Many women did work outside the home despite the "modern" version of domes ticity.
The percentage of women in the workforce rose steadily throughout the decade.
The majority of employed women worked in clerical positions, such as secretaries, bank tellers, or sales clerks.
Less than 15% of people were employed in a professional capacity.
Only 3.5 percent of attorneys and 6 percent of physicians are women.
African American and other women of color were mostly given low- paying service jobs.
Millions of military veterans returned to civilian life after the war ended.
The fifties was the best decade to be a child because there were so many of them.
The needs of children became the focus of social life.
The birth of 76 million Americans between 1946 and 1964 reversed a century-long decline in the nation's birthrate and created a demographic upheaval.
A record 4.3 million births occurred in 1957, when the baby boom peaked.
From 1940 to 1960, the number of families doubled and the number doubled again.
The construction of thousands of new schools and the hiring of teachers to staff them was required after the postwar babies created a surge in demand for diapers, wash ing machines, and baby food.
Children's needs drove much of the economy's growth, creating a huge market for toys, candy, gum, records, clothes, and other items.
The societal attitudes toward women who were having babies and raising children were shaped by that.
She hosted dozens of dinner parties, made her own clothes, and was devoted to her husband.
The idea that a woman's place was in the home was reinforced by the soaring birthrate.
Americans joined churches and synagogues in record numbers during the Second World War.
Less than half of the adult population belonged to a church in 1940.
The cold war gave Christians a boost.
It was assumed that a nation with a good reputation would fare better against communism.
President Eisenhower promoted a religious crusade.
He said that the most basic expression of Americanism is the recomination of the Supreme Being.
The phrase "one nation under God" was added to the pledge in 1954.
Eisenhower ordered that the nation's official motto be displayed on all currency.
The tone of the cars.
The pastor of New York's Tremont Methodist Church was upbeat and soothing.
City told its radio and televi sion presenters that their broadcasts should project love, joy, courage, hope, faith, and trust in God.
No speaker was more in demand and no writer was more widely read.
Peale called it Practical Christianity because it offered 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 He said to "flush out all depressing, negative, and tired thoughts."
Peale was reaching 30 million people each week through radio, television, and his weekly newspaper columns.
In contrast to the "happy days" image of the fifties, there was also anxiety, dissent, and diversity.
He reminded readers that the nation had yet to eradicate poverty among minorities in inner cities, as well as Mexican American migrant farmworkers, Native Americans, and black and white.
The nation's chronic poverty was masked by praise for the "throw away" culture of consumption.
Half of African Americans were poor, compared to 25% of whites.
40 million people had incomes below the poverty line.
The land in the North was not perfect.
Those who allowed the South to be undereducated, poor, and black were denied access to good jobs, good schools, and good housing.
Although states in the North, Midwest, and Far West were not as blatantly discrim inatory as in the South, African Americans still encountered racism and discrimination.
Many African American families who migrated from the South to the Midwest became a part of the marginalized population in Chicago because they were dependent on public housing.
America's worship of consumerism was rejected by many critics, writers and artists.
The 1950s was one of the worst decades in the history of man because so many Americans embraced a bland conformity, according to writer Norman Mailer.
The individual's struggle for survival was emphasized in the most powerful novels of the postwar period.
The culture of comfortable conformity and the white suburbs were targets frequently.
Levtowns was dismissed as a residential development because it was conceived in error.
A group of young writers, poets, painters, and musicians rejected middle class life and the consumer culture.
Being "on the beat" in real cool jazz music was likened to being "upbeat" and even "beatifiFC."
The name implied "weariness," being "exhausted" or "beaten down," qualities which none of them actually exhibited.
Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Neal and Carolyn Cassady, Gary Snyder, Joyce Johnson, Diane Di Prima, and other Beats rebelled against conventional literary and artistic expression and excelled at criminal behavior.
The mostly male Beats were nomadic seekers who stole cars and cash and sought solace in booze, mind- altering drugs, and various forms of risk- taking behavior.
A drunk Burroughs tried to shoot an apple off his wife's head and missed, killing her instantly.
The lives of breathtaking risk were celebrated by the Beats, who were absorbed to the point of ruthlessness.
They were involved in alcohol and drug ecstasies.
Carolyn agreed to her husband's request that she have an affair with his best friend, Jack Kerouac, after she had an affair with Neal's wife.
The Beat community was very supportive of the Vil age.
They wanted their frenzied desire to experience life art and literature to change consciousness, in all its intensity and ness, rather than addressing social issues.
The artist Mad Mike paints trash cans while the poet Tex Kleen reads verse in a bathtub at Venice Beach, California.
America in the Fifties Beats were masters at outrageous behavior, they viewed getting high as fifrst class trips and women as second class accessories.
The boys didn't know where they were going.
The romantics of Kerouac and the Beats were looking for an authentic sense of self in a nation that was absorbed in conformism and anti- communism.
The Beats were more than just a cultural movement.
During an era when homosexuality was seen as deviant, Allen Ginsberg and his life- long partner, poet Peter Orlovsky, were gay or bisexual.
The two men were social pioneers because they termed their relationship a marriage and many people had never seen a gay marriage.
They were partners for more than forty years.
The poem, "Howl," applauded the defifant of the Beats, openly celebrated erotic homosexuality.
The publisher of the poem, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, was charged with obscenity after copies of the poem were seized by Customs agents.
"Howl" was a manifesto for the sexual revolution.
The more wide spread youth revolt of the 1960s and the flowering of the Hippies were set in motion by the rowdy rebellion of the Beats.
The wave of baby boomers became adolescents in the late 1950s.
A wave of juvenile delinquency began to emerge as people began calling them teenagers.
More than a million teens were arrested each year.
A new form of music was blamed for teen delinquency.
White teenagers buying rhythm and blues records preferred livelier recordings by African Americans and Latino Americans.
The music rock 'n' roll is a phrase used in African American communities to refer to dancing and sex.
The gap between "white" and "black" music was bridged by Freed's program in New York City.
African American singers such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, and Ray Charles, along with Latino American performers such as Ritchie Valens, enthralled young, white, middle- class audiences.
SamPhillips, a disk jockey in Memphis, Tennessee, was searching for a particular type of pop singer.
Elvis was the son of poor Mississippi farmers.
He emerged as the most popular musician in American history over the next two years, carrying rock 'n' roll across the race barrier.
Elvis the Pelvis earned millions of fans because of his incompara ble voice and gyrating performances.
Parents were urged to destroy Presley's records.
Patriotic groups claim that rock 'n' roll music is part of a Communist plot to corrupt America's youth.
Presley was warned that he was threatening to rock- n- roll the juvenile world into open revolt against society.
Rock 'n' roll flourished because it was controversial.
It gave teenagers a sense of belonging.
The "King musicians (and their audiences) of Rock and Roll" stays cool while performing in Miami in 1956.
The cold war began and the Soviets began to use America's wide spread racial discrimination against African Americans as a propaganda tool.
Blacks risked lynching if they registered to vote under the Jim Crow system.
They were forced to use separate facilities and attend separate schools.
In the North, discrimination was not official, but it was just as bad as it was in the South.
The greatest failure of President Eisenhower was his refusal to exercise transformational leadership in race relations.
Eisenhower was committed to civil rights in the White House and pushed for improvements.
During his three years in Washington, D.C., public facilities were desegregated and he ended discrimination in military bases in Virginia and South Carolina.
He did not want to make civil rights for African Americans a moral crusade.
Eisenhower's political philosophy limited his commitment to racial equality because of his preference for state or local action over federal action.
Governmental leadership on civil rights would come from the judiciary because of his passivity.
While in office, Warren displayed a social conscience and libertarianism on the bench.
The Supreme Court was a powerful force for social and political change under his leadership.
African Americans, Latino Americans, Asian Americans, and other people of color are the most important leaders of the civil rights movement.
The most important social movement in America was led by courageous blacks.
They fought in the courts, at the ballot box, and in the streets.
White patrons of an Alabama motel can get chilled water from a cooler, while African American guests can only drink from a fountain.
Many African Americans moved to the North and West, but a majority remained in the South.
Only 20 percent of eligible African Americans were registered to vote in the 1952 presidential election.
Many all- black schools in the South were understaffed and overcrowded, despite the fact that the public schools were equal in quality.
The courts had to convince them that racial segregation must end.
Texas was ordered to remedy the situation by the court.
America's tradition of racial segregation was being dismantled.
State laws requiring racial segregation in the public schools were enacted by the early 1950s.
The Supreme Court was established in 1952.
Eisen urged Chief Justice Warren to side with segregationists when it became obvious that the Court was moving forward.
The justices used a variety of sociological and psychological fifndings to show that the practice of segregating students by race made black children feel inferior.
The Court's ruling was not endorsed by Eisenhower.
He said anyone who thinks they can do these things by force is nuts.
He refused to condemn the lynching of a fourteen year old African American who was lynched because he whistled at a white woman.
In northern states and the border states of Kentucky and Missouri, token racial integration began as early as 1954.
African American children pose outside their separate but equal school in Alabama.
Arkansas governor Orval Faubus said that the federal government is a creature of the states.
The federal government is trying to enforce integration in the South.
He told the Senate that the South was determined to maintain white supremacy and that the Negro race was an inferior race.
The Councils, which used economic coercion against blacks who crossed racial boundaries, grew so powerful in some communities that membership became almost a necessity for an aspiring white politician.
Three southern Democrats refused to sign.
Seven years later, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson would become presi dent.
In the South, only 765 school districts had desegregated by 1960.
The NAACP and the courts play an important role in the civil rights movement, but individual African Americans who risked their lives to challenge segregation are overlooked.
In Montgomery, Alabama, on December 1, 1955, Mrs.
Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus and sat in the third row.
The driver told Parks she had to move to the back as the city required blacks to do.
On February 22, 1956, Parks was fingerprintsed by a Montgomery policeman, along with about 100 others who joined the bus boycott.
She was arrested by police.
The modern civil rights movement was started by Parks in holding her ground.
Most of the people riding the city's bus system were African Americans.
The pastor of the Dexter Avenue church, Martin Luther King Jr., was a leader in the boycott movement.
King was an eloquent speaker and the grandson of a slave.
He told his supporters to use the weapon of love.
The bus boycott in Montgomery was a huge success.
For 381 days, African Americans, women and men used black-owned taxis, walked, and organized carpools.
White supporters gave rides.
Many whites were angered by the mass protest, which included police harassment and attacks on black pedestrians.
The Klan bombed houses.
The Montgomery boycotters won a federal case against racial segregation on public buses.
King and other African Americans boarded the buses.
They showed that well coordinated, nonvi olent black activism could change things.
Martin Luther King was arrested for loitering.
He was arrested many times for disobeying the law.
America in the Fifties hoped action replaced resignation.
King was catapulted into the national spotlight by the boycott.
They lost their jobs.
Hate mail, death threats, and fifrebombings forced them to leave Alabama.
They remained engaged in the civil rights movement after moving to Detroit.
She said that freedom fifghters never retire.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was a result of congressional leaders agreeing to exploit divisions between northern and southern Democrats in order to get the black vote for Republicans.
The civil rights law was passed by the Senate with the help of majority leader Lyndon B. Johnson, a Texas Democrat who knew that he could never be elected president if he was viewed as just another.
The goal of the bill was to ensure that all Americans could vote.
The bill's enforcement provisions were watered down by Johnson.
The Civil Rights Commission was established by the Civil Rights Act in order to prevent interference with the right to vote.
The Civil Rights Act of 1960, which provided for federal courts to register African Americans to vote in districts where there was a "pattern and practice" of racial discrimination, also lacked teeth and depended upon vigorous vigorous.
Arkansas's Democratic governor, Orval Eugene Faubus, called a special session of the state legislature after the Civil Rights Act was passed.
Faubus used the state's National Guard to prevent nine black students from attending Little Rock's Central High School.
Elizabeth was going to Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, when she heard the hostile screams of her future classmates.
The mayor of Little Rock called the White House "pleading" for federal troops.
The brave black students entered the school and 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884 888-349-8884
Federal troops had been sent to the South to protect African Americans since the 1870s.
Para troopers used rifle butt and bayonets to break up the angry crowd.
Nine black students went to their classes with soldiers on patrol.
The soldiers stayed in Little Rock.
To a man, governors and congressmen from the south angrily lashed out at Eisenhower, accusing him of violating states' rights.
Senator James Eastland claimed that the president had "lit the fifres of hate".
Eisenhower stressed that his use of federal troops had nothing to do with "the integration or segregation question" and everything to do with maintaining law and order.
The United States was a government of law, that the Constitution was the supreme law of the land, and that the Supreme Court was the interpreter of the Constitution according to Eisenhower.
The president was forced out of his comfort zone by Martin Luther King Jr.
Many politicians in the south called for the president's removal.
In the summer of 1958, Governor Faubus closed the Little Rock high schools.
The governor of Virginia did the same thing.
The schools reopened in 1959 after the court proceedings dragged on.
When state and fed eral courts struck down state laws that cut off funds to integrated pub lic schools, there was resistance to integration in Virginia.
The Lower South, from South Carolina to Louisiana, still opposed even token integration despite massive resistance to racial integration.
Not a single child in those states attended an integrated school.
Faubus served six terms as governor of Arkansas.
Little Rock progress toward greater civil rights seemed slow.
African Americans blamed the NAACP for relying too much on the courts.
Martin Luther King's civil rights movement was even more visible because of the widespread sense of disappointment.
The dark shadow of a deep appointment settled upon us after we were confronted with blasted hopes.