Fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum 50% are catalysts for the production of gaseous pollutants.
The pollutants include carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone.
SO2 affects our cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
The bad news is that the concentrations of pollutants are decreasing.
50% of the Environmental Protection Agency monitors O3 levels of these pollutants relative to standards called the NO2 (annual) National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
If you don't understand the axes, you can't understand a graph.
The percent above or below the National Ambient Air Quality Standards is represented by the axis.
The EPA can show the changes in the pollutants on the same graph by representing the O3 levels this way.
If they graphed the SO2 (1 hour) 75 ppb concentrations of the pollutants, the changes in the ppb would not be visible because they would appear as flat lines on the overall.
Improvements in U.S. air quality and technological innovation have been made.
Thanks to these developments, we all breathe cleaner air.
The scientific approach proceeds from observations to laws and eventually to theories in A Model for Gases.
A gas is modeled as a collection of particles in constant motion.
A single particle moves in a straight line until it collides with another particle.
The particle's size is small.
The particles are assumed to occupy negligible volume even though they have mass.
Under normal pressures, the space between atoms in a gas is very large compared to the size of the atoms themselves.
The average distance from one atom to another in a sample of argon gas is 3.3 miles.
The atomic radius of argon is 97 pm.
If an atom was the size of a golf ball, its nearest neighbor would be over 4 feet away.
The motion of atoms or molecules in a gas is due to thermal energy.
Some particles are moving faster than others, but the higher the temperature, the faster the overall motion and the greater the average kinetic energy.
The kinetic energy of the helium atoms is the same as that of the argon atoms.
The energy lost by one particle is regained by the other.
The particles have no "stickiness" and are not affected by the collision.
The collision between two particles in a theory is more similar to the collision between two balls of billiards than it is to the collision between two lump of clay.
The particles don't exert any force on one another.
The ideal gas law can be deduced from the chemical composition of the molecule.
Since the ideal gas law follows the theory of gases, we have confidence that the assumptions of the theory modeled as a collection of particles in constant straight-line motion are correct.
Under the ideal gas law, the size is valid.
The total energy before and after the collision is the same.
Pressure billiard balls collide, the collision is elastic, the same as the Simple Gas Laws colliding bodies, before we examine how the concept of pressure as well as each of the gas laws we have exam and after the collision.
In this chapter, the collision of two lump of clay is related to the theory of kinetic molecular theory.