Chapter 18 -- Part 3: European Power and Expansion
Many of the colonists were radical Protestants.
Massachusetts Bay Colony grew into a prosperous settlement after the small and struggling Puritan outpost of Plymouth Colony.
The dispersion of settlers into the new communities of Providence, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Haven was caused by religious disputes in Massachusetts.
Slavery was not a major factor in New England because of the lack of conditions for plantation agriculture.
English settlements hugged the Atlantic coastline and expelled indigenous people from their lands, leading to attacks by displaced groups and wars of reprisal and extermination.
In place of the unified rule of the Spanish crown, English colonization was chaotic and disorganized.
Efforts were made to acquire the territory between New England in the north and Virginia in the south as the English crown became more interested in colonial expansion.
The goal was to unify English holdings and reduce French and Dutch competition on the Atlantic seaboard.
The Catholic settlement of Maryland, captured from the Dutch in 1664, was one of the results of these efforts.
The French were similar to the Portuguese in Asia and Africa in their model of settlement and interaction.
While the Spanish incorporated large populations of pre-existing empires and the English expelled indigenous groups to provide agricultural land for their numerous colonies, the French focused on establishing trade and diplomatic relations with tribes that remained largely autonomously.
The settlement of Port-Royal on the Bay of Fundy was founded in 1605 by the French.
The French were able to acquire valuable furs throughout the Great Lakes region because of their alliances with several tribes.
Increased political instability and violent conflict were caused by contact with French traders, settlers, and missionaries.
The equal relations depicted in this scene from the colony of New Sweden are the result of European fur traders relying on the expertise and experience of Native Americans.
Violence among indigenous groups is shown in the action in the background.
Hudson's Bay Company issued its own token as currency in the fur trade.
The company's crest says "a skin for a skin" in Latin and is displayed on this token.
The traders received a token for the goods they purchased from the store.
The expansion of the North American fur trade began in the beginning of the 17th century because of European demand for felted hats made from beavers.
In the 1660s, the controller general of Louis XIV, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, established direct royal control over New France and tried to enlarge its population by sending colonists.
Compared to the settlers who came to British North America, immigration to New Canada was minuscule.
The Jesuits established a college in Quebec as early as 1635.
The waterways of the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi River were followed by the French in the 1670s and 1680s.
The Jesuit Jacques Marquette and the merchant Louis Joliet sailed down the Mississippi in 16 73.
Robert de La Salle traveled the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico in 1682, opening the way for the French to take over Louisiana.
In the first decades of the 17th century, English and French captains challenged Spain's hold over the Caribbean.
The Portuguese brought sugar plantations to Brazil.
Sugar and slaves make a lot of money.
In Africa and Asia, the powers of the north expanded.
In the 17th century, France and England, along with other northern European powers, established fortified trading posts in West Africa as bases for purchasing slaves and in India and the Indian Ocean for spices and other luxury goods.
By the end of the 17th century, a few European powers had overseas empires that spanned the globe.
European states imposed trading monopolies on their overseas colonies and factories in order to increase their wealth and power.
The mercantilist idea of a zero-sum game, in which any country's gain must come from another country's loss, led to hostile competition and warfare among European powers over their colonial possessions.
Oliver Cromwell established the first of a series in 1651, and the restored monarchy of Charles II extended them in 1660 and 1663.
The laws gave British merchants a monopoly on trade with British colonies.
The economic regulations were supposed to encourage the development of a British shipping industry that could serve in the Royal Navy.
English mercantilist laws made it difficult for other countries to trade with England.
The Dutch were far ahead of the English in shipping and foreign trade in the mid-seventeenth century.
Between 1652 and 1674, three Anglo-Dutch wars damaged Dutch shipping and commerce.
The Netherlands fell behind England in shipping, trade, and settlement by the late 17th century.
France was England's most serious rival after that.
France was the leading military power in continental Europe.
It was already building a powerful fleet.
The War of the Spanish forced France to give up its holdings in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Hudson Bay territory.
Britain was given control of the West African slave trade by Spain and was allowed to send one ship of merchandise into the Spanish colonies annually.
Britain was primed to take a leading role in the growing trade of the Atlantic in the 18th century.
European nations produced maps showing their possessions after they seized new territories.
The situation on the ground was often more complicated than the lines on those maps would suggest.
Many groups of people lived in the frontiers between empires, or in niches within them, where they carried out their own lives in defiance of the official rules.
Jews who were restricted from owning land and holding many occupations in Europe were eager participants in colonial trade and established closely linked mercantile communities.
The center of a trade network stretching from London to Manila and Acapulco was formed by a community of Christian Armenians in Iran.
The financial credit and cooperation needed for international commerce was generated by family ties and trust within these minority groups.
Jews and other minorities were vulnerable to persecution.
The nomadic Cossacks and Tartars who inhabited the steppes of the Don River basin that bordered the Russian and Ottoman Empires are an example of "in-between" peoples.
The Cossacks and the Tartars had a degree of peaceful interaction through the 17th century.
By the 18th century, the Ottoman and Russian rulers had expanded state control in their frontiers and reined in the raiding and migration of nomadic peoples.
Their example shows that state authority in the 17th and 18th centuries made it harder for all of these groups to retain their independence.
Russia occupied a unique position.
Its development into a strong imperial state was influenced by elements from both continents.
The expansion of Russia is similar to the expansion of the Muslim empire in Central and South Asia and the Ming Dynasty in China.
The Russian tsars conquered a huge empire that stretched from North Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
State-building and territorial expansion culminated during the reign of Peter the Great, who turned Russia toward the West by intervening in western European wars and politics and forcing his people to adopt elements of Western culture.
The medieval Slavic state of Kievan Rus was conquered by the Mongols in the 13th century.
The princes were forced to submit to the rule of the Mongols for two hundred years.
The princes of the Grand Duchy of Moscow were good at serving the Mongols.
The princes who were their rivals for power were destroyed by the Muscovite princes.
The principality of Moscow was greatly expanded by Ivan the Great.
Ivan III declared the independence of Moscow by 1480.
Ivan and his successors borrowed from the rule of the Mongols.
The tax system, postal routes, and census were adopted by the weaker Slavic principalities.
The boyars helped the princes consolidate their power.
An etching of a fish merchant pulling his wares on a sleigh through a snowy village was created by a French artist in the 18th century.
Two vendors behind him make a sale to a young mother standing at her doorstep with her baby.
The princes of Moscow saw themselves as heirs of the Byzantine emperors and protectors of the Orthodox Christian Church after Constantinople fell to the Ottomans.
The reign of Ivan IV caused a chaotic turn in Russia.
Ivan the Terrible ascended to the throne at age three.
Ivan was neglected and insulted by the boyars at court after his mother's death.
He was crowned tsar at age sixteen.
Ivan began a campaign of persecution after his wife's death.
He executed members of leading boyar families, along with their families, friends, servants, and peasants.
Ivan created a new nobility, whose loyalty was guaranteed by their dependence on the state for land and titles.
Ivan tied serfs firmly to the land.
He ordered urban dwellers to be bound to their towns and jobs so that he could tax them more heavily.
The growth of the Russian middle classes was checked by these restrictions.
The borders of Russian territory were home to free groups and outlaw armies from the 14th century onward.
They formed an alliance with the Russian state in the mid-sixteenth century.
Ivan's reign paved the way for the huge multiethnic Russian Empire by defeating the remnants of the Mongol power.
Ivan conquered the Muslim khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan and brought the fertile region around the Volga River under Russian control.
The conquest of Siberia began in the 1580s after the Cossacks crossed the Ural Mountains.
The Russian state did not initially seek to impose the Orthodox religion and maintain local elites in positions of honor and leadership because of the size and distance of the new territories.
The pattern of the Spanish and other early modern European imperial states is that of relying on cooperation from local elites and exploiting the common people.
Russia entered a chaotic period known as the Time of Troubles after Ivan's death.
The Cossacks and peasants revolted against nobles and officials.
The nobles were brought together by this social explosion.
The new hereditary tsar was Michael Romanov, Ivan's grandnephew.
Territorial expansion and state-building were achievements made by the Romanov tsars despite the turbulence of the period.
Russia gained land to the west of Ukraine in 1667.
The conquest of Siberia to the east was completed by the end of the century.
Russian power in the Pacific Ocean was only checked by the powerful Qing Dynasty.
The state collected annual tribute payments from local people in Siberia.
Expansion of the Russian bureaucracy and the army was funded by profits from furs and other natural resources.
State power did not improve the lot of the common people.
A new law code in 1649 gave lords unrestricted rights over their serfs and made it a crime to harbor runaways.
The privileges that non-Russian elites had enjoyed within the empire were removed by the new code.
Moscow maintained strict control of the empire's trade and administration.
The peace was disrupted in 1670 by a failed rebellion that attracted a great army of urban poor and peasants.
The success of the Russian state in unifying andConsolidating its empire testifies to the ease with which Moscow crushed the rebellion.
Peter the Great was the heir to Romanov's efforts at state-building.
Ivan the Terrible and his successors continued their tradition of territorial expansion.
Peter wanted to gain access to the sea by extending Russia's borders to the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea.
Peter built Russia's first navy base nearby after conquering the Ottoman fort of Azov.
In 1697, the tsar went on a tour of western European capitals.
Peter wanted to forge an anti-Ottoman alliance to strengthen his hold on the Black Sea.
Peter learned from the growing power of the Dutch and the English, even though he failed to secure a military alliance.
Peter entered the Great Northern War against Sweden because he wanted to build a navy in Russia.
Peter responded to his defeat at the Battle of Narva with measures designed to increase state power, strengthen his military, and gain victory.
All nobles were required to serve in the army or civil administration for the rest of their lives.
He established an interlocking military-civilian bureaucracy with fourteen ranks and ordered everyone to start at the bottom.
Talented foreigners were placed in his service.
The measures made the army and government more powerful.
The portrait above shows the strength and determination of the warrior-tsar in 1723, after more than three decades of personal rule.
Peter has a scepter in his hand, and across his breastplate is a mark of honor.
The battleships of Russia's new Baltic fleet are in the background.
Peter built the Paul Fortress.
Peter was dressed as a ship carpenter's apprentice during his tour of western Europe.
The service requirements of commoners were greatly increased by Peter.
He created an army of peasant-soldiers who were drafted for life.
He created special units of Cossacks and foreign mercenaries.
During Peter's reign taxes on peasants increased threefold.
Serfs were assigned to work in mines and factories that supplied the military.
Peter's new war machine was able to destroy Sweden's army at Poltava.
The cost of warfare was high.
Russia became the dominant power in the Baltic.
Russia expanded from a small principality of Muscovy to an enormous multiethnic empire in less than two centuries.
Peter used enormous resources to build a new capital on the Baltic.
Modern urban planning has wide, straight avenues, buildings set in a uniform line, and large parks, which is what Petersburg was designed to reflect.
In the summer, peasants were sent to St. Petersburg to work without pay.
The consequences of Peter's reign were important.
Western ideas flowed into Russia for the first time after Peter's modernization.
He wanted nobles to shave their beards and wear Western clothing.
They were required to attend parties where young men and women would mix together and choose their own spouses.
A new elite class of Russians emerged from these efforts.
Many Russians disliked Peter's reforms.
One of Peter's most detested reforms was the inheritance of land by one son alone.
The bonds of serfdom increased during the reign of the tsar.
Peter's modernizing and westernizing of Russia paved the way for it to move closer to the European mainstream in its thought and institutions during the Enlightenment.
Deane sent a glowing account of the tsar's technical prowess to his patron in England, the admiral of the English fleet.
I was ill when I arrived in Moscow and was taken down to the naval shipyard by his Majesty.
The South-East is home to about 400 English miles.
It will be the best ship among them, because he made it from his own Draught, and how he fram'd her together, and in so short a time as he did.
He has not run into any Extreme, but has taken the Mediums of all good Sailing Properties.
She may be called an abstract of his own private Observations while abroad, strengthened by Your Lordship's Improving Discourses to him on that Subject, and his own extraordinary Notion of Sailing.
One thing as to her Keel is that it should be beat out, yet it is so ordered, that the ship will be tight and safe, and may continue at Sea afterwards.
It rained for 3 or 4 hours, which is rare for an Almanack.
Mr. was at my Chamber for two days last week.
I think there may be 400 families in the place.
The strangers were invited to the consecration of General La Fort's house, which is the noblest building in Russia and finely furnished.
200 gentlemen, English, French, and Dutch, and about as many ladies, were present, and each day was filled with dancing and musick.
The lords and envoys are going to see the fleet.
I am going down with the Vice-Admiral about six days after he went to Voronize with Prince Alexander.
The first centuries of the early modern era were a time of crisis.
Economic stagnation, social upheaval, and renewed military conflict were some of the effects of the religious divides of the 16th and 17th century.
From the 16th century to the 17th century, European states were given more power and control.
The monarchs of Spain, France, and Austria had the right to claim absolute power.
Both military force and existing economic and social privileges were used by absolute monarchs to overcome the resistance of the nobility.
The Netherlands and England adopted different forms of constitutional rule.
As Spain's power waned, other European nations bordering the Atlantic Ocean sought their own profits and glory from overseas empires, with England emerging with a distinct advantage over its rivals.
Conflicts over territories and trade in the colonies would be included in war among European powers.
The expansion of European power in the world was made possible by European rulers' increased control over their own subjects.
The tsarist autocracy of Russia was firmly in place by the time of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century.
The foundation for a huge multiethnic empire was laid during the reign of Ivan and his successors.
Russia was turned toward the West by Peter the Great.
Between two centuries of growth in Europe, the seventeenth century was a difficult time.
On the other side were the religious enthusiasm and unrest of the sixteenth century, as well as overseas discoveries, rising populations, and vigorous commerce.
The eighteenth century's renewed population growth, economic development, and cultural flourishing were stretched on the other side.
The first half of the 17th century was marked by violent conflict and harsh climate conditions.
The survival of the European monarchies established in the Renaissance appeared to be in doubt in the middle decades of the 17th century.
Maintaining stability was of paramount importance to European rulers as order was re-established in the second half of the century.
Many nations were ruled by monarchs who proclaimed their absolute and God-given authority.
Most European states emerged from the period of crisis with shared achievements in state power, territorial expansion, and long-distance trade.
The Ottoman Empire recovered more slowly from the crises of the 17th century than the Qing in China and the Mughals in India did.
Power politics were thrown into question in the 18th century by new Enlightenment ambitions for human society, which were derived from the inquisitive and self-confident spirit of the Scientific Revolution.
The next chapter will look at these movements.
By the end of the eighteenth century demands for real popular sovereignty, colonial self-rule, and slave emancipation challenged the very bases of order that were achieved in the seventeenth century.
Explain the significance of each item.
Western Europe's form of monarchical rule was different from that of Russia and the Ottoman Empire because they believed it to be superior.
One of the leading authorities on the period gave an overview of early modern French history.
Leading historians' interpretations of the civil war are in the collection.
Peter the Great opened Russia to the West.
The role of women in noble patronage networks is emphasized in a collection of essays.
The Russian Empire was built in the aftermath of the conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible.
The lives were changed by Jamestown.
The life of the Powhatan people and their encounter with the English are chronicled in a Biographies of three important Native Americans.
Political and economic issues are included in the overview of the origins and outcomes of the Thirty Years' War.
The film is set in the waning years of Spain's imperial glory and follows the violent adventures of an army captain who takes the son of a fallen comrade under his care.
The son of executed English king Charles I and the Restoration was brought to the throne in 1660.
The life and career of painter Johannes Vermeer was told through the eyes of a young servant girl who became his assistant and model.
A film about the French playwright, who was a favorite of King Louis XIV, uses characters and plotlines from some of the writer's most celebrated plays.
The story of John Smith and Pocahontas is told in this film.
The palace of Versailles was inhabited by French royalty until the revolution of 1789.
A site hosted by the University of Illinois has primary and secondary sources relating to the Plymouth colony, including court records, laws, journals and memoirs.