, Russians have come to trust the state for protection from invasion from all manner of foreign enemies, from the French in the Napoleonic Wars to NATO, because of strong and forcible political and military authority brought about by the early Muscovite tsars.
England was able to develop its own constitutional system over time because of the protection offered by its island geography, and it was never at risk of foreign occupation like the Russians were.
Some religions are more prone to nondemocratic tendencies than others.
Catholicism and Islam establish formal religious hierarchies that must be respected by their followers, and advancement up the "ladder" of authority in each is determined by those who are already on the inside.
The countries with long-standing ties to Catholicism and Islam have been slower to develop democracy.
Protestant denominations emerged directly as a result of challenge to existing institutional authority, and emerged during the 18th century with an emphasis on freedom of religious choice and religious toleration, which have translated into acceptance of democratic values.
The liberal democratic Western tradition is often characterized by Islamic culture as egocentric and destructive towards godliness.
There are common identifiable patterns in the methods used by the regimes.
It is important to note that these methods are used by democratic regimes when necessary to implement a policy decision or maintain legitimacy, but they are more consistently observable in authoritarian systems, and they are frequently lacking the basic protections of civil liberties in the manner they are used.
Some regimes use force to get people to sign up.
China uses government agents who follow the regime's critics, and Internet monitors who track people's activities, as part of the tactics of coercion.
China's actions against demonstrators in Tiananmen Square in 1989 and the Tlateloco Plaza massacre in Mexico are notable examples of brute force by the security services.
While democratic regimes have free and independent media outlets that may investigate and criticize the conduct and policy decisions of those in power, authoritarian regimes use a variety of mechanisms to restrict the independence of the media to report news that could be problematic for the government.
It is important to remember that while state control and private ownership may seem to imply independence, those implications are not universally true.
The British Broadcasting Corporation is not state controlled.
Since 1927, it has been free to report events in Britain and around the world.
Many privately owned media outlets in Russia still report from a perspective friendly to the Kremlin for fear of reprisals.
Civil society describes the various groups that people join for the sake of a common interest.
These include religious organizations, interest groups, clubs, charitable organizations, labor unions, professional organizations, and many others.
People's ability to form groups, organize independent opposition, or voice their concerns is limited by authoritarian regimes.
An independent civil society that can organize freely is a critical component of liberal democracy, as it allows the people to express their interests, organize to call attention to issues of concern, and demand state action at times.
The ability to organize and express dissent is limited by authoritarian regimes.
There will be opposition parties, movements, and candidates that emerge to challenge the ruling party and leaders at election time since most authoritarian regimes still stage elections for the sake of enhancing their claims to having the legitimate right to rule.
In order to guarantee victory for the party in power, authoritarian regimes use many methods to prevent the opposition groups from competing fairly.
The most consistent tactic authoritarian regimes use is to bring groups and individuals into a beneficial relationship with the state so they don't challenge the legitimacy of the regime.
State corporatism is a common form of this strategy.
There is a relationship between civil society organizations and the state's institutions in democratic systems.
The ruling party makes itself the middleman between the interests of business and labor in the state.
The state plays a crucial role in deciding who will win the conflicts between civil society interests and who will be invited to the negotiations with the state.
Civil society interests tend to be motivated to avoid criticism of the state and to work with it in hopes of achieving some of its issues and avoiding exclusion from the process.
Britain and Mexico have largely embraced pluralism during their respective democratic transitions, and Russia, China, Iran, and Nigeria all still demonstrate strong corporatist tendencies.
State politics and patron-client politics are used by authoritarian regimes to control civil society.
patron-clientelism is a strategy of cooptation.
In authoritarian systems, rulers can place people into key positions of power with official authority, which can be used for personal gain.
People are also given the power to be in positions of bureaucratic authority beneath those individuals.
The result is a pyramid of loyalty and favor-trading that makes it difficult to challenge the power of the state.
Oil is a valuable national resource that can make patron-clientelism more effective in preserving the state's authoritarian dominance.
Patron-clientelism and patron-client networks are related to corruption.
Most people have a general understanding of what corruption is, but it has a specific definition in political science.
Understanding corruption requires an understanding of power and authority.
Power is the ability to get people to do things that they wouldn't normally do.
Authority involves an official position with a defined role and jurisdiction.
The power of a teacher to motivate or compel certain behaviors from his students can be seen in the example of listening quietly to a lecture or completing reading assignments.
The teacher's authority is the main source of power in this case, as the state gives them the power to assign a grade and determine the student's eligibility for credit in the class.
authority is not required for some power.
Even though they have no official authority, powerful groups of terrorists or rebel fighters can force territories to comply with their demands.
Wealthy individuals and businesses in democracies can use their money to exert strong influences on the political process through campaign donations, advertising, and lobbying, even if they have no official role in the state.
Abuse of a position of authority for personal gain is corruption.
The teacher in the example above would be corrupt if they sold the students the grade they wanted.
In patron-client networks, corruption is often a part of the "benefits" of loyalty to the regime in exchange for the position of authority.
Some authoritarian regimes will attempt to portray the leader as some sort of near perfect version of the nation's aspiration, emulating the wisdom, strength, and spirit of the people more generally.
The leader becomes a unifying symbol of the pride and patriotism of the people, which can help underscore the legitimacy of the authoritarian regime.
The Cultural Revolution in China and the Stalinist Soviet Union were examples from the countries of study.
Some authoritarian regimes are ruled by an individual, some are ruled by the military, some are ruled by a single political party, and some are ruled by religious authorities.
The institutions that act as the basis of rule are often different from the methods used in authoritarian systems.
There are no clear rules or boundaries to constrain the ruler in systems based on personal rule.
As the ruler sees fit, the regime can be changed.
Historical absolute monarchies of Europe would fit this definition, as well as many resource-rich developing states today where a particular royal family or revolutionary leader uses the resources to build a patrimonial patron-client network of loyalists throughout the state.
Military rule usually comes as a result of a coup d'etat, in which the military takes control of the state and removes the civil authorities from within.
Military leaders become agents of the state at that point.
There were at least seven successful coups in Nigeria from 1966 to 1999.
During and immediately after a coup, many military leaders would promise reform and democracy, only to become involved in the same or greater corruption as the previous leaders.
Only one political party is legally or practically able to compete for and exercise political power in a one-party state.
In some cases, this restriction is built into the rules of the regime, such as in China, where only the Chinese Communist Party is allowed to exercise policymaking power.
In some cases, the ruling party takes steps to win an election.
The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) ruled Mexico from 1929 to 2000 by operating a massive patron-client network.
They would rig the election results in order to stay in power.
In order to prevent other parties from challenging the United Russia Party for power, modern Russia has combined a basically competitive multiparty election with substantial restrictions on civil liberties.
A new term, illiberal democracy, has been created to describe regimes that have the institutional process of elections to determine the winners, but lack pluralism, civil liberties, and other fundamental features of liberal democracy.
The power of theocracy is held by religious leaders, and so a theocratic regime puts the rule of the state in the hands of religious authorities.
Rules of the regime and laws passed by the government are often required to be in line with religious beliefs.
Iran has been an Islamic Republic since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, in which the supreme political authority rests with the Supreme Leader, a senior cleric chosen by a body of fellow clerics known as the Assembly of Religious Experts.
The president of Iran since the revolution has been a cleric.
The supreme law of the land is the Supreme Leader's interpretation of Shari'ah.
authoritarianism has proven to be resistant to change despite the trend of democratization across many parts of the world.
When political changes come through rapid coups or revolutions, many of the same authoritarian tendencies that have been in place for many centuries will still emerge.
The terms that appear on the AP Comparative Government and Politics exam are tested.