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18 Ecology in Further Detail -- Part 1
The main concepts of ecology are population growth, biotic potential, life history strategies, and predator-prey relationships.
This chapter talks about concepts such as succession, trophic levels, energy and biomass pyramids, and biogeochemical cycles.
clumped, uniform, and random are the main types of dispersion patterns.
Desert, taiga, temperate forest, tropical forest, tundra, and water are some of the things that come up on the AP exam.
You should have a general understanding of the biogeochemical cycles.
The main concepts of ecology are population growth, biotic potential, life history "strategies" and predator-prey relationships.
The chapter will look at between- and within community interactions.
We will discuss succession, trophic levels, energy pyramids, and biogeochemical cycles.
In schools of fish or herds of cattle, the individuals live in packs that are separated from each other.
Birds on a wire sitting above a highway are evenly distributed across a geographic area.
There is a tree distribution in a forest.
It takes into account a lot of variables.
Each time period, offspring is produced.
Individuals need time to reach reproductive maturity.
Rate the number of people who move into a population.
Rate the number of people who move out of a population.
The size and growth rate of a population are determined by these statistics.
A lower death rate will give a faster rate of population growth.
A high female sex ratio could lead to more births in the population.
The offspring can be produced at a faster rate with a short generation time.
An age structure that consists of more individuals in the middle of their reproductive years will grow at a faster rate than one weighted toward older people.
Food supplies, diseases, and waste produced by organisms are a few examples of limiting factors.
As the population approaches and passes the carrying capacity, these limiting factors rear their ugly heads.
The bubonic plague, which just stink, is one of the examples of density- dependent limiting factors.
The population size has nothing to do with these limiting factors.
Floods, earthquakes, and other natural disasters are examples of density-independent limiting factors.
The S shape of the curve is caused by limiting factors that limit the size of the population.
Natural resources, such as food, will run out eventually.
The members of the population will have to compete for food.
There are winners and sinners in competition.
The population is above the carrying capacity.
Being overpopulated will cause a rise in the death rate that will push the population back down to the carrying capacity or below.
Resources replenish when it drops below the carrying capacity, allowing for an increase in the birth rate and decline in the death rate.
When the population size falls below the carrying capacity, it will come back to it and even surpass it.
There is a chance that when a population dips below the carrying capacity due to some major change in the environment, it may equilibrate at a new, lower carrying capacity.
The organisms need extensive care until they are mature.
The population was selected.
Selected organisms need very little care after they mature.
The population grows quickly, reproduces quickly, and dies quickly.
The population was selected.
The survival rates for different age groups are shown in the curves.
Humans and other large mammals are examples of type I organisms.
lizards, hydra, and other small mammals are examples of type II species.
Many fishes, oysters, and other marine organisms are examples of type III organisms.
There are a lot of species within a community.
They are bound to interact because they share a home.
The interactions range from positive to negative.
One of the organisms benefits while the other is unaffected.
Cattle egrets feast on insects that are aroused into flight by cattle.
The birds get food, but the cattle don't.
Both organisms benefit from the interaction.
There is a mutualistic relationship between acacia trees and ants.
Everything from being able to feast on the delicious sugar produced by the trees, to the trees being protected by the ants' attack on any potentially harmful foreign insects.
A collection of organisms living as one is affected by interactions involving a lichen.
The weight is pulled by the matter and energy created by the fungus component.
They are doomed without each other's contribution.
Tapeworms, which live in the gut of their hosts, are a popular example of a parasitic relationship.
They reap the benefits of the meals their host consumes by stealing the nutrition from them.
I and my younger brother own a PS2 console.
Both species are hurt by this type of interaction.
There are two major forms of competition.
The members of the same species rely on the same resources for survival.
Resources interact in complex ways when they become lations.
The predator hunts the prey.
The hunted may develop mechanisms to defend against predatory attack if they don't fight.
The defense mechanisms developed by prey are described in the next section.
It is warning coloration adopted by animals that have a chemical defense mechanism.
The predator has grown cautious of bright color animals due to the fact that prey of a certain color have sprayed the predator with a chemical defense in the past.
The potential for an alarm system to be encountered when attempting to steal a car is a factor that may deter a person from doing so.
An example of this is a beetle.
There is a chance that the beetle is a bee.
It is similar to camouflage worn by army soldiers.
The terrain is harder to see if you look like it.
Some insects have designs on their wings that look like large eyes, making them look more imposing than they really are.
The faster the negative association is made, the more dangerous the prey is.
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