The Caribbean Islands were required to reverse some of the basic presumptions of English law.
It was contrary to the patriarchal foundations of English law.
The men who sat in Virginia's House of Burgesses wouldn't propose such a thing lightly.
In 1656, she petitioned for her freedom based on her father's status.
William Bacon's Rebellion was named after him.
He fathered two of Key's children and married her after taking her case.
Key was freed from bondage.
Key escaped her mother's fate because her father and husband were both free Englishmen.
Key's avenue to freedom was closed by the 1662 statute.
The process by which the institution of chattel slavery was molded to the needs of colonial planters is just one example of how Europeans adapted the principles they brought with them to their new surroundings.
On the one hand, we see how people in positions of power are affected by their social and political beliefs, while on the other, we see how people in different states are affected by their social and political beliefs.
The outlines of a new world began to emerge from the collision of cultures through countless contests of power and authority.
In this 1670 painting, Lord Baltimore holds a map of Maryland, the colony he owned and which would soon belong to his grandson Cecil, shown in the painting as already grasping his magnificent inheritance.
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Spain's Tribute Colonies produced 200 tons of silver per year, accounting for half the world's supply.
The two great indigenous empires of the Americas European interest in the Americas took shape under the influence of Spain's conquest of the Aztec and Inca European empire.
There was a lot of silver across the empires.
Spanish colonizers were able to tap money from the Pacific Ocean to China in exchange for the enormous wealth of China.
After native rulers were overthrown in Europe, the gold that had once been honored by the Aztec and Inca gods flowed into archs and into America.
The Spanish crown was able to benefit from being centrally controlled to protect their wealth.
The Spanish caused ruinous inflation.
There was a new society on the lands.
Between 1500 and 1650, at least 350,000 Spaniards tile responses from Spain's European rivals migrated to the Americas.
There were 300,000 Africans arriving in a new American world.
Leading conquistadors grew after Pizarro and Moctezuma were defeated.
They claim tribute in labor and goods from Indian communities over time.
The pattern of prominent men conning among the principal groups was set early, as a result of the legal code that differ.
The value of these grants was greatly improved by the discovery of gold and silver in Mexico and the Andes, but the number of peoples of Spanish and mixed-race declined in both Mexico and the Andes.
The number grew after descent.
In the beginning, the Spaniards congreed the conquest, mines were developed in gated cities, but eventually they moved into the coun Guanajuato and created large estates.
Indian workers were forced into the mines by most of the laborers who made them available to the Empire.
Spanish priests increased agricultural yields and pop gious ceremonies and texts and converted natives to Christianity, which suppressed growth in other continents.
Many animals, plants, and germs were carried to the Americas from The Columbian Exchange.
The natural American landscapes were altered by the Spanish invasion.
Smallpox, influ, and other silent killers dogs and llamas were not domesticated by Native Americans, but were brought from Europe and Africa and brought with them an enormous Old World bestiary.
In the densely populated core areas, populations of grains like rice, wheat, and oats made the transatlantic voyage decline by 90 percent or more in the first century.
Spain tried to get the sexually transmitted disease back to Europe but was unable to hold onto it.
A Tupinamba Indian named Jeppipo Wasu captured a German soldier named Hans Staden.
When Wasu and his family traveled to a neighboring village, they were very sick.
The Columbian Exchange, a vast intercontinental movement of plants, animals, and diseases, began as European traders and explorers traveled around the world between 1430 and 1600.
Corn and potatoes enriched the diet of Europeans, Africans, and Asians.
The native inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere were almost wiped out by the diseases of the African and Eurasian regions.
In opposition to Protestantism.
After Martin Luther's attack on the Catholic, Henry broke with Rome and began a Protestant critique of Catholicism.
Spain became the wealthiest nation in Europe and England was granted an annulment after Mex ico placed himself at the head of the new Church of Peru.
The most powerful ruler was King Philip II.
Philip was determined to follow the teachings of the Catholic Church and root out any challenges to it.
Faced with a lot of pressure, they appeared.
Queen Netherlands, a collection of Dutch- and Flemish Elizabeth I, approved a Protestant con speaking provinces that had grown wealthy from tex fession of faith.
At the same time, Elizabeth tile manufacturing and trade with Portuguese outposts retained the Catholic ritual of Holy Communion and in Africa and Asia.
They revolted against Spanish rule in archbishops in order to protect their Calvinist faith.
A painting by an anonymous artist depicts a pair of Dutch ambassadors being received by Queen Elizabeth I.
The seventeen provinces that made up the Dutch Republic were in rebellion against Spanish rule and hoped for Elizabeth's support.
She signed the Treaty of Nonsuch to support the Dutch cause.
The Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588.
The independence of the Anglican Church diverted workers and resources from Spain, which was against Philip II.
Francis Drake, a Protestant farmer's son from America, was the most famous military service of these Elizabethan "sea dogs".
By the time of Philip's death in 1598, Spain's economy was in serious decline.
England grew during the Pacific to disrupt Spanish shipping to Manila.
England captured two Spanish treasure from 3 million in 1500 to 5 million in 1630 as its population soared.
English merchants had long supplied gold, silk, and spices to bring his investors a 4,700 per European weavers with high cent return on their investment.
Why did Spain's economy speak Catholic Ireland?
The Irish "wild sav wool from the owners of great disrepair and England's ages" who were more barbarous and brutish in estates and sent it "out" to land economy improve in their customs.
English soldiers massacred thousands before weaving into cloth.
The treatment of Indians in North America was figured out.
Calvinism in Holland was wiped out by this system of state-assisted manufacturing.
Elizabeth reduced imports and destroyed the Spanish fleet after she encouraged him.
Philip continued to spend his American gold and trade caused gold and silver to flow into England and silver to be used in religious wars, an ill-advised policy that stimulated further economic expansion.
In order to survive the present and carve out pathways to which the monarch's future can be found, import duties were boosted.
By 1600, Elizabeth's policies laid the groundwork for overseas colonization.
The merchant fleet and wealth of English was needed to challenge Spain's control of the Western Hemisphere.
The sugar plantations on Madeira, the Plantation Colonies Azores, the Cape Verdes, and Sao Tome were created by the Portuguese.
As Spain hammered out its American empire and sugar mills were established in Pernambuco, it struggled against its Protestant rivals.
Each large plantation had its own milling oper, created by England, France, and the Netherlands, because sugarcane is extremely heavy and rots cessful plantation settlements in Brazil.
From the tropical coast of Brazil northwestwards through the West Indies and into the tropical and subtropical lowlands of southeastern North America, the plantation zone was extended.
Sugar was the most important plantation crop in the Americas, but where the soil or climate could not support it, planters explored other options, including tobacco, indigo, cotton, and rice.
In 1559, when a wave of smallpox left the island, the diseases that had been unsupplied for several years vanished.
The fate of old people.
As a result, the "lost colony" remains a compelling turned to African slaves in ever-growing numbers.
The switch was done.
The charge of English expansion was taken by merchants after Brazil's occupation.
In 1606, King James I ment progressed more slowly, it required both trial and hard work to build a colony.
The lands stretching from present-day North Carolina to southern New York are all in London.
The company's directors named the region England was slow to embrace the prospect of planting Virginia to honor the memory of Elizabeth I.
The colonies in the Americas were influenced by the Spanish example.
The Virginia Company sent an all-male group to Newfoundland and Maine in the 1580s with no women, organized and poorly funded.
Native peoples along the Atlantic coast harvest fish, crabs, and oysters that are rich in vitamins and minerals.
The Indians gather fish in the shallow waters of the Albemarle Sound in this watercolor by the English adventurer John White.
The weir used to catch fish and store them for later consumption.
The transition of North America took place during the 17th century.
Others wanted to make a quick profit.
The men didn't fare well in their new environment.
They settled on a swampy peninsula to honor the king after arriving in Virginia.
Historians and archaeologists plan to use the settlements along the eastern coast of North America for further exploration.
The Art but only England had a lot of settlers.
French, Dutch, Swedish, and English colonies were trading European manufacturers to Native Americans in exchange for animal furs and skins, which had far-reaching implications for Indian societies.
In December 1607, Smith led a group of people up the river in search of food.
Smith was captured by two hundred warriors and taken to the village of Werowacomoco.
It was on this occasion that Pocahontas interceded to save his life.
The note at the bottom of the engraving is incorrect, as it was Opechancanough who took Smith captive.
38 of the 120 men were alive nine months later.
The English rates of death remained high after the death of John Rolfe.
More tactics failed than had been dispatched to Jamestown.
It was not possible to decide who would pay more than half.
Our men were destroyed with tribute to who led to more than a decade of uneasy cruell diseases, as Swellings, Fluxes, Burning Fevers, relations, followed by a long era of ruinous warfare.
Americas is a place used by Indians as a medicine.
He was willing to use his strength.
John Rolfe found a West Indian strain that would treat the English traders as potential allies who could flourish in Virginia soil and produce a small amount of valuable goods.
Thousands of new settlers were provided by him.
The English came to hungry English explorers with corn and nicotine in return.
James I wanted "hatchets".
The English would soon name Virginia after Pocahontas, who was born around 1596 in the region.
What we know of her comes from other people.
She was the first Native American to marry an Englishman, and she traveled to England with her husband and son.
In June 1617, Pocahontas died in Gravesend, England.
His daughter's clubs were sent to her father so that he could beate out his braines.
Corne, be friends with us.
His marriage came so one to the knowledge of Powhatan, a thing acceptable to him, that within ten daies he sent Opachisco, an old Uncle of hers, and two of his sons, to see the marriage.
The marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas took place in April 1614.
Rolfe defended his motives in a letter to Virginia's deputy-governor.
I went to see her after a brief hello, without any long time bin so intangled, and in awe.
Adding hereunto her great appearance stranger, and by the same reason, I must not allow of knowledge of God, her capableness.
I will tax or taunt you if you call mee childe, the base rule of their owne filthiness, and so I will bee for ever and ever your Countrie.
According to most historians, the event described and shown in sources 1 and 2 was a Powhatan ritual to make Smith an ally and that his life was not in danger.
Source 6 claims to have recordings of a conversation between Smith and Pocahontas.
From her point of view, imagine the various encounters she had with the Englishmen.
The royal treasury was strengthened by TRANSFORMATION OF NORTH AMERICA.
To foster the flow of migrants, the Virginia an appointed governor, an elected assembly, a formal Company allowed individual settlers to own land, legal system, and an established Anglican Church -- granting 100 acres to every freeman and more to those became the model for royal colonies throughout who imported.
The English America was created by the company.
The governor and the company that developed the second tobacco-growing colony in England could veto its acts.
Land boring Maryland by 1622.
James's successor, King Charles I, was secretly sympathetic to the law of England and granted lands that attracted thousands of new recruits.
To encourage Cecilius to move to a colony in the bay.
Migrants established St. Mary's City at the mouth of the river.
The pro Indians want to minimize religious confrontations.
The governor was ordered to allow "no scandall Opechancanough, Powhatan's younger brother and nor offence to be given to any of the Protestants" by the prietor.
English proposals to place Indian children in schools with wealthy migrants were resisted by him.
Once colony's stability is achieved.
In 1621, the paramount chief of the settlers, Opechancanough, told the elected assembly that Baltimore's powers should be taken away and that the leader of the neighboring Potomack Indians should be given the right to initiate legislation.
His Opechancanough almost succeeded in protecting it.
Christians have the right to follow their beliefs.
The governor and advisory council of Sir Thomas Warner were appointed by a small English party under the command of the king.
The king's Privy Council, a committee French group to settle the other end of the island, must approve all legislation.
The king needs to defend their position.
Making sugar requires a lot of hard labor and expertise.
Field slaves worked strenuously in the hot tropical sun to cut the sugarcane and carry it to an ox or wind-powered mill where it was pressed to yield the juice.
Slave artisans took over.
After heated the juice, they added ingredients that separated the sugar from the molasses and distilled it into rum.
The English and French Colonists were able to experiment with a wide variety of cash within a few years.
The mutual occupation of the island began in the 1640s.
The Lesser Antilles included the French islands of Martinique, Guadeloupe, and St. Bart's, as well as the English Martinique.
In 1655, an English fleet captured the Spanish island of Jamaica and opened it to settlement.
Plantation agriculture on the largest islands encouraged consolida tions to hold out longer.
A large segment of the society was formed from the experimentation of new forms of labor disci.
Sixty percent of pline maximized their control.
There was a lot of death.
Between 1622 and 1640, the colony's largest planters, tured servants and slaves, were brought in by buying additional inden migrants.
It had ever- greater claims to land.
The planter said that all of the resources for outnumbered baptisms in the second half of the seven were in tobacco.
In 1640, exports were 3 million pounds, in 1660 they were 10 million.
The prospect of owning migrants from gentry or noble families was still attractive to settlers.
The vast system of buying English indentured servants in the West Indies was copied by 100,000 English migrants who came to Virginia and from southern England.
The background of 5,000 caused the price of land in Bristol to double, driving servants for the Chesapeake.
Merchants persuaded them to sign nies of North America and the Caribbean once they arrived in Bristol, and life in the plantation colo work was harsh.
The men were bound by community contracts because of the scarcity of towns.
To work for a master for four or five years was not uncommon, and marriages often ended with the death of a spouse, because there were not many women.
Women were pregnant.
In tropical and subtropical climates, servants were valuable cargo.
West Indian planters paid high prices for many contracts because mothers died after having a first or second child.
The location of the Indian villages should be noted.
After 1640, the shift to slave labor was more than a decade old and the white population grew tenfold.
Slowly, more women migrated to Virginia.
John Rolfe noted in 1619 that a Dutch man had a Dutch wife and two children.
There was a decline in the proportion of indentured servants in the labor force.
In 1649, only 2 percent of the population were Africans.
Some bought their freedom exploited their servants, forcing them to work long hours from their owners, and some, like Elizabeth Key, who beat them without cause, won't marry.
If servants ran away or became free in the courts.
Once free, some ambitious nant, masters went to court to increase the term of Africans and purchased slaves or their service.
The labor contracts of English servants were vulnered by female servants.
The political power of the gentry was taken away by the planters.
Tobacco used to sell their contracts to their servants.
It was sold for 30 pence a pound and now it sells for less than one Virginia.
More African workers were imported as they term of their contract.
Only 25% of them achieved their goal of becoming a political elite.
Spencer and other leading legislators did better.
Because men had grown "very sensible of English from African residents by color (white-black) the Misfortune of Wives," many propertied rather than by religion.
The planters married women.
If you want to join the militia, you have to own guns.
They were barred from owning English servants.
In the 1530s, Jacques Cartier went up the St. Law, a mark of inferior legal status, and slavery was claimed for France.
It is becoming a permanent and hereditary condition.
"These two words, century, but in 1608 Samuel de Champlain returned Negro and Slave had by custom grown Homogeneous and founded the fur-trading post of Quebec."
While the Hurons controlled trade north of the Great heart of a tribute-based empire in Latin America, Champlain provided them with manufactured tropical and subtropical environments.
European patterns of eco made guns, which Champlain sold to the Hurons, were more closely replicated.
Jesuits from the Dutch, French, and English traveled to India to live in the country.
They mastered Indian languages and came to coastline, initially searching for a Northwest Passage to understand and respect their values.
Indian peoples initially welcomed the French "Black oped an interest in the region on its own terms."
When the Indians fished for cod on the Grand Banks, they became suspicious of the Christian god because he did not protect them from disease.
A Peoria chief said that a priest's "fables are good only in his own country; we farms and larger manors where they reproduced Euro have our own beliefs, which do not make us die as his pean patterns of agricultural."
Indians blamed the came with a desire to create missionaries.
"If you cannot make rain, they speak of places of refuge where they could put religious ideals nothing less than making away with you," lamented into practice.
New France became an expansive center of zation in the early 17th century, while England were the three pillars of neo- European coloni.
The early trade between Europeans and Indians in the Northeast was dominated by the humble beaver.
The hairs were covered in barbs that allowed them to mat.
Even broad-brimmed hats would hold their shape because European hatmakers pressed this fur into felt so strong.
beavers were hunted to near extinction in North America as hats became fashionable in Europe and the colonies.
The prospects for Europeans who traveled to tropical plantations like Barbados Plantation Colonies were vastly different from those who traveled to neo- European colonies like Massachusetts Bay.
In the former, planters employed small armies of servants and Neo-Europes slaves; in the latter, the first generation of colonists worked hard, often in cold climates and rocky soils.
One of the richest places in the world is the island ofBarbados.
The gentry of cold, being more foolish than wise, have for a time here lost the use of their feet, but others use their fingers.
Some apes are commanded as they please.
With English, French, Dutch, and Indians, they could not get their strong-water bottles into their Scots, Irish, Spaniards, and Jews.
If they are accounted poor, planters will have 30 more or less about 4 or 5 years old, they are well contented and look not so much at they sell them from one to the other as we do sheep.
England dumped its rubbish on the island.
He was a soldier who visited Barbados in 1900.
King Louis XIV discouraged migration.
New France was turned into a royal colony after Louis XIV drafted tens of thousands of men into the military.
The French Calvinist Huguenots from migrat French servants labored under contract for three years in New France, fearing they might win converts and take control of the colony.
French terms were more generous than those for indentured ser legal system, which gave peasants strong rights to their village vants in the English colonies.
One migrant said it was in the village of Saint Ours in Quebec.
By 1698, the Dutch 15,200 lived in New France, compared to 100,000 in England's North American colonies.
Despite this small population, France eventually Dutch control of the Atlantic trade in slaves and sugar claimed a vast inland arcs from the St. Lawrence Valley to the Indian Ocean.
Dutch merchants dispatched the English to drive this expansion.
The Mississippi River in present-day Wisconsin is where Henry Hudson found a route to reach the East Indies.
Robert de La Salle found a river to the Gulf of Mexico when he traveled down the rivers of northeast America in 1681.
To honor Louis.
La Salle named the region Louisiana after Hudson's exploration of the XIV river.
The port of New Orange was founded in 1614 in order to trade furs with the Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi.
The West India Company, which Lakes and Mississippi are a part of, was formed in 1621 by the Dutch network of forts.
The colonies of New Netherland and Amsterdam were founded by soldiers and missionaries, while Indians, traders, and mixed-race offspring created trading brought in farmers and artisans.
The new colony didn't thrive.
The population of the Dutch Republic was too small to support emigration, and by 1600, Amsterdam had become the financial center of northern Europe, and Dutch finan.
The European banking, insurance, and textile industries were dominated by the ciers.
Dutch merchants owned more ships West India Company granted huge estates along the and employed more sailors than did the wealthy Dutchmen who promised to fleets of England, France, and Spain.
The world's commerce was only managed by New Netherland by 1664.
Less than half of their 5,000 residents fought for independence from Spain and Portugal Dutch.
The wooden palisade suggests that New Amsterdam was a fortlike trading post at the edge of a vast land populated by alien Indian peoples.
The city was a pale imitation of Amsterdam.
The first settlers built their houses in the Dutch style, with gable ends facing the street, and excavated a canal across lower Manhattan Island.
Spanish, Portuguese, and Dutch merchants took control of the maritime trade routes between Europe and India, Indonesia, and China.
Two new trading connections were created by them.
The South Atlantic System carried slaves, sugar, and manufactured goods between Europe, Africa, and the valuable plantation settlements in Brazil and the Caribbean islands.
Spanish American silver was sent to China in exchange for silks, ceramics, and other items.