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12.1 Overview of Gene Expression
The next chapter focuses on something.
Some of the interesting functions of genes that produce occur at the molecular level are explored in the steps of gene expression.
phenylketonuria can be caused bymutations.
NH2 affects the genes by altering their function.
The function of genes was determined byosine research that focused on the effects of mutations.
In this section, we will look at two early experiments in which researchers studied the effects of humans and bread mold on each other.
We will look at the general features of gene expression.
In 1908, a British physician proposed a relation.
The conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine is one of the steps in the pathway.
There are boxes on the right.
There are disorders named in the boxes on the left.
If a person had two reactions, what disease would result?
The work of Garrod centered on the disease biotin.
This compound is similar to Garrod's idea that genes carry a bluish black color and result in discolored skin and information to make specific enzymes.
They thought that a muta causes the urine to be black.
He knew that alkaptonuria would not grow unless the amino acid was supplemented with a pattern of inheritance.
In the growth medium.
If a person has a disease that has strains, they are called wild-type Chapter 17.
One line of study looked at the arginine.
Both parents inherit thefective gene that causes it.
He proposed in 1908 that a relationship between a defect in the molecule ornithine and the inheritance of a mutant gene could lead to the synthesis of arginine.
She or he wouldn't produce any or lyzed by a differentidase if they were from the same parents.
They were able one or both of their parents to inherit the inborn error.
At the turn of the last century, this was a particu to identify several different strains that required arginine for larly insightful idea because of the structure and function of the genetic growth.
They thought that each strain was completely unknown.
The strain that became aware of Garrod's work and was interested in the relation that was originally identified as requiring arginine for growth could be shipped between genes.
Group 1 is missing an important part of the conversion process, a car of a precursor molecule into ornithine.
They could only grow if the growth medium was supplemented with one ornithine, citrulline, or arginine.
The pathway shows the required arginine synthesis enzymes.
The a-globin pathway that is needed for the conversion of ornithine into and b-globin genes is missing in Group 2.
If only ornithine 3 was used, the group 2 Mutants would not grow.
If citrulline or arginine was added, some mRNAs could grow.
Group 3 did not have the enzyme needed for the polypeptides.
This allows for more than one conversion of citrulline.
The mutants could grow something called polypeptide.
The researchers were able to show that some genes produce non-codingRNAs that don't order the functions of the genes involved in arginine synthesis.
The topic is discussed in Chapter 13.
As the functions of genes became better understood, the Arginine hypothesis was expanded.
The results show that a single gene controls the synthesis of a single enzyme.
Their hypothesis was changed in four ways.
The act of making a copy of the information contained in genes is called transcription.
Most genes do not function as enzymes.
There are two or more different types of proteins that have the same information.
By comparison, from the ribosomes to the DNA.
Ribosomes play a key role in the synthesis of polypeptides.
The process of synthesizing a specific polypeptide on a ribosome is called the information in such cases.
The term translation is used because a base sequence in a functionalProtein is composed of two or more mRNAs and is "translated" into an acid sequence of a polypeptide.
In the nucleus, transcription andRNA modification occur, whereas translation takes place in the cytosol.
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