Chapter 16 -- Part 1: The Acceleration of Global Contact
The second most important city in the Aztec Empire after Tenochtitlan was ruled by SALVAGEDATAuali.
Europeans were marginal players in a centuries-old trading system that linked Africa, Asia, and Europe.
The Indian Ocean was the center of a vibrant cosmopolitan Afroeurasian trade world in which Arab, Persian, Turkish, Indian, African, Chinese, and European merchants competed for trade in spices, silks, and other goods.
China wanted gold, ivory, and rhinoceros horn from Africa and exotic goods and peacocks from India, as well as Chinese porcelains and silks.
African people wanted textiles from India and cowrie shells from the Indian Ocean.
Europeans wanted Asian silks and spices, but they didn't have much to offer their trading partners.
The search for better access to Asian trade goods led to a new empire in the Indian Ocean and the discovery of the Western Hemisphere.
Europeans dominated the network of trade centers and political empires that South and North America were drawn into.
The era of globalization created new political systems and forms of economic exchange.
The products and people of Europe, Asia, and Africa were linked by the Afroeurasian trade world.
The West was a marginal player.
Wealthy Europeans were eager consumers of luxury goods from the East, which they received through Italian middlemen.
The Indian Ocean was the center of the Afroeurasian trade world, serving as a crossroads for commercial and cultural exchanges between China, India, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe.
During the years of the Black Death, the volume of this trade declined.
After a period of decline following the Black Death, trade resumed in the 15th century.
Muslim merchants dominated trade, linking ports in East Africa and the Red Sea with those in India and the Malay Archipelago.
The Chinese admiral Zheng He followed the most important Indian Ocean trade routes in an attempt to impose his will on the market.
Merchants congregated in a series of multicultural, cosmopolitan port cities.
Most of these cities had some form of self-government, and mutual self-interest, which limited violence and prevented attempts to monopolize trade.
The ports surrounding the South China Sea were the most developed part of the commercial web.
The port of Malacca became a great trading center in the 15th century, where goods were shipped for storage while awaiting redistribution.
Porcelains, silks, and camphor, used in the manufacture of many medications, were among the items brought to Malacca.
The Venetian trader and explorer Marco Polo were encouraged to do business in the West by the opening of the doors of China to the west.
Marco Polo's tales of his travels from 1271 to 1295 and his encounter with the Great Khan fueled Western fantasies about the Orient.
China entered a period of agricultural and commercial expansion after the fall of the Mongols in 1368.
According to historians, China had the most advanced economy in the world until at least the beginning of the 18th century.
China sent Admiral Zheng He's fleet as far west as Egypt.
The purpose of the voyages was to enhance China's prestige.
The abandonment of the maritime expeditions was due to the high cost of the voyages in a period of renewed Mongol encroachment.
New opportunities for European states to expand their role in Asian trade were opened by China's turn away from external trade.
India is the center of Indian Ocean trade and is the important link between the Persian Gulf and the Southeast Asian and East Asian trade networks.
The northwest has ancient links with the subcontinent.
The inhabitants of India's Coromandel coast looked to Southeast Asia for their ancient trading and cultural ties.
The arrival of Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia from India in the late antiquity led to a brisk trade between Southeast Asian and Coromandel port cities until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century.
Goods from India were an important part of the world trading system.
Indian cotton and silk textiles were prized and most of the world's pepper was grown in India.
There was an enormous variety of languages, cultures, and religions among the peoples of the Malay Peninsula, India, China, and East Africa.
In spite of this diversity, there are certain similarities between these peoples.
Southeast Asia was not as populated as India, China, or even Europe after the Black Death.
People were concentrated in the port cities.
The higher status of women in Southeast Asia, India, China, and Europe was due to their primary role in planting and harvesting rice, which gave them authority and economic power.
The groom paid the bride a sum of money called bride wealth, which she kept under her control.
The Chinese, Indian, and European dowry came under the husband's control.
The Chinese principle that wives had no say in the disposal of family property was different from the Indian one.
All children have the same genes.
The groom paid the bride or her family a sum of money at the time of their marriage in early modern Southeast Asia.
The husband in China, India, and Europe had control over the dowry.
There was respect for women in the commercial sphere.
Women were partners in business.
The wives of Portuguese and Dutch men continued to play important roles in trade and commerce after they settled in the region.
Asian peoples did not place a premium on virginity at marriage.
If a pair proved incompatible, divorce was possible.
A divorce could be initiated by either the woman or the man.
On the east coast of Africa, city-states engaged in the Indian Ocean trade traded ivory, rhinoceros horn, tortoise shells, and slaves for textiles, spices, cowrie shells, porcelain, and other goods.
By the eleventh century, most of the important cities were converted to Islam.
West Africa was involved in world trade.
Most of the gold that reached Europe came from the Sudan region.
The gold was sold in the ports of North Africa after being transported across the Sahara.
The Egyptian cities of Alexandria and Cairo were reached by other trading routes.
The small island of Kilwa was a vital center of Indian Ocean trade from the 13th to the 15th century.
Merchants in the sultanate of Kilwa dealt in gold, silver, pearls, and porcelain.
The loss of Kilwa's autonomy was caused by the arrival of the Portuguese.
Inland nations that sat astride the north-south caravan routes grew wealthy from this trade.
The kingdom of Mali was an important player on the overland trade route in the mid-thirteenth century.
The diversion of gold away from the trans-Sahara routes would weaken the inland states of Africa.
One of the important objects of trade was gold.
Arab and African merchants brought slaves from West Africa to the Mediterranean to be sold in European, Egyptian, and Middle Eastern markets.
In the coastal regions of East Africa, Indian and Arab merchants traded slaves.
The Middle East was an important supplier of goods for foreign exchange.
The Persians and Turkish Ottomans were competing for control of western trade routes to the East.
The Ottomans established control over the eastern Mediterranean sea routes in the mid-sixteenth century.
Mansa Musa, the king of Malian, was legendary for his wealth in gold and was depicted in this detail from the Catalan Atlas.
Portuguese exploration of the west coast of Africa was inspired by European desires for direct access to the trade in sub-Saharan gold.
Europe was a small outpost in the world trading system, for European craftsmen produced few products to match those of Asia.
The trade of luxury goods from the East was controlled by the Italian cities of Venice and Genoa in the late Middle Ages.
Venice opened the gateway to Asian trade in 1304 when it established formal relations with the sultan of Mamluk Egypt.
Venetians funded their purchases through shipping and trading firearms and slaves.
Genoa was Venice's trading rival.
Genoa dominated the northern route through the Black Sea.
The Genoese expanded their trade routes as far as Persia and the Far East.
The Genoese shifted their focus from trade to finance and from the Black Sea to the western Mediterranean in the 15th century.
Genoese merchants, navigators, and financiers provided capital to the Iberian monarchs when Spanish and Portuguese voyages began to explore the western Atlantic.
Slavery was a major part of Italian trade.
Slaves were purchased in the Balkans.
After the loss of the Black Sea trade routes to the Ottomans, the Genoese sought new supplies of slaves in the West, eventually seizing or buying and selling the Guanches, Muslim prisoners and Jewish refugees.
Genoese and Venetian merchants became important players in the Atlantic slave trade with the growth of Spanish colonies in the New World.
After the Black Death, new European players entered the scene with novel technology, eager to spread Christianity and to undermine Italian and Ottoman domination of trade with the East.
After the plague, Iberian explorers began overseas voyages that helped create the modern world, with immense consequences for their own continent and the rest of the planet.
There were multiple causes of European expansion.
After the lows of the Black Death, Europe was experiencing a revival of population and economic activity.
The revival renewed demand for luxuries from the East.
Spices such as pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon, and cloves were added to the European diet in the 12th century.
They were used in perfumes, medicines, and dyes in daily life.
The fall of Constantinople made it difficult to fulfill demands for these goods.
Europeans were eager for the profits of trade and needed to find new sources of precious metal to exchange with the Ottomans.
The crusading spirit and religious fervor were the catalysts for expansion.
The last remaining Muslim state on the Iberian Peninsula and Columbus's departure across the Atlantic were just seven months apart.
The militaristic religious fervor of the reconquista was transferred to new non-Christian territories.
The attitudes and administrative practices developed during the reconquista to the Americas were brought to the Iberians.
The Renaissance's spirit was a third motivation.
Like other men of the Renaissance era, explorers sought to win glory for their exploits and demonstrate a genuine interest in learning more about unknown waters.
The detailed journals kept by European voyagers attest to their fascination with the new peoples and places they visited.
The people who stayed at home had a big impact.
They sought official sponsorship from the Crown to gain authorization and financial support for their expeditions.
Competition among European monarchs for the prestige and profit of overseas exploration was a crucial factor in encouraging the steady stream of expeditions that began in the late fifteenth century.
The rapt audience for tales of fantastic places and unknown peoples was provided by the small number of Europeans who could read.
In the 15th and 16th century, educated people were interested in astronomy, natural history, and geography.
In order to undertake ambitious voyages of exploration and trade, the Iberian powers sought technological improvements in shipbuilding, weaponry, and navigation.
Common in Mediterranean trade, or singlemasted sailing ships, Medieval European seagoing vessels consisted of open galleys propelled by oars.
Though adequate for short journeys that hugged the shoreline, such vessels were incapable of long-distance journeys or highvolume trade.
A three-masted sailing ship was developed by the Portuguese in the 15th century.
The caravel required fewer crewmen to operate due to its multiple sails and sternpost rudder.
It could carry more cargo than a galley, which meant it could sail farther without stopping for supplies and return with more profitable goods.
It could dominate larger vessels and bombard port cities with a cannon.
A small, maneuverable, three-masted sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century gave them a distinct advantage in exploration and trade.
The period saw great strides in navigation aids.
The geographical knowledge of the classical world was created by the work.
Ptolemy was unaware of the Americas, so he showed the world as much smaller than it is.
Around 1410 a second-century work was translated into Latin and introduced latitude and longitude markings.
The Portuguese trading fleet was bound for the Indies in the late fifteenth century.
Between 1500 and 1635 over nine hundred ships sailed from Portugal to ports on the Indian Ocean in annual fleets composed of five to ten ships.
The Portuguese sailors used Astrolabes to plot their position.
The magnetic compass was first brought to the West in the late Middle Ages.
By using the compass to determine their direction and estimating their speed of travel over a set length of time, mariners could determine the course of a ship's voyage.
The altitude of the sun and other heavenly bodies was determined using the astrolabe, an instrument invented by the ancient Greeks.
It allowed mariners to plot their latitude, that is, their exact position north or south of the equator.
The new technology that Europeans used on their voyages was borrowed from the East.
Chinese inventions include gunpowder, the compass, and the sternpost rudder.
The triangular lateen sail allowed caravels to tack against the wind.
The tradition of Judeo-Arabic mathematical and astronomical learning in Iberia was used in the advancement of navigation and cartography.
Techniques and knowledge developed over centuries in China, the Muslim world, and trading centers along the Indian Ocean were used by European sailors in exploring new territories.
Portugal was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 Portugal has a long history of navigation.
The Portuguese were favored by nature because of the winds blowing along their coast.
They were poised to lead Atlantic exploration once they had mastered the secret to sailing against the wind to return to Europe.
The objectives of Portuguese exploration were to achieve military glory, convert Muslims, and find gold, slaves, and an overseas route to Asian spice markets.
Prince Henry, a younger son of the king, played a leading role in the early phases of Portuguese exploration.
Henry was dubbed "the Navigator" because of his support for Portuguese voyages of discovery.
The beginning of European overseas expansion was marked by Henry's participation in Portugal's conquest of Ceuta.
Madeira was settled under Henry's direction in the 1420s.
They founded their first commercial settlement in North Africa in 1442.
By the time of Henry's death in 1460, his support for exploration had resulted in thriving sugar plantations on the Atlantic islands, the first arrival of enslaved Africans in Portugal, and new access to African gold.
The Portuguese established fortified trading posts, called factories, on the gold-rich coast of theGuinea and went all the way to Timbuktu.
The flow of gold from Africa to Europe was controlled by Portugal.
The Spanish want to control the political and cultural lives of those with whom they traded.
They wanted to profit by entering themselves into the trading systems.
African rulers were partners with the Portuguese for the first century because of their experience and European vulnerability to tropical diseases.
The voyages of discovery marked a new phase in the history of European peoples.
The map shows the voyages of the most significant European explorers.
Take into account the routes and dates of the voyages shown.
Poor conditions forced him to turn back after he rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
1469-1524) commanded a fleet in search of a sea route to India.
The port of Calicut in India was reached with the help of an Indian guide.
The possibility of lucrative trade with the East via the Cape route was proved by Indian cloth.
Every March, a Portuguese convoy set out for the Cape.
The entrance port for Asian goods into Europe was not accomplished without a fight.
The Muslim-controlled port city-states did not surrender their control of the Indian Ocean.
The foundation for a Portuguese trading empire was laid in the 1500's by a combination of bombardment and diplomatic treaties.
As in Africa, the Portuguese had limited impact on the lives and religious faith of peoples beyond their coastal holdings.
The Spanish began the quest for empire.
Theirs was to be a completely different mode of colonization, leading to the conquest of existing empires, large-scale settlement, and forced assimilation of huge indigenous populations.
The first person to cross the Atlantic was Christopher Columbus.
It is likely that others made the voyage, either on purpose or accidentally, carried by the currents off the coast of Africa.
The time was right for Christopher Columbus's attempt to find a route across the Atlantic to Asia because of Portugal's decades of exploration.
Christopher Columbus was a navigator and seaman.
He was a mapmaker in Lisbon and spent time on Madeira.
The use of the compass as a navigation instrument and written descriptions of the courses which ships sailed are included.
Columbus was a very religious man.
He shared in the religious fervor surrounding the Spanish conquest of Granada.
Christianity should be carried to all places of the earth by Columbus, like the Spanish rulers and Europeans of his age.
The Spanish monarchy supported Columbus in 1492 after he was rejected for funding by the Portuguese in 1483 and 1486.
On August 3, 1492, Columbus and his small fleet left Spain.
The Great Khan was overthrown by the Ming Dynasty in 1368.
The 1486 world map is a great advancement over medieval maps, but it contains errors that will affect future exploration.
Three-quarters of the world's surface is covered by land, which is watered by a single ocean.
The circumnavigation of Africa is impossible due to the Indian Ocean being a landlocked sea.
Asia is stretched far to the east, shortening the distance from Europe to Asia via the Atlantic.
Columbus claimed for the Spanish crown after landing in the Bahamas on October 12.
The natives were described as handsome, peaceful, and primitive by Columbus in a letter he wrote to them.
Columbus believed that they could quickly be converted to Christianity.
The Taino people are the inhabitants of the islands.
Columbus landed on Cuba on October 28 after sailing from San Salvador.
He decided to go to the mainland of China near the coastal city of Quinsay, so he sent a small embassy inland with instructions to find the city.
The sight of Taino people wearing gold ornaments on Hispaniola suggested that gold was available in the region.
He went back to Spain in January to report on his discovery.
The island of Hispaniola was taken control of by Columbus on his second voyage.
He brought with him settlers for the new Spanish territories, along with agricultural seed and livestock.
Columbus had limited skills in governing.
Revolt broke out against him and his brother on Hispaniola.
The brothers were returned to Spain in chains after a royal expedition was sent to investigate.
When Christopher Columbus returned to Spain in February 1493 he wrote a letter that was intended for wide circulation and sent it to his friends and family.
The most important document of Columbus's first voyage is the letter.
There was no opposition offered.
The first island I found was named "San Salvador" in honor of our Lord and Saviour.
There are large mines of gold and other metals in Hispaniola.
As their mothers bore them, the inhabitants of this island and all the others went naked.
A few of the women cover a single place with a leaf of a plant or piece of cotton which they weave for the purpose.
They don't have iron or steel or arms that are strong and well built, but they are incredibly timid, so they can't use them.
When I send two or three men to a village to have a conversation with them, they don't use the weapons they have because they don't have the courage to use them.
I wanted to win them the love and service of their Highnesses and the whole Spanish nation so that I could convince them to give us the things they had.
All of them believe that power and goodness can be seen in the sky and that I have come from the sky with these ships and people.
They gave me a good reception because they overcame their fear and gave a good account of everything.
In all these islands, the men are content with one woman, but their chief or king is allowed more than twenty.
I have not been able to find out if the women have private property because they seem to work more than the men.
I could not see what a man had shared with the rest of the group.
The people on another island have no hair.
Here there is a lot of gold, and from here and the other islands I bring Indians as evidence.
They should hold great celebrations and give thanks to the Holy Trinity with many solemn prayers, for the great triumph which they will have, by the conversion of so many people to our holy faith and for the temporal benefits which will follow.
There is a brief account of the facts.
Columbus claimed that the Caribbean islands had gold, cotton, and spices.
Permission was granted by Penguin Books.
The old name for China was Cathay.
Columbus accepts the natives' story that Cuba can be circumnavigated in twenty-one days, yet he insists that it is part of the Asiatic mainland.
Haiti is the western third of Hispaniola, the Dominican Republic is the rest.
This didn't prove to be true.
The statements are not accurate.
Columbus was off Santa Maria in the Azores.
Columbus didn't realize that he had found a vast continent unknown to Europeans, except for the fleeting Viking presence centuries earlier.
Amerigo Vespucci realized what Columbus had not.
The first document to describe America as a separate entity was this letter.
Amerigo had a bold claim and the continent was named after him.
To settle competing claims to the Atlantic discoveries, Spain and g to the west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and Portugal everything to the east.
The 1494 agreement gave Spain everything west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and gave Portugal everything to the east.
The direction of Spanish exploration was determined by the search for profits.
Spain renewed its search for a western passage to Asia because its profits from Hispaniola and other Caribbean islands were insignificant compared to Portugal's.
Ferdinand Magellan was commissioned by Charles I of Spain to find a direct sea route to Asia.
After sailing southwest across the Atlantic to Brazil, he found a strait off the southern tip of South America that bears his name.
After passing through the strait in 1520, his fleet sailed north up the west coast of South America and then west into the Pacific.
The expedition was devastated by storms, disease, and violence.
Only one of the five ships that began the expedition made it back to Spain after a skirmish in the Malay Archipelago.
The ship returned home in 1522 with only eighteen men on board, having traveled from the east by way of the Indian Ocean, the Cape of Good Hope, and the Atlantic.
The voyage took close to three years.
Europeans' understanding of the world was changed by this voyage.
Ptolemy's map showed the earth to be smaller than it really was.
Spain's rulers were forced to rethink their plans for overseas commerce and territorial expansion.
The passage to the Indies was too long for commercial purposes.
Spain abandoned its attempt to oust Portugal from the Eastern spice trade and focused on exploiting its New World territories.
Spain's northern European rivals set sail across the Atlantic to look for a northwest passage to the Indies.
The Genoese merchant landed on Newfoundland.
He went to the New England coast the next year.
The English did not establish any permanent colonies in the territories they explored.
The English renewed their efforts in the extreme north after reading about the wealth of Mexico and Peru.
He made three voyages in and around the Canadian bay.
The quantity of Ore brought back to England was worthless.
It was frustrating for the French to explore the Atlantic.
Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River of Canada between 1534 and 1541 in order to find a way to Asia.
The French turned to Canada as a new source of profit after their hopes were dashed.
French traders bartered with local peoples who they treated as equal partners.
The Spanish and English fished for cod in the Atlantic waters around Newfoundland.