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chapter 9 -- Part 2:
He was very strict with the preachers who disagreed with him.
He believed that they should be executed because they were guilty of rebellion against the state.
The Lutheran Church had an orthodoxy of its own.
The document was a moderate statement of Luther's views on the relation of faith and works.
Charles wanted to suppress the Lutheran Church by force, even though he was busy with war and politics outside Germany.
In 1529, Charles and the Catholic members of the Imperial Diet renewed the earlier Worms decree prohibiting all new religious doctrines in Germany.
The name came to be used for all the rebel creeds.
Catholic states lined up against Lutheran states as Germany was split into armed alliances.
The Lutheran princes were too powerful for the emperor to overcome.
The members of the Imperial Diet agreed to leave each prince free to choose between Catholicism or Lutheranism, known as the Religious Peace of Augsburg.
For sixty years, religious warfare was suspended in the German states.
The people living in the Lutheran states were able to accept the decisions of their princes.
The peasants were embittered by Luther's attitude towards them, but their bitterness softened with time.
The princes, nobles, and bourgeois supported the church.
The support of the established order pleased all who held office or wealth, and it appealed to German patriotism by rejecting the Roman papacy.
Luther's church felt comfortable for the laity as a whole.
According to Luther's doctrine, all Christians were on the same spiritual level as their ministers, and the man of property could feel superior.
The Church was no longer an independent power in society.
The kings of Scandinavia established the new faith as their official religion because of the advantages of a state church.
The church to state was subordinating the religious establishment in each Lutheran country.
The formerly Catholic religious buildings and grounds were assigned to the new churches, but the landholdings of the bishops and abbots were seized by the crown.
In accordance with Luther's views, monastic orders were abolished and ministers were allowed to marry.
Luther had six children with a former nun.
He raised the value of marriage and upheld the rights of wives to sexual satisfaction, but he did not urge any changes in the social role of women.
All manner of formal "good works" were rejected.
The principle of Church authority and many semblances of medieval religious practice were retained by Luther.
The worship service in German was the same as the Catholic service.
Luther kept art and music in his church, unlike some other reformers, and he composed a book of hymn as well as several catechisms.
Luther was not the only religious rebel in the 1520s.
He tried to impose his doctrine on the others, but failed.
His logic worked against a unified reform movement.
He taught that each person must see the truth of the Bible according to his or her own conscience.
There was no limit to the number of denominations after papal authority was overthrown.
Two of the many separations that followed Luther's revolt require special attention because of their historical impact.
The Church of England is the most conservative of the major splits from Rome.
The other, initiated by John Calvin, was very different from the Catholic tradition.
As a young man, he prepared for the priesthood in Paris and then, at his father's urging, turned to the study of law.
He found a career in law distasteful and became active in scholarship.
He took up the study of Hebrew and Greek after receiving his law degree.
Calvin converted to the idea of religious reform in 1533 after a year.
France was the scene of heated disputes about the Church, like the rest of Europe.
Calvin was a keen scholar all his life, but after his conversion he became a reformer.
The city was in the middle of political and religious turmoil after it revolted from its feudal overlord.
Calvin and his version of reformed Christianity dominated the community.
Calvin's influence extended far beyond his city.
Reformers from all over Europe came to Switzerland to study his doctrine.
Two years after the massacre of Protestants in Paris, a woodcut portrait was published in Germany.
The true Protestant faith leaps from nation to nation, with "Antichrist" trying to stop it by spilling innocent blood.
Calvinism was the leading Protestant force in France, the Netherlands, Scotland, and England.
He rejected a priesthood based on apostolic succession because he saw the Bible as the sole source of authority.
Calvin and Luther agreed that salvation was determined by God's grace alone.
He disliked monasticism and other "Romish" practices as pilgrimages, indulgences, and the veneration of saints and relics.
The difference between the two men was what each chose to emphasize.
Luther's obsession with his soul's salvation led him to his doctrine.
Calvin was obsessed with a sense of God's omnipotence and human depravity.
Calvin's position may have been influenced by his contact with humanism.
He drew his vision of God's glory and perfection from the Old Testament, and no other theologian has followed through with that logic.
Predestination and election are the most controversial of Calvin's doctrine.
Like justification by faith, this doctrine was proclaimed by Paul and Augustine.
Calvin made it the center of his system of religious belief.
Calvin said that God knows everything that happens in the universe.
If God left them to their own powers, they would disobey him.
The ability to persist in his service is given to those he "elects" by God.
For his own reasons, he allows to fall.
We call it the eternal decree of God, which he has determined in himself, what he would have become of every individual of mankind.
Eternal life is foreordained for some and eternal damnation for others, for they are not all created with a similar destiny.
He is predestinated either to life or to death when he is created for one or the other of these ends.
Calvin warned that the subject is dangerous and delicate since it touches on a secret of the Almighty.
It is wrong to question the plans of God.
There is only a worm's-eye view of Creation.
Whatever God has done is right.
Calvin admitted that the Lord's predestination was an awesome decree, but he held that all must accept it.
Many people wouldn't accept a doctrine like that.
Luther did not stress it in his teachings.
Most Protestant groups would turn away from the doctrine because it is very gloomy and denies free will.
Calvin's teachings were condemned by the Roman Catholics.
Catholics believed that God's grace is more generous than Calvin suggested.
They said that each individual can either cooperate or refuse to cooperate in achieving salvation.
A person chooses the path to hell if they refuse.
Calvin said that the Catholic argument was an insult to God.
It suggests that God's will is not all-powerful and that his grace alone is insufficient.
He said that the doctrine of predestination did not excuse anyone from obeying God's commandments, despite the charge that it would destroy incentive for following a good Christian life.
Calvin argued that no one knows who the "elect" and "reprobate" are.
Individuals should act as if they enjoy God's favor.
They should obey God even if they don't enjoy it, as long as they want their lives to be shining examples to others.
The duty of those who feel moved by the spirit to do God's will themselves and to see that others also honor God is surely a duty.
All should shape their lives according to the decree of predestination, regardless of the divine will.
Though a person's behavior is not his salvation, it must still be scrutinized.
Calvin wanted the behavior of all Christians to be held under tight control, so he developed Puritanism as a social discipline.
Any form of card playing was disapproved by Calvin because it would lead to gambling.
The theater was closed down because it was seen as a distraction from God's word.
Dancing was not allowed as a way to increase desire and drinking was banned as a way to intoxication.
He considered the display of personal ornaments or the exposure of flesh to be signals to sexual instincts.
The traditional idea of an ascetic life was not the same as auritanical life.
Christians must live disciplined lives in the world.
Calvin accepted business as a normal Christian vocation.
He took for granted the functions of capital, banking, and large-scale commerce.
He did not question the morality of their occupation despite urging entrepreneurs to be honest and reasonable.
He was the first theologian to praise the capitalist virtues.
He praised the creation of wealth through industry if it was not used for self-indulgence.
Calvin's faith was attractive to both solid businessmen and colonial pioneers because of the economic realities of the day.
Calvinism contributed to the shaping of American life in New England in the 17th century.
Calvin believed that a person's conscience was the most important defense against sin.
He used his pulpit to warn sinners.
He used to force in prohibiting unseemly acts and words when his sermons failed.
The public morals and discipline of the Consistory of Geneva were taken care of by a special body of pastors and lay elders.
The accused could be reprimanded or sentenced to bread and water if they were called before this court.
There were many offenses, including profanity, drunkenness, dozing in church, and other immoral acts.
The town council dealt with more serious offenses.
The man accused of placing an insult on Calvin's pulpit was tortured until he confessed and was beheaded for conspiring against Calvin.
Accused heretics were brought to the council.
Michael Servetus, a Spaniard, challenged the Christian doctrine of the Trinity.
Calvin arrested Servetus after warning him to stay away.
Calvin supported his conviction and execution.
The false prophet will be stoned without mercy.
When his honor is involved, we are going to crush all of nature's affections.
The father shouldn't spare his child, brother, husband, or friend because they are dear to him more than life.
The papal position of intolerance toward dissent was the same as that of the Protestant reformer.
Calvin excommunicated "wrongdoers" from his church and drove most of his critics from Geneva.
Most of the citizens of Geneva supported Calvin's policies by the end of his rule.
He imposed strict rules of conduct on all the residents of the city for defending Christian doctrine.
Like Pope Gregory VII, he opposed the union of spiritual and civil authority.
He believed that ministers of the Church should be judges of civil rulers.
To Calvin, the purpose of government was to regulate society according to the will of God, and the Church was the appointed interpreter of God's will.
The elected town council was the main governing organ of the republic.
Calvin's church was protected against critics, rebels, and heretics by the council.
Calvin held it over the politicians of the city because Pope Gregory VII had threatened excommunication over kings and princes.
A church-controlled state, theocracy was a model for some twenty years.
Calvin said that the Church is essential for the supervision of the state as well as for the salvation of souls.
This view was in line with the papal statement that individual salvation is only possible within the Church.
Calvin's doctrine of predestination and election may be at odds with the idea of dependence on Church membership.
Calvin said it was God's will that the elect be saved through the True Church.
The ways of Heaven might be reflected on earth through its inspired teaching and discipline.
Calvin held to certain Roman Catholic principles.
He differed from them in regards to the ministry and ritual of the Church.
Calvin accepted Luther's principle of the "priesthood of all believers" and his church gave no special powers to its ministers.
Their authority came from their assigned office.
Calvin was against preaching by self-proclaimed ministers.
A "legitimate min istry" is formed when suitable persons are appointed by the lay elders, subject to the approval of the congregation and the pastors of the community.
The minister was assisted by elders who were elected by the congregation.
There are only two sacraments that are clearly established in Luther's area.
Calvin only allowed the singing of psalms and the preaching of sermons after the administration of these two rites.
The Catholic cathedrals, with their stained glass, gilt, and statuary, were branded as pagan temples by him because he believed that music, art, and ornamentation had no place in the Church.
According to the Bible, Jesus and Paul conducted their ministries by preaching.
The core of the Calvinist service was preaching.
There were no processions, genuflections, embroidered garments, incense, or Latin chants.
The minister spoke in the ordinary language of his congregation and wore simple black.
Henry VIII and the Church of England Calvinist austerity were not accepted by Lutherans or English reformers.
The organization and ritual of the Church of England remained close to the Catholic tradition despite the influence of Protestant ideas.
The compromise between Roman Catholicism and extreme Protestantism was represented by the Anglican Church.
Roman Catholics would condemn it as divisive and heretical, while radical reformers would criticize it as illogical and subservient to the state.
Religious reform in England was carried out by the monarchs.
Changes were instigated by the wishes of the crown from the time of Henry VIII to the time of Elizabeth I.
The first Tudor monarch was Henry VII.
Henry VIII pursued his father's policies.
Henry was a popular king.
As a younger son in the royal family, he was trained in theology by his father, who was a priest.
The plan was dropped after Arthur's death left Henry heir to the throne.
His interest in religious matters continued, and he defended the Catholic view of the sacraments against Luther's public attack.
Henry resented Roman interference in his kingdom.
The pope confirmed the appointment of high-ranking clergy in England despite the monarchs controlling the Church in Spain and France.
The portion of Church revenues that went to Rome were appeals from Church courts.
Henry VIII broke with Rome because of a personal matter related to the welfare of the state.
He married Catherine of Aragon in order to preserve the alliance between England and Spain.
He was allowed to marry a relative because it was against canon law.
All but one of Catherine's six children were stillborn or died in infancy.
Mary was the only survivor.
The English had just emerged from a bloody civil war over the succession to the throne, and they feared that a female ruler might prove unable to maintain national strength and unity.
Henry and his advisers began to think about taking a new wife when it appeared that Catherine wouldn't have any more children.
Henry was fond of Anne Boleyn, a young lady in waiting to the queen.
He married Catherine and ordered his chief minister to have his marriage declared invalid.
Both partners were free to marry again if the Church found a marriage to be invalid.
The marriage to Catherine was contrary to canon law, so it would have been easy for papal lawyers to find a defect.
Henry was to be disappointed.
Charles V was Catherine's nephew.
The pope was told that there were no proper grounds for an annulment and that it would be cruel and disrespectful to his aunt and family.
For Henry's daughter, Princess Mary, was heir to the English throne, Charles did not wish Henry to remarry.
Mary would become queen if Henry didn't have a son.
Pope Clement VII received Henry's appeal when Charles was busy with a campaign to win control of Italy.
Clement was hoping that something would spare him from making a decision.
Henry had been waiting for nearly six years.
His marriage to Catherine was declared null and void by the newly appointed archbishop, Thomas Cranmer.
Clement freed Henry's subjects from their obligation to obey the crown.
Henry decided to free himself of the pope once and for all after he was enraged by the pope's delayed tactics and Clement's interference in state affairs.
The papacy had become unpopular in England and he was backed by both Parliament and the people.
The Act of Supremacy was passed by Parliament in 1534 after Henry first submitted the issue to the English clergy.
The act declared that the king was the "only supreme head on earth" of the Church of England and gave him the power to reform and heresies.
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