The arrival of the treaty in Washington, D.C. presented Jefferson with a dilemma, as he had criticized the Federalists for stretching the meaning of the Constitution.
The purchase of territory was not part of the Constitution.
Jefferson's desire to double the size of the republic trumped his concerns about an unconstitutional exercise of executive power.
The president explained that acquiring the Louisiana Territory would serve the interests of our Western citizens and promote the peace and security of the nation in general.
Jefferson thought that the region could be a place to relocate freed slaves since he was afraid of a multiracial society.
If the nation waited to pass a constitutional amendment to enable the acquisition, Napoleon might change his mind.
The purchase was opposed by the New England Federalists.
Adding the vast territory would weaken New England and the Federalist party since the new western states were likely to be settled by wage laborers from New England seeking cheap land and by southern slaveholders, all of whom were Jeffersonian Republicans.
In opposing the Louisiana Purchase, the Federalists found themselves arguing for strict construction of the Constitution.
The Senate voted to approve the treaty on October 17, 1803, after Jefferson called a special congress to close the deal.
The official session of the Louisiana Territory took place on December 20, 1803.
Lewis and Clark's purchase included 875,000 square miles of sketched maps of unexplored land.
Cotton growers settled in the Old Southwest because it spurred western exploration and expansion.
Andrew Jackson, a slaveholding planter in Tennessee, welcomed Jefferson to the Louisiana Territory.
Lewis was Jefferson's private secretary.
Lewis and Clark's "Corps of Discovery," numbering about thirty "stout" men, set out from Wood River, a vil age near the former French town of St. Louis, on a rainy May morning in 1804.
They headed up the Mississippi to the mouth of the Missouri River, where they added a dozen more men.
They were curious to find out if the wide Missouri made it to the Pacific Ocean.
The Corps of Discovery built Fort Mandan six months later near the Mandan vil, and wintered in relative comfort, sending a barge loaded with maps, soil samples, the skins and skeletons of weasels, wolves.
In the spring of 1805, the Corps of Discovery added two guides, a French fur trader and his Indian wife.
Sacagawea provided crucial assistance as a guide, translator, and negotiator as they explored the Upper Missouri and encountered various Native American tribes in appreciation of Lewis and Clark's help in delivering her baby boy.
They traveled from Fort Mandan to the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Rockies and Snake and Columbia rivers.
He wrote in his journal.
Fort Clatsop was built near the mouth of the Columbia River, where they spent a cold, rainy winter.
They were forced to eat their dogs and horses in the spring of 1806.
Clark noted that he has 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 One member of the group died from a rupturing appendix.
They arrived at a vil age in March of 1806.
The Blackfeet were not welcoming.
Lewis killed one of the people who tried to steal the horses and guns of the expedition.
The expedition, which lasted twenty- eight months and covered some 8,000 miles, returned with journals detailing 180 plants and 125 animals.
The United States claimed the Oregon Country by right of discovery and exploration after their splendid maps attracted traders and trappers to the region.
One of the many statues dedicated to Sacagawea was unveiled at the Lewis and Clark exposition in 1905.
Every year since 2000, the "golden dollar" has been created.
Each year there is a new design celebrating Native American contributions to U.S. history.
Thomas Jefferson's support in the South and West was strengthened by the Lewis and Clark expedition.
In New England, the Federalists panicked because they thought the new states would be dominated by Jeffersonian Republicans.
To protect their interests, the Federalists hatched a plan to have the Vice President of New York be a Republican.
He dropped his Republican affiliation and ran as an independent candidate.
The scheme was opposed by several leading Federalists.
The Republican candidate was endorsed by Jefferson.
At dawn on July 11, 1804, the two proud men, both talented and ambitious orphans, met near Weehawken, New Jersey, on the Hudson River above New York City.
Hamilton, whose son had been killed in a duel at the same location, fired first, but missed, as a demonstration of his religious and moral principles, knowing full well that it might cost him his life.
No scruples were shown by burr.
He shot Hamilton in the hip and the bullet lodged in his spine.
He died the next day.
In killing Hamilton, Burr also killed his political career.
He fled to South Carolina, where his daughter lived.
The presidential campaign began in the early 20th century.
George Clinton was chosen as the vice presidential candidate by a congressional caucus of Republicans.
The members of the electoral college must use separate ballots to vote for the president and vice president in order to avoid the problems associated with parties running multiple candidates for the presidency.
The candidates never had a chance because of Jefferson's first term achievements.
The Louisiana Purchase, a prosper ous economy, and a reduced federal government budget were accomplished by Jefferson.
The United States was more respected abroad according to a Massachusetts Republican.
Clinton and Jefferson won electoral votes.
Problems within his own party were created by Jefferson's victory.
The Jeffersonian or Nationalist Republicans and the anti-Jeffersonian Old Republicans formed a warring group after the Republican majority was freed from strong opposition.
The most colorful and conservative member of the "Old Republicans" was a Virginian named John Randolph who was a loyal Jeffersonian.
The Louisiana Purchase was the subject of a break with Jefferson.
The Senate's most flamboyant character was the imperious Randolph, one of the president's cousins.
He entered the chamber wearing a long, white coat and white boots with spurs, carrying a horsewhip, and was followed by a hunting hound that slept under his desk.
He drank whiskey to lubricate his speeches.
Any compromise with the Federalists, any expansion of federal authority at the expense of states' rights, any new taxes or tariffs, and any change in the South's agrarian way of life were all things that Old Republicans opposed.
The Jeffersonian Republicans were more moderate and pragmatic.
They were willing to compromise their states' rights principles to maintain national tariffs on imports, preserve a national bank, and stretch the "implied powers" of the Constitution to date the Louisiana Purchase.
The compromises were cat astrophic.
While, he continued to con nive and scheme.
He tried to carve out his own empire after the controversy over his fight with Alexander Hamilton.
The Burr Conspiracy was hatched when a senior general in the U.S. Army and an old friend were paid by the Spanish to split the Louisiana.
The plan was to have New Orleans as the capital and Burr as the ruler.
In the late 18th century, Burr floated down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers with 100 volunteers, only to have Wilkinson alert Jefferson to the plan.
The pres ident ordered the arrest of Burr.
In August, he was tried for treason before Chief Justice John Marshall after being captured by the militiamen.
He changed his course of study from states from us to add Mexico to theology to law, and graduated from what he hanged for treason.
There was a lack of evidence that led to Burr's exoneration.
Jefferson was not happy.
He wrote a friend that it now appears we have no law at all.
The president considered asking Congress to impeach Marshall, as well as proposing a constitutional amendment to limit the power of the judiciary.
He did nothing in the end.
After skipping bail, the slippery Burr took refuge in England and France.
He practiced law in New York after returning to America.
Jefferson signed a landmark bill that banned the importation of enslaved Africans into the United States in part because southerners had come to believe that African- born slaves were more prone to revolt.
The earliest date possible under the Constitution is January 1, 1808, when the new law took effect.
South Carolina was the only state that still allowed the purchase of enslaved Africans.
As many as 300,000 African slaves were smuggled into the United States during the 18th and 19th century.
After the sale of Louisiana to America, Napoleon Bonaparte declared war on Great Britain.
All of Europe would be involved in the conflict over the course of eleven years.
The British and French were determined to keep Americans neutral in the war, even though most Americans wanted to trade with both sides.
The British navy dominated the seas during the war while the French army controlled most of Europe.
The United States and other nations were prevented from making port in France because of a naval blockade imposed by Britain in 1806.
British leaders were eager to humiliate the upstart republic by asserting their dominance over Atlantic trade, even though they recognized America's politi cal independence in principle.
British warships began seizing American merchant ships.
The Non- Importation Act banned the import of British goods.
Napoleon said that French warships would blockade the ports of Great Britain.
Foreign ships will no longer be allowed to trade with the French controlled islands in the Caribbean.
Soon after, British warships appeared along the American coast and began searching for U.S. merchant ships as they headed for the Caribbean or Europe.
The situation posed a dilemma for American shippers.
The Early Republic paid a high price for their pursuit of overseas profits.
British and French warships captured hundreds of American ships.
British deserters were attracted to American merchant ships because they paid more than the Royal Navy.
Half of the sailors on American ships were born in Britain.
The British didn't bother to determine the citizenship of those they forced into service.
Some 6,200 American sailors were "impressed" into the British navy between 1802 and 1812.
President Jefferson could have declared war on the public.
We have never seen it.
In July, Jefferson met with his cabinet and issued a decree banning British warships from American waters.
He called on state governors to mobilize their militia units.
Like John Adams before him, Jefferson resisted war because the U.S. Army and Navy were too small.
His critics were upset by Jefferson's caution.
President Jefferson decided to force Britain and France to stop violating American rights.
James Madison thought the embargo would force European nations to stop violating American rights.
The embargo devastated the Republicans and the economy while reviving the political appeal of the Federalists in New England.
A representation of public opinion two-thirds and farmers and planters in at the time, this cartoon of Thomas the South and West suffered as prices Jefferson features him kneeling in for exported farm crops were cut in half.
Along the border with British Canada, there was an increase in smuggled goods.
American politics were turned upside down by the embargo.
The United States blockaded its own ports.
The New York state militia was activated by Jefferson in order to stop the flow of people across the Canadian border.
The president and other Republicans were demoralized by the outrage over Jefferson's embargo.
Farmers and planters in the South and West had to sell their surplus grain, cotton, and tobacco abroad.
Jeffer son refused to admit defeat.
Congress finally voted to end the embargo on March 4, 1809, the day Jefferson's second presidential term ended.
The president felt like a free man after leaving the Executive Mansion.
A second presidential term is rarely as successful as the first, as Jefferson discovered.
James Madison was the Secretary of State when the presidency passed to him.
The Federalists won 47 electoral votes to Madison's 122.
He made things worse.
Madison was a talented legislator and the "Father of the Constitution," but he was a weak, indecisive chief executive.
He was not a commander.
Dolley was the only excellent member of the president's inner circle.
She was a great First Lady who used the Executive Mansion to enter political leaders and foreign officials.
Madison's presidency was crippled by his lack of executive experience as he was entangled in foreign affairs from the beginning.
Madison and his advisers underestimated the young republic's diplomatic leverage and military strength.
The result was international humiliation.
Madison was unwilling to create a navy strong enough to enforce the principle of freedom of the seas for the United States and other neutral nations.
He continued the policy of "peaceable coercion" against the European nations, which was just as ineffectual as it had been for Jefferson.
If France or Great Britain stopped violating American rights on the high seas, the president could reopen trade with them.
Madison gave Great Britain three months to restore America's neutral rights after France promised to do so.
The Royal Navy continued to seize American vessels even after the British refused.
On June 1, 1812, Madison asked Congress to declare war against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In America's history of warfare, the congressional vote to declare war was the closest.
The House of Representatives voted for war on June 5, 1812.
The Senate followed suit two weeks later.
The majority of Republicans supported "Mr. Madison's War."
The southern and western states wanted war.
Madison and the Republicans wanted to destroy the Federalists by declaring war.
British Canada was to be invaded by the Indians along the Great Lakes and in the Ohio Valley.
Jefferson told Madison that he needed to stop Indian barbarities to get popular support.
Jefferson thought the French Canadians would rise up against the British.
The Republicans predicted that American armies would conquer Britain.
It didn't work out that way.
On June 16, 1812, Great Britain promised to stop interfering with American shipping.
President Madison and the Republicans believed that war was the only way to stop British inspired Indian attacks on the western frontier.
Historians are still debating why the United States started the war.
Repeated British violations of American maritime rights and the practice of "impressing" sailors dominated President Madison's war message.
Most of the votes in Congress for war came from legislators representing rural regions, where the economic interests of farmers and planters were being hurt by the raids on American merchant ships.
The British supported the growing number of Indian attacks in the Ohio Valley.
The story took a new turn with the rise of two Shawnee leaders, Tecumseh and his half brother, Tensk watawa, who lived in a large vil age called Prophetstown on the Tippeca noe River in northern Indiana.
The fate of the Indians depended on their being unified.
He wanted to create a single nation that could fight off the American expansion.
The "open door", as he was known, gained a large following among Native Americans because he used to say that white Americans were on the verge of death.
He demanded that the indige peoples abandon all things Euro pean.
The Great Spirit would reward them if they did that.
The leader of the Native American peoples of the United States tried to form alliances across the country in defense of their lands, but was killed at the Battle of the Thames.
He said that the whites had driven them from the sea to the lakes.
The treaties whereby indigenous peoples had "sold" ancient Indian lands were repudiated by Tecumseh.
He said that no tribe has the right to sell land to each other.
In the fall of 1811, Harrison gathered 1,000 troops and advanced on Prophetstown.
The Battle of Tippecanoe was a disaster for the Native Americans, as Harrison's troops burned the vil age and destroyed its supplies.
Some Americans wanted to take control of Canada in the 18th century.
Many believed that it would be quick and easy because there were only 300,000 Canadians.
The "acquisition of Canada" was a matter of marching north with a military force according to Thomas Jefferson.
The British were at risk far to the south.
Spain was too weak or unwilling to prevent Indian attacks across the border with Georgia, which made East Florida a threat.
In the absence of a strong Spanish presence, British agents and traders remained in East Florida, scheming with Indians against Americans.
Runaway slaves from Georgia and South Carolina used to live in Spanish Florida.
Many Americans living along the Florida- Georgia border hoped that the war would allow them to oust the British and Spanish from Florida.
British representatives from southern and western districts called for war to rid the Northwest of the "Indian problem" by invading Canada.
Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina were vocal war hawks.
In New England and New York, war was not a priority.
The sentiment was that military conflict could cripple the region's shipping industry.
Both Massachusetts and Connecticut refused to send soldiers to fight, and merchants openly sold supplies to British troops in Canada.
James Madison lacked the leadership ability and physical stature to inspire public confidence and military resolve, and the United States was woefully unprepared for war, both financial and military.
He was not George Washington.
The national economy was not doing well.
The charter of the Bank of the United States expired in 1811.
was wanted by many Republican congressmen who owned shares in state banks.
The Treasury Secretary was upset by the loss of the B.U.S.
President Madison begged him to reconsider, which he did, but the problems of war with Britain without adequate financial resources did not go away.
War did not start until after it had begun.
The British navy blockaded American ports.
Republicans in Congress were so afraid of public criticism that they delayed approving tax increases needed to finance the war.
The military situation was very bad.
The British navy was the most powerful in the world in 1812.
The U.S. Army had 3,287 poorly trained and poorly equipped men, led by mostly incompetent officers with little combat experience.
In January 1812, Congress authorized an army of 35,000 men, but a year later, just 18,500 had been recruited-- many of them Irish American immigrants who hated the English.
The British had thousands of soldiers in Canada and the West Indies.
During the Revolutionary War, the British recruited more Native American allies than the Americans.
The War of 1812 was one of the strangest wars in history.
Three wars were fought on three fronts.
Along the coast of Maryland and Virginia, there was a theater of conflict, including Washington, D.C. Andrew Jackson's forces invaded lands owned by the Creeks and the Spanish in the South.
The third front may be called the Canadian- American War.
It started in northern Indiana and Ohio, southeast Michigan and the Great Lakes region.
As the United States invaded British Canada, the fighting raged back and forth across the border.