Chapter 9 Review Questions Answers and Explanations can be found in chapter 13.
A block is attached to a spring.
The maximum speed at which the block can be accelerated is A, the minimum is B, and the restoring force is D.
The maximum speed of the block will decrease by a factor of 4 and by a factor of 2 if the block is replaced with one with twice its mass.
A spring-block simple harmonic oscillator is set up.
Blocks of different amounts are used in different trials and the corresponding frequencies are recorded.
The block is pushed so that the spring is compressed to 1/3 of its natural length.
Half of Block 1's energy is lost to heat when it collides with Block 2, while the other half is divided between Block 1 and Block 2.
If Block 1 did not collide with Block 2, the period of the oscillations that Block 1 would have had would be 0.
The bullet is embedded in the block.
Support your answer for a moment.
Support your answer for a moment.
Hooke's Law holds for most springs.
It would not make sense to describe everything scientifically.
Imagine holding the end of a rope in your hand and attaching it to a wall.
You can create a wave from your hand to the wall by moving your hand up and down.
Waves and their characteristics will be discussed in this chapter.
A long rope is being looked at.
A wave travels in a direction that is parallel to the direction in which the median is vibrating.
The wave is related to the direction of travel.
Imagine the visible point on the rope moving from its crest position down to its trough position, and then back up to the crest position, when you look at the second figure on the previous page.
Ocean waves are similar to compressional waves.
Matter moves in large circles near the surface of the ocean and smaller circles deeper down as the energy in the system dwindles.
It's the most basic equation in wave theory.
A wave on a rope has a Frequency of 2.5 Hz.
2 s is 1/(0.5 s)
The wave speed, wavelength, and period have nothing to do with the amplitude.
We can derive an equation for the speed of a wave on a stretched string or rope.
The wave's speed depends on a number of factors.
The speed of the wave we create will be constant, because we can wiggle the end at any frequencies we want.
The speed of a wave is determined by the type of wave and the characteristics of the medium.
Both travel at the speed of sound.
Sound and light can move through air with different speeds, for example.
When a wave passes from one medium to another, we have a second wave rule.
A change in the medium causes a change in wave speed, but the frequencies won't change.
When a wave passes into another medium, its speed changes, but its Frequency doesn't.
The non-attached end is oscillated with a Frequency of 4.
There are 11 m/s and 4 m.
A wave is created in the rope on the left which travels to the interface with the heavier rope.
Some of the wave's energy is reflected and some is transmitted when a wave strikes a new medium.
The transmitted wave has the same frequencies, but it has different speeds and wavelength.
The wave will have a new wave speed after entering a new medium.
When two or more waves meet, the displacement at any point of the medium is equal to the sum of the individual waves.
The figure on the next page shows two waves traveling in opposite directions.
The relative phase of the two waves affects the amplitude of the combined wave.
The waves will interfere completely if the crest and trough meet, and the combined wave will be the sum of the individual waves.
If crest meets trough and trough meet crest, then they will interfere completely, and the wave will have a difference between the individual waves.
The waves will be between in phase and out of phase.
When the waves are in phase, the maximum amplitude is 8 cm + 3 cm.
When the waves are out of phase, the minimum amplitude is 8 cm - 3 cm.
All we can say is that the amplitude will be at least 5 cm and no greater than 11 cm, without more information about the relative phase of the two waves.
The wave will travel back toward us when it strikes the wall.
The string supports two waves; the wave we generated at our end and the reflected wave.
There are two oppositely directed traveling waves that have the same wavelength and Frequency on the string.
The pattern will remain fixed if the string is just right.
The crests and troughs are no longer traveling down the string.
The right end is fixed to the wall, and the left end is oscillated so that we can consider both ends to be essentially fixed.
The interference of the two waves results in destructive interference at some points and constructive interference at other points.
The points have different frequencies between the extremes.
The difference between a standing wave and a traveling wave is that each point on the string has an individual amplitude.
The opposite of that is antinodes.
This information can be used to generate standing waves.
The three simplest waves that our string can support are shown in the figures.
The first, second, and third waves have one antinode.
A standing wave will form on a string if we create a traveling wave with the same frequencies.
All the other frequencies and wavelengths can be determined by knowing the fundamental frequency.
A string of length 12 m that's fixed at both ends supports a standing wave with a total of 5 nodes.
Draw a picture.
A string of 10 m and 300 g is fixed at both ends and has a tension of 40 N.
If you attached a rope or string to a ring that could slide up and down a pole, you would make a rope that is fixed at one end but free at another.
The closed end and open end would be created with this.
There are some possible examples.
Sound waves can be produced by an object such as a jackhammer or vocal cords.
Human ears can detect the sound of the vibrations if they are between 20 and 20,000hertz.
In the figure on the next page, there is a sound wave in an airfilled tube.
All of the basic characteristics of a wave apply to sound waves as they did for waves on a string.
The medium through which a sound wave travels has an effect on its speed.
A medium that is easily compressed, like a gas, has a low bulk modulus.
Sound travels faster through liquids than through gases.
The mean pressure of the air can be used to calculate the speed of sound through it.
As air warms, this value increases.
A change in wavelength is caused by a change in Frequency.
If two sound waves with different frequencies interfere, the resulting sound becomes loud, soft, and soft.
The individual waves travel in phases, then out of phase, then in phase again, and so on.
When the waves are constructive, the sound is loud, and when they are destructive, the sound is soft.
2 matches, the combined wave doesn't change in amplitude, and no beats are heard.
A tuning fork is used to adjust the key that plays the A note above middle C. The tuning fork has a perfect tone.
When the tuning fork and piano key are struck, the beats of frequencies are heard.
The piano string has to emit a tone of either 437 or 443 Hz since the fork emits a tone of 440.
We can't determine which without more information.
The pianist should loosen the string and listen for beats again.
A vibrating source at one end of an air-filled tube produces sound waves that travel the length of the tube.
The waves reflect off the far end, and the superposition of the forward and reflected waves can produce a standing wave pattern if the length of the tube and the frequencies of the waves are related in a certain way.
The air molecule at the far end of the tube can't move horizontally because they're against a wall.
The far end of the tube is a displacement point.
The vibrating source is located at the other end of the tube.
Although sound waves in air are longitudinal, we'll show the wave in a way that makes it easier to determine the wavelength.
Our condition for resonance was that the closed end and the open end have an antinode.
Standing waves can be established in the tube if the far end is sealed.
An open end is a displacement antinode.
An open-ended tube can support any harmonic, while a closed-end tube can only support odd ones.
The temperature of the air in the tube is 20degC, and it conducts sound at a speed of 343 m/s.
1 is the amount of time it takes to reach 1,320 Hz.
2 is equal to 880.0 Hz.
When a source of sound waves and a detector are not in motion, the frequencies that the source emits matches the frequencies that the detector receives.
If the detector moves toward the source, it will intercept the waves at a higher rate than the one at which they were emitted.
If the source moves toward the detector, the wavefronts will pile up and the detector will receive waves with different frequencies and wavelength.
The source's speed is S. The directions in which the source and detector are moving affect the signs in the numerator and denominator.
There are four most common situations in which only one object moves.
We can use logic when the detector and source are moving.
If the source is moving faster than the detector, we would expect the detector's frequencies to decrease.
If the source was moving away from the detector at the same speed, it would decrease by a factor of less than if it were stationary.
We can learn from this.
A police car and a sports car are examples.
Both are moving relative to the road, but not relative to each other.
There should be no shift if there is no relative motion between the source and the detector.
A source of sound waves travels at the speed of sound toward a detector that is moving at the speed of sound.
The wavelength will shift down by the same factor since the Frequency shifted up by a factor.
A person yells as he runs towards a brick wall at 5 m/s.
When the waves reach the runner, we need to know what the frequencies are.
The person is the source of the sound and the wall is the detector.