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It's often called Muskgrass because of it's unpleasant smell.
The thallus is the main stem of the alga.
Smaller cells make up the branches arising from the nodes.
The male and female reproductive structures are on the same part of the body.
The stem of Chara has no supportive tissue, which is a major difference from the land plants.
The Charales have a number of important characteristics for adaptation to land life.
They produce compounds that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
The main form of the Charales is haploid, but diploid zygotes are formed but have a brief existence, in a protected chamber on the haploid parent plant.
In Florida, the representative alga, Chara, is a noxious weed.
They can produce both sexually and asexually.
The Charales and Coleetales are related to the embryophytes, according to recent extensive DNA sequence analysis of charophytes.
Spirogyra and the desmids are included in the Zygnematales.
The charophytes and the land plants will continue to be looked at to find a solution to the mystery of the origin of land plants.
The first bryophytes probably appeared 450 million years ago.
The likelihood of bryophytes forming fossils is small because they lack resistant structures.
Some of the spores are attributed to early bryophytes.
The Silurian period saw the spread of plants on the continents.
The Silurian period must have started with non-vascular plants.
There are more than 25,000 species of bryophytes that live in mostly damp habitats.
They are the major flora of environments like the tundra, where their small size and tolerance to desiccation give them advantages.
They don't have actual tracheids, which are specialized for water conduction.
Water and nutrients can be found inside conducting cells.
Bryophytes are often referred to as non-vascular plants.
The thallus, stem, and rhizoid anchor the plant to the haploid or gametophyte.
The fertilization of male gametes depends on the presence of water.
The multicellular sexual reproductive structure in which meiosis produces haploid spores is absent in the majority of algae.
This is a characteristic of land plants.
The bryophytes are divided into three different categories: the hornworts, the mosses, and the liverworts.
There are more than 7000 existing species of liverwort and they have colonized every habitat on Earth.
The name of the thallus, which is a flat thallus, is attributed to the lobes of the liver.
There are tiny leaflike structures attached to the stalks.
There are many forms of Marchantiophyta in this 1904 drawing.
Lunularia cruciata has a flat thallus.
The organisms in the picture are in the gametophyte stage, but have not yet produced gametangia.
The thallus has tiny white dots on it.
There are openings in the thallus that allow the movement of gases.
These aren't stomata because they don'tActively open and close by guard cells.
The thallus takes up water over its entire surface to prevent desiccation, which explains their preferred wet habitats.
The thalli is attached to the substrate by thin, single-celled filaments.
Stalk-like structures grow from the thallus and carry male and female gametangia, which may develop on separate, individual plants, or on the same plant, depending on the species.
Male gametes develop within antheridia.
The female gametes develop.
The male gametes swim with the aid of their flagella to an archegonium, and fertilization ensues.
The archegonium is still contained in the zygote.
By meiosis, the diploid zygote will give rise to the next generation of haploid spores, which can be spread by wind or water.
The long single cells that suddenly change shape as they dry out help to facilitate the dispersal of spore.
The breaking of "branches" or the spreading of leaf fragments can be used to reproduce asexually.
The gemmae develops into aphytes.
The life cycle of a liverwort is shown.
Antheridia and archegonia are produced on separate gametophytes in this image.
The narrow, pipe-like sporophyte is the defining characteristic of the hornworts.
Although they are not far from a source of water, hornworts have colonized a variety of habitats on land.
The blue-green gametophyte is the dominant phase of the hornwort's life cycle.
The sporophytes emerge from the parent gametophyte and continue to grow throughout the life of the plant.
Hornworts grow tall and slender.
Air pores that can be opened and closed are abundant in the hornworts.
The stem cells at the base of the plant keep growing.
The hornworts have a unique growth pattern.
The lifecycle of hornworts follows a general pattern.
The gametophytes grow on the soil with embedded male and female gametangia.
sperm swim to the archegonia tofertilize eggs The zygote splits open down the side as it develops into a long and slender sporophyte.
Thin branched cells surround the spores and help propel them farther.
The next generation of gametophytes are created by the haploid spores.
There is a change of generation in hornworts.
The mosses are the most abundant of the non-vascular plants.
The main vegetation in the tundra is the main vegetation in the understory of tropical forests.
The mosses' shallow rhizoids allow them to grow in the frozen tundra.
Mosses provide shelter for small animals as well as food for larger animals, and they slow down erosion.
Mosses are used to monitor air quality.
They are sensitive to copper salts, so they are a common ingredient of compounds marketed to eliminate mosses from lawns.
The dominant phase of the lifecycle is when mosses form diminutive gametophytes.
Green, flat structures with a simple midrib are attached in a spiral to a central stalk.
Mosses have only one sarcophagus.
The gametophyte has leaflike structures that absorb water and nutrients.
Some mosses have small branches.
A primitive system that runs up the gametophyte's stalks does not extend into the leaves.
They originate from the base of the gametophyte, but are not the main route for absorption of water and minerals.
The lack of a true root system makes it easy to rip moss mats from a tree trunk.
The mosses occupy a threshold position.
A tangle of single cells that hug the ground.
Cells similar to an apical meristem divide and give rise to a gametophore consisting of a stem and foliage-like structures.
At fertilization, the sperm swims down the neck to the venter and unite with the egg inside the archegonium.
The gametophyte is attached by its foot to the zygote, which is protected by the archegonium.
The life cycle of mosses is shown in this illustration.
The gametophyte is haploid.
haploid spores are produced by the sporophyte.
The moss is dependent on the gametophyte.
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