In June 1945, as World War II was ending, Democratic senator James O.
Life Under Jim Crow.
Cold War Civil Rights black troops were ridiculed by Eastland.
The Negro soldier failed in combat.
Mexican Americans and Eastland's claims were not true.
The 761st "Black Panther" Tank Fighting for Equality Before Battalion and the famous Tuskegee Airmen were praised by military command the Law ers.
Segregationists like Eastland were able to block civil rights legislation and shape national opinion in Congress.
Du Bois wrote that the problem of the color line was the problem of the twentieth century.
There were winds of change across the nation.
The civil The American Indian Movement rights movement swept aside systematic racial segregation after the World War II rise of the Chicano movement.
African American activism reshaped the nation's laws and practices after the movement, but it could not sweep away racial inequality completely.
The social movement of the twentieth century was called civil rights.
The New Left, feminism, the Chicano movement, the gay rights movement, the American Indian movement, and many others were inspired by its model of protest.
New Deal liberalism established a welfare state to protect citizens from economic hardship.
The version of liberalism that focused on race or sex would prove to be a necessary expansion of the nation's ideals and a divisive force that produced political backlash.
The quest for racial justice would cause a crisis of liberalism.
At the end of the march, Martin Luther King Jr. and his wife, Coretta Scott King, hold the hand of each other.
During World War II and the early Cold War, the battle against racial injustice proceeded, with segregation and economic exploitation defined along two tracks: at the grass roots and in governing the lives of the majority of African Americans in the institutions.
The U.S. Congress had 15 million in 1950.
Labor unions, churches, and can Americans made up 10% of the Congress of Racial U.S. population.
Hundreds of thousands of people were inspired to join the movement in the South.
In the Fourteenth in 1950, two-thirds of all African Americans lived in those states.
Under the law, African Americans could not eat in restaurants or use the same waiting rooms as whites.
The right to vote was guaranteed in all forms of public transportation.
Public parks color, or previous condition of servitude, but had and libraries were separate.
For nearly a century, drinking fountains have been ignored or violated.
This system of segregation was a political structure that further marginalized and independent of the other.
They were the black citizens.
Jim Crow required the separation of blacks and whites in most public spaces as the law of the land in most southern states.
The "white only" drinking fountain was typical.
Everything from waiting areas to libraries, public parks, schools, restrooms, and even cola vending machines was subject to strict racial segregation.
The best jobs in the private sector were reserved for whites, and Ameri could work for city or state government.
The civil rights lowest wages were due to the fact that racial discrimination had been part of American cooking, stocking shelves, and loading trucks for hundreds of years.
After all, the National sharecropping system that kept them stuck in poverty, the Association for the advancement of Colored People often prevented them from obtaining an education, had begun challenging and offered virtually no avenue of escape.
Only whites could vote.
The franchisement gave whites power that was disproportionate to black people in the middle of the 20th century, which made the movement possible.
There was no political voice in those states.
The African wrote that the racial segregation in everyday life in the North was a sign of Nordic supremacy.
In the war, the Allies sought to undermine racists by putting them in suburbs or on the outskirts of Nazi ideology.
African Americans were concentrated in Americans who condemned racism at home.
The Cold War put more pressure on the U.S. officials.
In 1947, employment discrimination and lack of ade Truman were commented on.
Truman had no means of support for African Americans in the global standoff with the Soviet Union.
The growth of the urban black middle class was one of the most consequential factors.
The black middle class experienced robust rate with their skills only being used by whites.
How did the margins grow?
They were a sanctuary for black people who could vote and participate in politics.
In the early 1960s, I can college students and enjoy equal access to the public.
We think that racial segregation was the largest expansion of college enrollment in the U.S. and that poverty and racial dis tory joined the movement.
In northern cities such as Detroit, media, and institutions, the new middle class had more resources than ever before.
Middle-class African Americans were more vulnerable to mob violence in the 1950s because they were less dependent on their owners.
Other influences assisted the movement as we saw in Chapter 26.
White Federal Housing Administration and bank red labor leaders were more equality minded and excluded African American home buyers from the rank and file.
The segregation of the United Steelworkers was a national problem.
TABLE 27.1 factors were not decisive.
None made a path easy.
The United States was not ready to give full equality to its own black citizens.
Black workers were reliable allies at the national level.
More than one million black troops who served medium of television played a crucial role.
The picketers outside the July 1948 Democratic National Convention demanded that the party include equal rights and anti-Jim Crow planks in its official platform and desegregate the armed services.
The president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters is leading the pickets.
The committee that convinced President Truman to desegregate the armed forces was led by the man who headed the March on Washington movement.
Activists pushed two strategies at home.
If African Americans were not given equal opportunity in war jobs, then 100,000 protesters would descend on the nation's capital.
FDR issued an Executive Order in June of that year prohibiting racial discrimination in defense industries in order to avoid a protest.
The Fair Employment Practices Commission had few enforcement powers, but it set an important precedent.
White leaders and institutions could be swayed by concerted African American action.
It would be important for the movement.
The welding work done by African American women at the Clark plant in New Britain, Connecticut was the brainchild of an ordinary cafeteria worker.
Fighting work from Kansas.
Thirty-four people were killed, twenty-five of them black, in the three days of rioting, which was dubbed the Double V Campaign.
African troops were called in to restore order.
Americans would show their loyalty by fighting the Axis powers.
They were spurred into action during the war years.
The Double V efforts were met with resistance.
It can either blow up Hitler or Mahatma Gandhi.
It almost did the latter in 1943.
The Modern State and the Age of Liberty, 1945-1980, the earliest challenges to southern segregation, was joined by the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947.
The black vote in northern cities proved to be decisive.
The black man was affirmed by this new.
Cold War Civil Rights were opened up as a result of the nation's commitment to anticommunism, but others were closed.
When the inheritor of the New Deal coalition broke President Truman's color line in Major League Baseball, American leaders were unsure what to expect from symbolic victories.
One of the most remarkable demographic shifts of the mid-twentieth century was the migration of African Americans from the South to other regions of the country.
Between World War I and the 1970s, more than 6 million Americans left the South.
They settled in the North and West where they changed the politics of cities and states.
Liberal Democrats and Republicans alike in New York, Illinois, California, and Pennsylvania made civil rights part of their platform in order to seek black votes, which had become a key to victory in major cities.
The political cause of black equality was advanced by migration.
He did not support social equality immediately.
Truman supported civil rights for African Americans and the Soviet Union appeared to strengthen because he believed in equality before the law.
The civil rights activists weakened the other.
Humphrey, the mayor of Minneapolis, and other members of the civil rights movement were held hostage by McCarthyism and the hunt Powell.
The NAACP pressed Truman to act after they charged that the Americans for Democratic Action was a communist.
Truman turned to executive action.
In 1948 Truman issued an executive order desegregating were persecuted.
My father sent a message to Congress asking them to recommend abolition of all of the slaves and the people who died to build this country.
The restoration of the Fair Employment fate of people like Robeson showed that the Cold War Practices Commission should be made a law.
Mexican immigrants and the Mexican struggle within the Democratic Party were brought into focus as a result of this.
In Texas, the rights aims of the party's liberal wing kept most Mexican American citizens from voting, as well as many suburban whites.
It was the first hint of the division of the Democratic Party in the 1960s.
Mexican Americans were shaped by the Cold War.
Civil rights were lived in both positive and negative terms by many.
Labor activism in the 1930s and the Soviet Union used American racism as a means of defaming the United States abroad.
The whites say that negroes are dirty.
They are uncultivated and so were the first president of the indepen to deny access to culture.
George Bernard Shaw said that he wanted to dent the nation of Ghana.
In the 1930s and 1940s, the haughty American nation made the Negro shine studied in the United States, earning degrees at Lincoln its shoes, and then demonstrating his physical and mental University and the University of Pennsylvania.
The "wind of change" has become a raging Hurricane, ity of a Negro to enter a shop and buy a record, or the fact sweeping away the old colonialist Africa.
Africa's year in 1960 was the year of ten thousand students in a university.
Two of the seventeen African people in that year are Negroes.
Real inte States emerged as proud and independent, but not in the North.
Now the ultimate freedom of the whole of and by real integration I mean interracial Africa can no longer be in doubt.
The manager of a tinent is an example of how Europeans dominated the African con.
The white man told me that he wouldn't rule and wouldn't be obeyed by the non-white.
The American civil rights leader celebrated the independence of the African nation ofGhana in 1957.
It's a beautiful thing, isn't it?
What kind of perspective would he have as an African?
Through non-violent means, it is free.
What values and goals do King and Nkrumah have for China?
Compare the situation of African Americans in the United States and Africans in nations colonized by the Euro to that of her if she had left.
Legal change was also pushed for by activists.
The local school district was sued by Mexican American fathers for placing their children in different schools.
The legal groundwork was laid when the Ninth Circuit Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional.
The NAACP's Thurgood Marshall was one of the people who filed briefs in the case.
The West Coast has a caste system similar to Jim Crow.
The legal challenge to discrimination was accelerated by most of the lowest-paid work.
A worker card is pictured here.
In the late 1940s, the National Museum of American History, League filed lawsuits to regain the Behring Center.
The constitutionality of California's Alien Land Law was challenged by the JACL.
More than 400,000 Mexican Americans were able to serve in World War II.
Having fought for their coun same immigrants to become citizens, many returned to the United States determined to be denied for fifty years.
Mexicans are trying to challenge their second-class citizenship.
The Mexican American middle class began to take rights after the Japanese Americans enlarged the sphere of civil new Mexican American middle class.
Like the African American middle class, El Paso and Chicago gave leaders and resources to the cause.
Congress blocked civil rights legislation for years.
The Com School segregation was created by activists in Los Angeles.
President Johnson appointed Marshall to the Supreme Ination because of persistent job and housing problems.
The first African American to have that honor was in the states with the largest African American court.
Progress came after the strategy was slow and time consuming.
African American activists forged Hamilton won a state case that forced the University alliances with trade unions and liberal organizations of Maryland Law School to admit qualified people such as the American Friends Service Committee.
Progress was slow.
Marshall was once again arguing the case, the Supreme Michigan, in 1950.
It was not possible to separate black students from others before other states with black pop campuses.
None of these cases resulted in rapid changes to the legislation.
Civil rights attorneys were on the right side of history when it came to discrimination in housing, but it was not until the 1960s.
The legislature in Kansas was closed to the kind school because the vast majority of the state were forced to attend a segregated school.
The Supreme Court agreed to challenge racial discrimination in a series of cases on May 17, 1954.
The doctrine of "separate but equal" was overturned.
Marshall was the great-grandson of slaves.
It's the University of Maryland Law School.
"Black Monday," the Mississippi segregationist who denied admission because the school did not accept black applicants, invoked the language of the Cold War to enroll at Howard University.
How did the NAACP go Marshall, with Houston's and revived the old tactics of violence and intimidation, about developing a legal Hastie's critical strategic input, swelling the ranks of the Ku Klux Klan to levels not strategy to attack racial would argue most of the NAACP's seen.
The case started in Seattle.
There was a case in Kansas.
The case came from San Leandro, CA.
There was a case in Gloucester County.
There is a case in Orange County.
American students were found to be unconstitutional.
There was a case in Virginia.
The case was originated in Norman, OK.
There is a case in St. Louis.
Desegregation court battles were not limited to the South.
There are important California cases about Mexican Americans and Japanese Americans.
The map shows that racial segregation and discrimination were a national problem.
Eisenhower became the first president to use federal troops to enforce the Supreme Court's decision because of his involvement with the rights of African Americans.
The president was not a champion of civil rights in Little Rock.
His hand was forced by a crisis in Little Rock.
The National Guard was called out by Orval Faubus.
As the "habits, traditions, and way of life," the Southern vicious scenes played out on television night after Manifesto signaled that many whites would not accept night, Eisenhower finally acted.
1,000 federal African American equality was sent by him.
The four men pursued cases that undermined the constitutional foundation of racial segregation.
They did their part to destroy Jim Crow, but it wasn't enough.
Two white men were arrested for the murder of Till.
Black and white would have to take part in the trial and demand justice.
No one who lived through talking to a white woman in a grocery store remembered the Till case.
The heavy steel cotton gin fan was in the wake of the Till barbed wire.
Civil rights advocates needed some good news.
The situation at North Little Rock was similar to the one at Little Rock's Central High School, in that white resistance to black students was common.
Six African American students were prevented from entering North Little Rock High School by white students in 1957.
The presence of film and television cameras that broadcast these images to the nation and the world is a striking new feature of southern racial politics.
Reconciliation had first been used in the 1940s, and they received it three months later.
King endorsed a plan proposed by a local protest after the leaders ofRosa embraced an old tactic put to new ends: nonvi Parks's arrest.
On December 1, 1955, the civil black women's organization to boycott Montgomery's rights activist refused to use the bus system.
She was arrested and charged with violating local segregation in 1941 and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in1953 because of similar boycotts that had taken place in Harlem.
Montgomery's African decision that it seemed: a woman of sterling reputation Ameri cans formed car pools or walked to work was not the spur of the moment.
Coretta Scott King exclaimed to templating such an act.
On the first day of the NAACP's challenge against segregation on buses, middle-aged and her husband as a bus normally filled with black riders,Rosa Parks fit the bill perfectly for the rolled by their living room window.
After the death of the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr., the black community turned and downtown stores complained about the loss of leadership.
The Supreme Court ruled in the case of Street Baptist Church that bus segregation was unconstitutable.
The son of a prominent Atlanta tional was the one who finally complied with the city of Montgomery.
One woman Gandhi said that King embraced the teachings of Mahatma feets but was tired.
Working closely with a boycotter.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott catapulted King to which Rustin and others in the fellowship of national prominence.
The black church, long the center of African American social and cultural life, has lent its moral and organizational strength to the civil rights movement.
Black churchwomen were a tower of strength and were able to transfer their skills to the fight for civil rights.
The NAACP is at the forefront of the movement for racial justice.
On February 1, 1960, four black college students took seats at the whites-only lunch counter at the local Woolworth's store in North Carolina.
The four students had discussed it in their dorm rooms over the course of several nights.
Woolworth's would refuse to serve African Americans at the lunch counter, according to a New York-based spokesman.
The students were determined to be served.
One of the foremost theorists of grassroots, Participatory Democracy in the United States was named after North Carolina, which was attacked by groups of whites.
In 1960 she occupied more than sixty of the sixty-six seats and co founded the Student Nonviolent Coordinating strong.
The tactic worked because many were arrested.
Her advocacy of leadership by ordinary, the Woolworth's lunch counter was desegregated, and nonelite people often led her to disagree with the top-down movement strategy of Martin Luther King Jr.
Rolling like a great wave across the Upper South, she believed in nurturing leaders from the grass roots, North Carolina into Virginia, Maryland, and Tennessee, and encouraging ordinary people to stand up for their see by the end of the year.
More than 50,000 people participated.
My theory is that strong people don't need to be jailed.
She once said that the sit-ins drew African American leaders.
Baker nurtured college students into the movement in a significant generation of young activists in SNCC, including bers for the first time.
Students formed committees to raise money for bail.
Diane Nash, who went on to become some of the most quickly emerged as the most important student protest important civil rights leaders in the United States.
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was formed because Baker found these students receptive to her idea of organizing a series of Freedom Rides on interstate bus lines.
The Supreme Court ruled against segregation in 1957.
The Eisenhower adminis learned from the evolution young, both black and white, that they were tration.
The civil rights move took their lives in their hands.
They needed to get one through Courage.
When Martin Luther King Jr. called for demon it exploded, the road to such a bill the Freedom Riders escaped only moments before.
Some riders were brutally beaten.
King and the SCLC were attacked by the Klansmen in Montgom and a concrete victory in Birmingham was needed.
State authorities refused to use a strategy of non-violent protest.
In May 1963, you should intervene.
Governor John said he couldn't guarantee protection for the sands of black marchers.
John F. Kennedy was the new president.
The scene was captured for the tious about civil rights.
The evening news despite a campaign commit.
Kennedy believed that he could ill King by writing on any paper he could find in order to lose the support of the southern sena.
Civil rights were different from other domestic issues.
There is a type of con Congress on the streets of southern cities.
The civil rights movement sought, he said, "to create such a crisis and establish such a creative General Robert Kennedy to dispatch federal marshals."
King argued that Civil rights activists learned the value of nonvio brotherhood and democratic liberalism when they ground their actions in equal parts.
The victories have been limited, but the groundwork has been laid for a civil rights offensive side of democracy.
I was angry by the protest movement.
Civil rights leaders were embarrassed by King's imprisonment and focused on Congress.
On June 11, 1963, after newly elected Alabama governor George Wallace barred two black Legislators of Civil Rights, Kennedy denounced the first civil rights law in the nation's history.
It was a long rights bill.
Many black leaders felt that Kennedy's action was ignored.
Figuring out the processes by which long-oppressed ordinary people finally rise up and demand justice is one of the many challenges historians face.