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5 -- Part 5: Developing Through The Life Span
As adolescents in Western cultures seek to form their own identities, they begin to pull away from their parents.
The 14-year-old who wouldn't be caught dead holding hands with her mom becomes the preschooler who can't be close enough to her.
Gradually, the transition occurs.
The transition to adolescence tends to have greater conflict with first born than with second born children and with mothers than with fathers.
A minority of parents and their adolescents have differences that lead to real splits and great stress.
Most disagreements are harmless.
The issues with sons and daughters are usually related to behavior problems, such as acting out or hygiene, and involve relationships.
In 10 countries, from Australia to Bangladesh to Turkey, most adolescents have said they like their parents.
The adolescents were often reported.
Positive parent-teen relations and positive peer relations are interdependent.
High school girls who had affectionate relationships with their mothers were more likely to have intimate relationships with their girlfriends.
Teens who feel close to their parents are more likely to do well in school.
Misbehaving teens are more likely to have tense relationships with their parents and other adults.
Adolescents have diminishing parental influence and growing peer influence.
According to Morton and Brossard, only 45 percent of teens could recall such a talk if the parents had given earnest advice.
Peer influences and heredity do a lot of the heavy lifting in forming individual temperament and personality differences.
Teens focus more on immediate rewards when they are with peers.
The majority of teens are herd animals.
They act like their peers than their parents.
They become what their friends are and what "everybody's doing" The power of peer influence is demonstrated by the use of social media by teens.
Teens prefer photos with many other likes, even photos of risky behaviors such as marijuana smoking.
Teens' brains become more active in areas associated with reward processing when they view many-liked photos.
It feels good to Liking and doing what everyone else does.
A lot of what everybody is doing is networking.
The average teen in the U.S. sends 30 text messages a day and has 146 Facebook friends.
They use social media to share pictures and videos.
Both for better and for worse, online communication stimulates intimate self-disclosure.
A study of English-language Facebook users found that it took parent users and their children more than 300 days to "friend" each other.
The pain is acute for those who feel excluded and bullied, both online and in real life.
Students suffer in silence.
The pain of exclusion is still there.
40 years later, those who were bullied as children showed poorer physical health and greater psychological distress.
The majority of adolescents identify with their parents' political views.
In other parts of the world, this slice of life has been much smaller.
Young people assume adult responsibilities after sexual maturity.
A public rite of passage could be celebrated with an elaborate initiation.
The new adult would marry and have children.
After graduation, independence was put on hold in many Western countries.
Teenagers are taking more time to establish themselves as adults.
In the United States, the average age at first marriage has increased more than 5 years since 1960, to 29 for men and 27 for women.
In 1960, three in four women and two in three men had finished school, left home, become financially independent, married, and had a child.
Less than half of 30-year-old women and one-third of men have achieved these five goals.
The once-brief interval between biological maturity and social independence has been widened by later independence and earlier sexual maturity.
The time from 18 to the midtwenties is an not-yet-settled phase of life in prosperous communities.
People who go to college or enter the job market may have their own priorities.
They may be doing so from their parents' home because they can't afford their own place.
Today's more gradually emerging adulthood is recognized by the U.S.
The average interval between a woman's first menstrual period and marriage was 7 years in the 1890s.
By the year 2006 in industrialized countries, the gap had widened to about 14 years.
Marriage later in life helps stretch out the transition to adulthood for many adults who are unmarried.
The issue that Erikson believed we wrestled with at that time was the psychosocial development stage.
Young adulthood 7.
You can check your answer by clicking on the e-book and Appendix C of the printed text.
According to research, trying to answer these questions on your own will improve retention.
An identity crisis is marked by adolescence.
A person who can think logically is in the ___________ ___________ stage.
During adolescence, the primary task is getting formal operations.
Some psychologists refer to the period in some Western cultures from age 18 to the mid-twenties and beyond as ___________ ___________.
You can find answers in the e-book and at the back of the printed text.
Across the life span, the unfolding of our lives continues.
It's more difficult to generalize about adulthood stages than it is about life's early years.
You could say a lot about each child if you knew that James is a one-year-old and Jamal is a 10-year-old.
Not so with adults who have the same number of years.
The boss may be 30 or 60, the marathon runner may be 20 or 50, and the 19-year-old may be a parent who supports a child.
Our life courses are similar.
At age 50, we differ from our 25-year-old selves in many ways.
People will vary widely in physical, psychological, and social development within each of these stages.
It depends on who you ask.
The old was 76 for those 60 and over.
Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keenness, and cardiac output all begin to decline in our mid-twenties like the declining daylight after the summer solstice.
Athletes are the first to notice.
Most Valuable Player awardees have come within 2 years of their age.
Most of us don't like to see the early signs of decline because we don't need top physical performance in our daily lives.
Athletes over 40 know that physical decline begins to accelerate.
DM finds himself increasingly not racing for the loose ball as a lifelong basketball player.
Normal activities are not affected by diminished vigor.
During early and middle adulthood, a person's health and exercise habits are more important than their age.
Many physically fit 50-year-olds run four miles with ease, while sedentary 25-year-olds find themselves huffing and puffing up two flights of stairs.
George Blair was the world's oldest barefoot water skier.
He set the record at the age of 87.
Aging also causes a decline in fertility for women.
For a 35- to 39-year-old woman, the chance of getting pregnant after a single act of intercourse is only half that of a woman of the same age.
Men experience a decline in sperm count and testosterone levels.
Within a few years of age 50, women experience the end of their menstrual cycles.
Some men may experience distress and others may experience declining capacities.
In the past year, nearly 9 in 10 Americans in their late twenties reported having had vaginal intercourse, compared with 22 percent of women and 43 percent of men over 70.
Most men and women are satisfied with their sex life.
This was true of 70 percent of Canadians and 75 percent of Finns.
75 percent of respondents said they were sexually active into their 80's.
In an American Association of Retired Persons sexuality survey, it was not until age 75 or older that most women and nearly half of men reported little sexual desire.
Good health and a willing partner allow the flames of desire to live on.
In twenty-nine countries, life expectancy at birth increased from 46.5 years to 71 years from 1950 to 2015.
In China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia, life expectancy has gone up.
Increasing life expectancy and decreasing birthrates combine to create an increasing demand for hearing aids, retirement villages and nursing homes.
Around the world, 1 in 10 people are 60 or older.
According to the United Nations, the number will triple to nearly 3 in 10 by the end of the century.
Men are more likely to die throughout the life span.
The sex ratio is down because 126 male embryos begin life for every 100 females.
Male infants' death rates are more than females' in the first year.
Women outlive men by an average of nearly five years.
Women outnumber men 5 to 1.
The body is old.
It would have been trivial if it had been at age 20.
Smoking, weight gain, and stress are some of the causes of this wear.
Children who are breast-fed have longer telomeres, while those who have been abused have shorter ones.
Aging cells may die without being replaced with perfect genetic replicas.
The oldest human in history, a French woman named Jeanne Calment, died in 1998.
She was still riding a bike.
Good health habits and low stress enable longevity.
Our risk of premature death is increased by chronic anger and depression.
Between 2000 and 3000 Americans died on the two days after Christmas than on Christmas and the two days before.
The death rate increases when people reach their birthdays and when they survive until after the new millennium.
When the stairs get higher, the print gets smaller, and other people mumble more, we are not aware of physical decline until later in life.
Light-level changes affect visual sharpness and distance perception.
A device that emits aversive high-pitched sound has discouraged teens from loitering around a convenience store in Wales.
With age, the eye's lens becomes less transparent and the amount of light reaching the retina decreases.
A 20-year-old retina gets more light than a 65-year-old one.
To see as well as a 20-year-old when reading or driving, a 65-year-old needs three times as much light.
Most stairway falls take place on the top step, where the person descends from a window-lit hallway into the darker stairwell.
Our knowledge of aging could be used to design environments that would reduce accidents.
People care less about what their bodies look like as they age.
There is good and bad news about health for older people.
Older adults are more susceptible to life threatening illnesses such as cancer and pneumonia due to the body's weakened immune system.
The National Center for Health Statistics found that they were half as likely as 20-year-olds and one-fifth as likely as preschoolers to suffer upper respiratory flu.
A long life is a gift.
Good genes, a nurturing environment, and a little luck are what it takes to reach old age.
You can put yourself in your elders' shoes with new technology.
Younger people can hear, see, and move in these special suits.
We process information with greater and greater speed up to the teen years.
Older people take a bit more time to solve perceptual puzzles than younger people.
Most 70 year olds are no match for a 20 year old in a video game.
The processing lag can have deadly consequences.
Fatal accident rates per mile driven increase after age 75.
They surpass the 16-year-old level by the age of 85.
Older drivers seem to focus well on the road ahead, but less on other vehicles approaching from the side.
Older people account for less than 10 percent of crashes.
Slowing reactions contribute to increased accident risks among those 75 and older, and their greater fragility increases their risk of death when accidents happen.
Brain regions important to memory begin to decline as you get older.
The blood-brain barrier breaks down in the hippocampus, which leads to cognitive decline.
It's like "aging 5 years in 5 minutes" if older adults take a memory test.
By age 80, a gradual net loss of brain cells begins to contribute to a brain-weight reduction.
The late-maturing frontal lobes help account for teen impulsivity.
Young adult brains are more active in memory tasks than older adult brains.
In studies of identical twin pairs in which only one twin exercises, it's shown that exercise slows aging.
Older adults who are active tend to be quick learners.
The benefits of physical exercise include enhancing muscles, bones, and energy, as well as preventing obesity and heart disease, and slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
Brain cell development and neural connections can be stimulated by exercise, thanks to increased oxygen and nutrient flow.
Sedentary older adults who are randomly assigned to aerobic exercise programs exhibit enhanced memory, sharper judgement, and reduced risk of cognitive decline.
Exercise reduces brain shrinkage in old brains.
The birth of new nerve cells in the hippocampus is important for memory.
It increases the power of the cells in the brain and muscles.
We are more likely to wear out from disuse.
Whether gym is one of the most intriguing developmental psychology questions.
We remember some things as we age.
Adults are asked to recall the most important events of the last 50 years, which tend to be from their teens or twenties.
When asked their all-time favorite music, movies, and athletes, they display this "reminiscencebump" (Janssen et al., 2012).
The Vietnam war, the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and the election of the first Black U.S. president are all important.
First kiss, first job, first day at college, first meeting our romantic partner's parents are some of the firsts our teens and twenties hold.
The peak time for learning and remembering is early adulthood.
In one test of recall, people watched video clips as strangers said their names, using a common format: "Hello, I'm Larry" The strangers came back and gave more information.
After a second and third replay of the introductions, everyone remembered more names, but younger adults beat older adults.
Part of the task is how well older people remember.
Older adults showed no memory decline despite trying to memorize 24 words.
Younger adults are more likely to recall new names than older adults.
During early and middle adulthood, the ability to recall new information declined, but the ability to recognize new information did not.
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