Most of the Asian migrants are uneducated peasants or business people.
Students were going abroad in large numbers by the beginning of the twentieth century.
In the British colonies, Indians and others went to Britain, Vietnam, France, and so on.
Japanese students went to Europe and the United States while Chinese went to Japan.
Students traveled abroad to learn about Western science, law, and government in order to strengthen their own countries.
They became the most vocal advocates of overthrowing the old order and driving out the colonial masters when they returned.
Mohandas Gandhi and Sun Yatsen were both foreign-educated radicals.
Sun was studying in Hong Kong and Hawai'i when he came up with his ideas.
The European concept of Asia encourages us to see similarities among countries from India east.
The world looked very different from the perspective of the peoples of Japan and In donesia, even though they are part of the same region.
The societies in this region varied more than any other part of the world at the start of the 19th century.
The old established monarchies of China, Japan, and Korea were all densely populated and boasted long literary traditions.
They had ties to each other that dated back hundreds of years.
South of them, the cultures were more diverse.
India was just as densely populated as China, Japan, and Korea, but it was less unified and had more independent rulers.
Islam was more important in India and Southeast Asia than it was in East Asia.
Some of the islands of the Philippines and Indonesia were removed from the popu lated and relatively primitive areas without literate cultures and even without agriculture because of the countries with long written histories and literate elites.
All of the societies of Asia came into contact with the West in one way or another in the 19th century.
Some countries were treated differently by the Western powers.
Indian cotton textiles and Chinese porcelains were initially wanted by the Western powers.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Britain was intent on forcing China to trade on terms more to its benefit, as it had already gained political control over large parts of India.
It didn't see in Korea and Japan the same potential for profit.
The less developed parts of Asia attracted increasing Western interest because they offered opportunities for Western development like the Americas had earlier.
The societies of Asia faced the West in the 19th century, and the steps taken by Western nations to gain power in Asia changed over time.
European armies had greater advantages in weaponry due to the rapid advances of Western science and technology.
The Industrial lution made it possible for countries that industrialized early, such as Britain, to produce huge surpluses of goods for which they had to find markets, shifting their interest in Asia from a place to buy goods to a place to sell them.
Britain had been able to profit from its colonization of India, which encouraged it to consolidate its rule and look for its own colonies.
France sought colonies in Southeast Asia in order to keep Britain from extending its sphere of influence in the region.
There were similarities in how Asian countries responded to outside pressure.
In countries with long literary traditions, the established elite would often try to drive foreigners away.
In particular, this was the case in China, Japan, and Korea.
The superior military technology of the industrialized West almost always prevailed over violent antiforeign reactions.
Some Asian leaders insisted on preserving their cultural traditions after they were humiliated.
Others thought that the West was superior in some ways and that they would have to use European ideas for their own purposes.
Between 1800 and 1914, new technologies spread in most countries in Asia.
China and Japan faced a challenge to remain independent.
The development of Asian tion of Japan between 1860 and 1900 was extraordinary because of the transforma expansionist Western powers.
Asia changed on a much larger scale in the ninth century.
Old political orders were ousted or reduced to token by new masters, often European colonial powers.
European powers with their modern weaponry and armies left old elites at a loss.
The old elites pondered the differences between their traditional values and the ideas that seemed to underlie the power of the European states.
Ordinary people rose in rebellion in places because they felt threatened by the rapid pace of cultural change.
Ordinary people had the opportunity to travel on newly built railroads as material culture underwent major changes.
Long-distance travel was made easier with the help of steamships.
The nineteenth century in the Americas was an era of unprecedented change.
Empires were being overturned there instead of being imposed as they were in Asia.
The Americas and Australia were on the receiving end of huge migrations, while Asia, like Europe, was much more an exporter of people.
In the old countries of Asia, the negative effects of the Industrial Revolution were more felt as traditional means of making a living disappeared.
In both Asia and the Americas, the ideas of nationalism and nation building shaped how people thought about the changes they were experiencing.