On October 19, 1987, the New York Stock Exchange was plunged into panic by a 500-point plunge in the stock market.
Homeless ness became a social issue despite unprecedented prosperity in the eighties.
400,000 people were dispossessed by the end of the decade.
There was a shortage of low cost housing.
The government had given up on building public housing, urban renewal programs had demolished blighted areas but provided no housing for those who were displaced, and owners had abandoned unprofitable buildings in poor inner- city neighborhoods or converted them into expensive condominiums for high- income city dwellers.
The working poor saw their incomes decline at the same time that the Reagan administration made deep cuts to federal social welfare programs.
By 1983, over 15 percent of adults were living below the poverty line, even though half of them lived in house holds where at least one person worked.
New medications that allowed some patients to be discharged from mental institutions were one of the factors affecting the homelessness epidemic.
Many of them ended up on the sidewalks of America, homeless and without care, because mental-health services failed to match their promise.
Between 1982 and 1985 federal programs for the poor were reduced.
The culture of homelessness sent victims on a downward spiral.
There was a lot of drug and alcohol abuse among the homeless.
In Los Angeles County, there were 400,000 cocaine users and 200,000 other drug users in need of treatment by the late 1980s.
Tens of thousands of them were homeless or poor.
A quarter of the homeless had spent time in mental institutions, and 40 percent had spent time in jail.
Those suffering from a new disease called AIDS were included in another group of outcasts.
At the beginning of the 1980s, public health officials reported that gay men and drug users were more likely to develop AIDS.
The humanimmunodeficiency ciency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, can be contracted through blood or body fluids.
Those with the virus died after developing a strange combination of infections.
AIDS was viewed as a "gay" disease by the Reagan administration.
448,060 people died of AIDS in the United States because of the federal government's interference.
The dis ease was the leading cause of death for men ages twenty five to forty four.
The AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power was founded in 1987 because of the lack of concern shown by the Reagan administration.
It has become the most effective way to fight AIDS.
In his farewell address in January 1989, Ronald Reagan said, "My friends, we did it."
Reagan became a transformational president over his two terms.
He helped to restore the stature of the presi dency, helped to diffuse the cold war, and rejuvenated the Republican party after the Watergate scandal.
It would be difficult to follow him.
It was time to deal with some of the thornier problems of the inner city.
At the age of eighteen, George H. W. Bush enlisted in the U.S. Navy, becoming the youngest combat pilot to have flown in the Second World War.
Bush was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 He was the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations.
He became a diplomat in China, was appointed director of the CIA, and was elected chair of the Republican National Committee.
His son, George W. Bush, would also serve as president, making them the second age, but he lacked Reagan's charm and father- son presidential duo in history.
John Adams and John Bush were both born with a silver foot.
Bush said that he would be different from Reagan, more compassionate, more progressive and less ideological.
He promised to use the White House to fight discrimination.
Bush accepted the Republican nom ination and said he wanted a "kinder, gentler nation".
The most memorable line in his speech was a defiant statement ruling out tax increases: "The Congress will push me to raise taxes, and I'll say no, and they'll push, and I'll say no, and they'll push again."
I'll tell them to read my lips.
Bush defeated the Democratic nominee, Michael Dukakis.
The Dis trict of Columbia was carried by Dukakis.
The Democrats retained control of the House and Senate even though Bush won the popular vote by a wide margin.
As the new president, George H. W. Bush wanted to show that he was his own man.
Coolidge's portrait was in the White House and he ordered all Reagan appointees to submit their resignations.
Reagan's missile defense program was abandoned and Bush ended support for theContras.
Bush sought to consolidate the initiatives that Rea gan had put in place rather than launch his own programs.
He said that they don't need to remake it.
People congregated in front of the disabled to demonstrate their support for public transportation and housing.
The ADA requires organizations to provide amenities such as mecha access when they shape the International symbol.
The Immigration Act of 1990 amended the Immi gration and Nationality Act of 1965.
Between 1992 and 1994 it was increased the total number of immigrants allowed to 700,000, and then the number would be capped at an annual 675,000 thereafter.
Most of the visas would still be allocated to family members of American citizens, but the bill added other preferences: people of "extraordinary ability" or "special skil s," or with professional degrees in law, medicine, accounting, engineering, and other fields, all designed to attract the Foreign workers in specialized fields would be granted an H1-B work visa.
New citizens wait to be sworn in at a ceremony.
The ban on suspected homosexual immigrants was lifted by the act.
President Bush praised the legislation for ensuring greater diversity among immigrants being welcomed into the United States when he signed it.
The immigration act had a bigger impact than thought.
More immigrants entered the country in the 1990s.
The national debt, which stood at $2.6 trillion in 1989, was the biggest problem facing the Bush administration.
It was difficult to reduce the deficit or trim the debt because of President Bush's pledge not to increase taxes.
Bush was not willing to make significant spending cuts to defense or social welfare programs.
Bush proposed several tax increases during the summer of 1990.
His reversal caused a revolt among conservative Repub licans.
Bush's budget proposal was nixed by Congressional Republicans and Democrats.
The federal government was shut down because Congress and the White House couldn't agree on a budget.
Bush had to sign a resolution that reopened government offices because of the public's anger.
He had to agree to the new budget drafted by the Demo crats.
The top income tax rate was increased from 28 to 31 percent.
The Democrats got enough votes to make the idea a law in 1990.
The budget fiasco and tax increase created a divide between President Bush and the Republicans.
The economy barely grew during the first three years of the Bush administration, the worst record since the end of the Second World War.
By 1991, the economy was in a recession, the unemployment rate had spiked to 8 percent, and public disapproval of the president had risen.
Like Nixon, George H. W. Bush preferred to deal with international relations over domestic problems when he was in the White House.
With his nation's economy failing, Gorbachev accelerated the implementation of policies designed to democratize Soviet life.
His nation's future on cooperation and trade with its cold war enemies was staked out by his foreign policy.
Soviet troops left Afghanistan in 1989.
The history of Soviet intervention in the internal affairs of other Communist countries was wiped out by Gorbachev.
The nations of Eastern Europe have the freedom to choose their own form of government, according to the foreign minister.
The communist regimes in Eastern Europe were overthrown soon after.
The people of Romania revolted against the brutal dictator,Nicolae Ceausescu.
He and his wife were executed on Christmas Day.
Europe had been born anew despite the economic and social challenges faced by the new democratic governments.
On November 9, 1989, tens of thousands of East Germans gathered at the Berlin Wall to demand that the border guards open the gates to allow them to flee.
Germans on both sides began tearing down the wall after the guards reluctantly did so.
Dramatic suddenness was what Germans called the peaceful revolution.
The borders to West Germany are now open.
On October 3, 1990, the five states of East Germany became part of West Germany.
On December 3, 1989, Bush and Gorbachev met on a ship off the coast of Malta, an island in the Mediterranean.
The cold war was over.
The Soviet Union's reform impulse was out of control.
Gorbachev had built a presidential system that gave him more power.
The economy that resisted change could not be saved by his skil s. Hardline Communist leaders questioned Gorbachev's leadership as various Soviet states sought their independence.
As the Soviet Union grew abroad, Gorbachev's popularity waned.
On August 18, 1991, a group of "old guard" political and military leaders accosted him at his vacation retreat in Crimea and demanded that he proclaim a state of emergency and transfer his powers to them so that they could restore the supremacy of the Communist party.
He was placed under house arrest after he replied, "Go to hel."
The coup was poorly planned.
Boris Yeltsin, the pres ident of the Russian Republic, was not arrested.
They didn't close airports or cut off telephone and television because they were opposed by the military and the KGB.
On August 20, President Bush responded favorably to Yeltsin's request for support and persuaded other lead ers to join him in refusing to recog nize the new Soviet government.
The next day, word began to spread that the plan was to flee.
Gorbachev ordered the others to be arrested after several people committed suicide.
Although Gorbachev reclaimed the title of presi dent, he was forced to resign as head of the Communist party and admit that he had made a mistake in appointing the men who had turned against him.
The "Soviet Disunion" between East and West Germany was described by a journalist two days later.
The dismantling of the Communist party led to the removal of statues of Lenin and other Communist heroes.
The Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin on December 25, 1991.
The cold war ended with the fall of the Soviet Union.
The end of the cold war did not mean the end of international tensions.
The battle in Panama took place before the close of 1989.
General Noriega became the ruthless leader of the Panamanian Defense Forces in 1983, which made him the head of the government.
Noriega and fifteen others were indicted in Florida in 1988 on charges of conspiring to ship cocaine through Panama to the United States.
Panama was declared in a state of war by the legislators.
On December 16, 1989, Noriega's men killed a U.S. Marine in Panama and beat another man and his wife.
President Bush ordered a military invasion to capture Noriega and install a government headed by Endara, who had won the presidency in an election that was nullified by Noriega.
The U.S. troops struck at strategic targets early on December 20.
Noriega took refuge in a church after Panamanian forces surrendered.
The U.S. forces surrounding Noriega's refuge used to play opera music at night.
Noriega gave himself up and was taken to a Miami jail.
There were as many as 4,000 Panamanian casualties and as many as twenty- three US servicemen who were killed.
Noriega was found guilty in the United States of racketeering and drug dealing.
On August 2, 1990, Saddam Hussein's army invaded Kuwait, causing the U.S. to focus on the Middle East.
On February 27, 1991, Allied soldiers patrol the southern Iraqi town of Salman.
There is a mural of Saddam Hussein on the side of a building.
The Iraqi regime was heavily dependent on oil revenues and was offended by the drop in global oil prices.
President Bush dispatched warplanes and troops to Saudi Arabia after condemning Iraq's "naked aggression" on the southern border of Iraq and Kuwait.
British forces joined forces with units from Egypt, Morocco, Syria, and other countries.
Congress authorized the use of the U.S. armed forces after Iraq refused to yield.
On February 28, Bush called for a cease- fire after Iraqi soldiers surrendered.
The Iraqis accepted.
There were 137 American deaths and 100,000 Iraqi deaths.
Hussein's regime remained intact despite the fact that a fifth of Iraq was occupied by coalition forces.
He decided that the sight of the Allied forces in Iraq would make a lot of people in the Arab world angry.
The First Gulf War was a triumph without vic tory.
Hussein remained in power despite being defeated.
The consequences of the brief but intense war would be played out in the future, as Arabs began scheming revenge that would spiral into a global war of terrorism.
The cold war brought stability to both the United States and the Soviet Union.
The world would witness a growing number of crises and unstable regimes, some of which had access to weapons of mass destruction.
The Gulf War victory gave way to anxiety over the depressed economy.
By the summer of 1992, Bush's public approval rating had plummeted from it's post- Gulf War highs, as he prepared to launch his campaign for a second term.
The result was a failed presidency, according to the radio host.
Bush's real problem was his failure to improve the economy.
The public was frustrated by the bumper sticker that said "Saddam Hussein still has his job".
Moderate forces in control were presented by the Democrats.
The Democratic Leadership Council, led by Arkansas governor William Jefferson Clinton, pushed the party from the left to the center.
He endorsed the death penalty and called for reform of the welfare system.
Bill Clinton was a brilliant student who attended Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., won a Rhodes arship to Oxford University, and earned a law degree from Yale University, where he met his future wife, Hil ary Rodham.
Clinton was elected the state's attorney general.
He was the youngest governor in the country at the age of thirty two.
Clinton promised to cut the defense budget, provide tax relief, and create a massive economic aid pack to help the former republics of the Soviet Union forge democratic societies.
Clinton reminded many of his childhood hero, John F. Kennedy, because he was Witty, intelligent, optimis tic, and charismatic with an in- depth knowledge of public policy.
Clinton's charisma and expertise were not the only flaws.
He had earned a reputation for talking out of both sides of his mouth.
Clinton's denials were not convincing.
He chose Senator Al Gore as his running mate.
Bush was hammered on economic issues by the Clinton- Gore team.
Clinton promised to cut the federal budget deficit in half in four years and reduce taxes on middle class Americans.
The 1992 campaign featured a third party candidate, H. Ross Perot, a Texas billionaire who criticized Reaganomics as "voodoo economics", a phrase that was used by Bush in the 1980 Republican primary.
The two major parties have created a government that isgridlock.
As the CEO of a high- tech company, Perot won support for a unique proposal: an electronic town hall that would enable voters to express their preferences for major policies through instantaneous digital polling.
Bill Clinton was elected by drawing Republican votes away from Bush, as political experts predicted.
Clinton won more electoral votes than the popular vote.
Bush got 168 electoral votes and 39 percent of the vote.
Since 1912, no third party candidate has won more than 19 percent of the popular vote.
Bill Clinton was prepared to lead the United States as 1992 came to an end.
Clinton ushered America into the twenty- first century.
The voting power of the Sun Belt was increased by the migration of older Americans to conservative southern and western states.
Reagan couldn't cut domestic spending and the tax cuts didn't pay for themselves.
The national debt went up dramatically.
Americans in the 1980's experienced unprec edented prosperity but also rising poverty and homelessness.
Huge public and private debt was caused by consumerism flour.
The Immigration Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act changed the quality of life for many.
Republican George H. W. Bush was elected president in 1988.
The emergence of democratic political movements in Eastern Europe happened at the end of the 1980s.