ChAPTER 10 -- Part 2: The End of the Classical Era: World
Christianity had its own flavor.
It is more similar to the Roman Empire in structure and organization than any other form of Buddhism.
Christianity stressed its possession of exclusive truth and its intolerance of competing beliefs more than any other major religion.
The new religion's success was due to its fierce confidence.
The Jewish reform movement began with Christianity.
There was no intent to find a new religion.
The disciples expected Jesus' return and the end of the world after his crucifixion.
When the Second Coming did not happen, the disciples began to fan out and pick up supporters in various parts of the Roman Empire.
The message was clear.
There was a single God who loved humans.
A life of virtue should be devoted to worship of God and fellowship with other believers.
A life of poverty might be the best way to holiness.
Restoring Christ's Last Supper with wine and bread would promote the same goal as belief, good works, and discipline of fleshly concerns would lead to heaven.
The official religion of the Greeks and Romans seemed sterile to many of the poor.
The Christian emphasis on the beauty of poverty and the spiritual equality of all people, plus the fervor of the early Christians and the satisfying rituals they provided, gained growing attention.
The Roman Empire made it easy for Christian missionaries to spread their message in Europe and the Middle East.
When conditions deteriorated in the empire, the solace of this religion won even more converts.
He was hostile to Christians when he was a rabbi.
A vision of Jesus came to him while he was trying to round up the Christians in Damascus.
He contributed to several changes in Christian doctrine.
He spent his last years in jail because of the official opposition to Christianity.
Early Christian leaders made adjustments that drew more converts.
Christians began to see themselves as part of a new religion under the guidance of Paul, and they welcomed non-Jewish converts.
A single leader, or bishop, was appointed for each major city after Paul encouraged more formal organization in the new church.
The provincial government of the empire was paralleled by this structure.
As the writings of several disciples and others were collected into the New Testament of the Christian Bible, Christian doctrine became more organized.
Christianity did not advance as smoothly as it could have during the first three centuries after Christ.
The new religion faced occasional persecution from the government.
Christianity won 10% of the empire's population by the time Constantine converted to the religion.
Constantine's mother was a convert who founded many churches in the Holy Land.
The state began to interfere in matters of doctrine as a result of Constantine's favor.
It was easier to spread Christianity with official backing.
The church and empire were works of God according to the Christians.
The worsening of the empire added to the motives to join this successful new church.
In the eastern Mediterranean, where imperial rule remained strong, state control of the church became a way of life and an important motive for certain people to adopt Christianity in the first place.
Cyrus of Panopolis, the pagan prefect of Constantinople, faced the disapproval of an imperial official in the mid-5th century and had to convert to Christianity.
In the west, the conditions were more stable.
The new church faced a lot of controversy but still promoted certain beliefs.
The Nicene Creed insisted on the shared divinity of all three parts of the Trinity.
It showed how important unified doctrine was to Christianity, in contrast to the toleration of diversity in Hinduism and Buddhism.
The Christian interest in defending a single belief was promoted by the experience of fighting heresies.
The papacy was established as the supreme authority in western Europe.
In the western half of the Roman empire, Alexandria was the spiritual leader of Christianity, centralizing the Western church and standardizing established Benedictine Rule.
Early Christianity produced an important formal theology through formative writers such as Basil's rules in Byzantine empire.
The church gained respectability among intellectuals by incorporating many elements of classical philosophy with Christian belief.
By working out these issues in elaborate doctrine, the early theologians, or church fathers, provided an important role for formal, rational thought in a religion that continued to emphasize the primary importance of faith.
Christianity has many appeals like all successful religions.
It offered deep devotion to the Almighty.
Christianity developed a fascinating intellectual system.
The Middle East was home to many mystical holy men and women.
Benedict started a monastery to show the true holy life to Italian peasants in a region still worshiping the sun god Apollo.
The Benedictine rule encouraged a disciplined life, with prayer and spiritual development alternating with hard work in agriculture and study.
In Greece, Turkey, and Egypt there were monastic movements.
Saint Basil organized Eastern monasticism in the 4th century.
Christianity tried to encourage but also to discipline intense piety and to avoid a complete gulf between the lives of saintly men and women and the spiritual concerns of ordinary people.
Political leaders were attracted to Christianity's success and organizational strength.
The message of ritual and salvation continued to draw the poor, even though the new religion became a creature of the upper classes alone.
Christianity provided religious unity among different groups.
It had special interest for women.
Christianity encouraged men and women to worship together, even though it did not preach equality between men and women.
People of European background are used to seeing Madonna and a child in the same light.
Christianity promoted a new culture among its converts.
The major ity's imagery was very different from the central themes of classical Mediterranean figures of their religion.
Christians did not put the state first.
St. Benedict fostered a greater respectability for disciplined work than had been current in Mediterranean civilization.
Christianity preserved important classical values in addition to the interest in solid organization and some of the themes of classical philosophy.
The distribution of the world's major religions requires knowledge of both of them.
There are 1.3 billion developments yet to come.
The map shows the contemporary geography of the major religions.
Greek was the language of most Christians in the eastern Mediterranean.
Through the patient librarianship of the monks, monasticism was able to preserve classical as well as Christian learning.
Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa did not change much until our own time.
The spread of the great religions caused many people in different societies to shift their beliefs away from traditional ideas about a host of divine spirits in nature to focus on a single divine force and hope for an afterlife.
Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam, plus Hindu ism in a few parts of southeast Asia provided shared beliefs that could overcome political differences.
They could give money away from politics.
The three most widespread religions all emphasized spiritual equality.
The great religions could facilitate international trade because they did not depend on local customs but on an ever-present God or divine order throughout the world; in turn, successful trade could help spread the religions.
There was a new force in world history.
In the wake of decline and fall, the major civilizations looked very different from the classical world, and many of the differences have never been erased.
Classical decline went beyond the shifts in religious loyalties.
Some areas changed more than others.
China was able to recover many classical ingredients.
China and India shared an ability to maintain substantial cultural cohesion, based on widespread beliefs as well as restored politics in China's case.
India and China are the same places where they took root in the late classical times, and they still reflect the classical heritage: India in the caste system, China in Confucian beliefs and a fascination with a strong, bureaucratic culture.
The case was different in the Mediterranean zone.
The Roman Empire was unable to spread its beliefs very widely.
Classical Mediterranean civilization left a very real heritage, but in part because geographic unity was lost, this heritage was used by successor civilizations far more than was true in eastern or southern Asia.
Ocean was often the focus of key developments during the classical period.
We've seen that there were more contacts.
The trade and other influences of each civilization became more porous.
India had contacts with other parts of the south-southeast during the end of the classical period.
Asia, China, and Korea were included.
The spread of Buddhism from India to China and to other parts of central Asia was done mainly by nomadic merchants who traveled along the Silk Road.
As the classical civilizations began to fail, contacts in some ways set new bases for connections among various societies, but they also encountered new difficulties.
The subject of E.E.
is Christianity's spread.
There are possible debates over the causes of decline.
In contrast to the early river valley civilizations, which had no regular interregional exchange system, the classical period linking China, India, the Middle east, and the Mediterranean had fairly systematic contacts.
Some goods were shipped through the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea.
The Silk Road brought goods from western China through central Asia to the Middle east, where they could be trans-shipped to the Mediterranean.
South Indian merchants and Hindu and Buddhist missionaries were connected to other parts of southeast Asia through important systems.
Archeologists excavated the ruins of Roman Pompeii and found an ivory carving of a woman.
The enormous crater of Mount vesuvius in Italy that erupted in 70 b.c.e., burying the town of Pompeii was confirmed by this find.
The ruins of Pompeii would be part of the Roman heritage.
Exchanges with the Mediterranean continued after Alexander the great established the Hellenistic circle.
Taxila was a major center along the Silk Road and served as a link between the Mediterranean and east and southeast Asia.
Improvements in technology, particularly for the use of draft animals, began to contribute to transportation, along with the important road systems constructed by leaders in Persia, China, and the Mediterranean.
The Chinese improved the harnesses used for horses after 200 b.c.e., developing straps that wouldn't choke the horse.
Knowledge of the horse collar would reach Europe centuries later, but it was these horse collar that helped facilitate trade within China.
Significant developments from about 500 b.c.e.
made saddles more important.
Around 200, the first saddle knob was introduced in China.
saddles provided both greater comfort and maneuverability, in turn increasing the utility of horses for travel and military purposes alike.
Contacts had other effects beyond trade.
Diseases from south Asia affect population patterns in the Mediterranean and China as part of classical decline.
Two major episodes involved direct contact between different civilizations.
Alexander's conquests brought greek culture into contact with India and Persia.
We've seen indian artists copying greek styles in their work.
Although failing to establish Buddhism, Indian missionaries to the Middle east may have influenced ethical thought in the later Roman empire.
Rome was motivated by interest in Asian goods.
The Romans established regular expeditions from the Red Sea.
Small groups of Roman merchants, located in India in particular, demonstrated a desire for more direct access to Indian spices, particularly pepper, and Chinese silks, which helped motivate frequent wars with empires in Persia.
China established regular diplomatic relations with empires in Persia.
The spread of Chinese knowledge of Buddhism began as a result of Chinese merchant ventures into India.
Until recently, this was the only major case of successful outside influence on Chinese culture.
These developments were very important.
They had serious limits.
Interregional trade was important to some of the trading hubs in central Asia, such as Samarkand, but it had little economic importance to China.
It was nothing compared to the growth of production for China's internal trade.
There is no evidence that anyone traveled all the way from Rome to China, and Roman knowledge of China was very hazy.
There was no interaction between Chinese and Roman culture.
Two cases of direct exchange between civilizations are fascinating, but they are also unusual.
The Hellenistic experience in northwestern India is questionable.
There is a carving on a temple in India.
Hindu art is an active part of Indian culture.
The primary framework for the major societies remained internal as contacts advanced significantly in this period.
The classical civilizations developed their own way.
The fundamental feature of the classical period was that these contacts were vital to the formation of larger civilizational areas.
At this stage in world history, far more energy went into this process than into interregional linkages.
A number of central themes in world history were added to by the classical period.
A number of social systems gained greater organization and cultural support, beginning with the Indian caste system but extending to Mediterranean slavery and the Confucian ideas about social order in China.
Regional differences need to be compared in order to win new attention to state building.
Increased economic activity and pressures applied by political leaders contributed to environmental changes.
The systems were important at the time and proved to last a long time.
What were the main reasons for the success of Confucianism in China?
The cathedral was a representation of the growing importance of religion.
The period 600-1450 did not involve political boundaries.
The spread of the major world religions--Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam-- across political and cultural borders and the development of new, more regular systems of trade that connected much of Asia, Africa, and Europe were involved.
The age is characterized by faith and trade.
Many religious leaders looked down on merchants because of the lure of wealth.
The spread of trade and confidence in a divine order helped merchants take risks.
The maps show the expansion of Afro-Eurasian trade and the surge of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam from their initial centers.
As the classical empires collapsed, Buddhism and Christianity gained new life.
Islam was new.
Active missionary efforts were involved in all three religions.
Government sponsorship and military pressure helped all the time.
If the conquerors want to impose higher taxes on those who did not convert to their religion, they can.
Millions of people changed their beliefs about the world around them through a combination of persuasion and pressure.
The dominant religious frameworks that still prevail in Asia, Europe, and parts of Africa are the result of the religious beliefs they adopted during the postclassical period.
The postclassical period saw the development of systematic interna tional trade that went far beyond the capacity of the old Silk Road.
The hub of this trade was the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, which brought northwestern Europe, west Africa, Japan, and other regions into the existing east-west trade routes between China and Egypt.
The connections among societies began to shape world history in important ways.
Three Big Concepts help organize the understanding of the postclassical period along with religious change.
Important new routes were added to the transregional communication and exchange networks.
New seafaring technologies and missionary activity contributed to this.
Second, forms of state organization diversified and now have a variety of looser political structures.
Several societies, headed by China, increased their productive capacity.
Sufi became an important part of new urban centers and the experimentation with element in Islam's missionary efforts.
Larger groups of people with broadly shared beliefs and religious institutions were created by their spread.
The postclassical period followed the opportunities for mutual intolerance and the decline of the great classical empires.
As areas that had previ Muslims, particularly, developed disdain for each other, they also experienced examples of constructive tolerance.
The decline of the classical empires had an effect on Jews.
Religion created new loyalties that could compete the collapse of established boundaries, which caused people to turn their attention to new areas.
The fall of the on the whole received less attention than in the Roman Empire, which opened up new opportunities in the classical era.
Islam lost territories in the Mediterranean during the 12th century and turned its attention to developing a particular dynamism that affected more different opportunities in Russia and eastern Europe.
All major institutions encouraged trade and missionary activity.
The power of Islam was triggered by this.
As the postclassical period moved along, other aspects of culture were headed by art.
The Chi architecture was changed by nese, who invented the compass, and from the Middle East, which had religious values.
Different things to different peo trade can be seen in maps improved as a result of wider Religion.
Further travel was encouraged by them.
Long-distance communities and leaders increased, for example, with monastic credit arrangements, for example, as a result of the number of devoted religious true for new banking and commercial practices.
Many people combine religion with other interests.
Most people combined new religions with older values and styles.
The spread of world Religion and commerce were the engines of change in the religions.
The main period was the postclassical period.
Chinese inventions like printing and explosives moved west more quickly during the Postclassical Period.
A series of interlock ideas spread as a result of the development of regular trade.
The trade routes that joined Asia, Africa, and Europe were thanks to Indian mathematics.
The connections developed in the classical period were not the only ones.
The period began with innovations from the Arabs, who were thought to have invented the numbering system.
A hint of consumer culture is created by the Byzantine.
There is a taste for tea in Asia.
Wine and porcelain were traded among elite customers throughout sugar, developed earlier in India and easily manufactured.
New routes connected additional regions into the network.
Thanks in part to improvements in the first English-language mention of sugar, Europeans encountered it with thence to the Middle East.
The spread of disease accelerated.
The "Black Death" epidemic of bubonic plague moved from the north to the south in the 14th century.
Up to a third of the population in many areas were killed by overland traders who worked from China through the Middle East to Europe using rivers.
The interregional trade of the postclassical era was not what we think of as a global economy today.
The volume and range of trade between Europe and Arab countries were much lower.
Despite drawbacks like disease, Japan began a regular exchange with Korea.
The more distant regions provided less postclassical era had major effects, including new opportunities for trade in gold, exotic animals, and imitations.
Interregional trade quickly forest products and spices.
Knowledge of a new tech result was a major, often explicit, effort at borrowing that nologies.
A number of Chinese inventions, the first paper and another innovation in the period as a whole.
A new breed of long- then printing and explosives spread to the Middle East and on to distance travelers, particularly by the final centuries of the post Europe, because of the wide patterns of trade.
This exchange was very classical during the postclassical period.
Merchants and missionaries who were slower than in previous centuries, but went from one part of Asia to another, or through the Indian Ocean more quickly, were included.
The veiling of women in the cities, as well as new contacts, were reflected in travel.
Extensive knowledge slavery was a major component of social and labor of Arabic, which was a sign of the hold of a first-world language over much of Afro-Eurasia.
Contacts could lead to earlier traditions in the region.
There were no more barriers when it came to Christian architecture.
Today we live in a period of rapid contact with women.
During the postclassical centuries, there were sweeping innovations in social struc among all the world's major societies.
The social structure of societies and peasants was affected by the expansion of a merchant class.
The majority of the population was made up of contem.
The caste system maintained or revived older social interactions among major regions in key areas.
Large political units developed in a few places, but period marked a major separation between earlier eras, in which outside of China and the Byzantine Empire, polities were mostly contacts among different regions.
The Amer ies developed.
Defining the relationship between the systems of icas and Pacific Oceania, although scenes of significant devel interaction in the postclassical period and later patterns provides opments, operated on separate dynamics and had few if any a key way to map the process of change in world history.
The transcontinental network compelled many societ ies in Afro-Eurasia to decide on how to organize their participation in trade and exchange, and how to take advantage of the impact on daily life: women opportunities involved.
The postclassical period had an intriguing tension that affected analyzing it, and some societies changed their conditions for women.
The spread of world religions, which one hand, the major religions all insisted that women were created huge new areas of shared faith, but also new spiritual divisions equal to men--that they had souls or shared in among the religions themselves, contributed to but also compliment of the divine This was a big innovation.
The evolution of the transcontinental network wascated by religious.
Buddhist leaders argued for women's importance.
Property ownership was one of the new rights established by Islam.
Christianity and Communism and LIMITATIONS have established religious communities for women that give them new forms of expression and also Change, including the formation of transcontinental net new leadership roles.
Many women work, which inevitably affects different societies.
The success of classical civilization deteriorated during this period as the condition of women empires also collapsed.
Many scholars argue that people should maintain or retrieve classical forms.
The upper-class women were treated like ornaments.
Although by Islam and Buddhism, it limited the influence of religion, it provided new outlets for women, the spiritual focus outside religions.
China was not a changeless society and it might distract them from other issues.
In India, the practice of sati, in which some widows rise of Islam, remained the same.
The link to Islam and the Islamic public life was excluded from the active roles of New Faith and New Commerce during the Postclassical Period.
The trading system was important in other Islamic societies.
Two dynamics were developed in Europe and southeast Asia.
Most of histo had contacts with Islam and rians, and they concluded that the condition of women in western Europe is related to interregional trade.
Byzantine culture took root in eastern Europe as detailed in Chapter 14, while a newer soci emerged in western Europe as described in Chapter 15.
The major cultures that developed in the women's history were described in Chapter 16.
New religions were important to many people.
New customs limited opportunities for women to address developments in China and the expansion of Chinese greater degree than in the classical era.
Key parts of the limitations are still present in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.
The last two centuries of the postclassical period saw important new developments.
Chapters 11 and 12 examine the surge of Islam after the decline of the Mongols and the end of a Chinese experiment in leading world trade.