Chapter 27 -- Part 2: The Americas in the Age of Liberalism
Compare the vision of abolition offered by the appeal in Source 1 and the painting in Source 4 with the accounts of slave flight in Sources 2 and 3.
Use the sources above, along with what you have learned in class and in this chapter, to write a short essay that compares Brazilian slaves' resistance to bondage through flight with examples of popular resistance in other parts of the world.
"A abolicao em Sao Paolo: Depoimento de um testemunha," May 13, 1918, p. 3, trans.
The consolidation of liberalism in the Americas created conditions for a return of foreign investment that brought economic growth.
Reform and resistance movements such as those unleashed by the Mexican Revolution were caused by new economic pressures against rural workers and indigenous communities.
The wars of independence in Spanish America disrupted the trade networks that had sustained the region's economies, while civil war and rule by caudillos delayed the consolidation of liberal regimes.
Latin America's economic integration with the world decreased in the first decades of independence.
The decline of trade made lands less valuable for rural peasants and indigenous communities.
Lower rents could make it easier for peasants to gain access to land.
By the second half of the 19th century Latin American elites reached a compromise that combined liberal political ideas about the way national government should be structured with liberal economic policies that favored large landowners.
Economic growth returned.
Foreign investment increased.
Latin American countries were tied to the world economy by the 20th century.
As the value of agricultural exports increased, so did the value of land for Indigenous and rural communities.
Governments, foreign investors, and large landowners took over indigenous lands at a rapid rate.
The Argentine government took lands from indigenous communities and sold them off.
The land was inexpensive, but because it was sold in large parcels, few people were able to purchase it.
There are a lot of landed estates in Latin America.
Land in the hands of wealthy exporters is the result of liberal economic policies.
The liberal economic principle of comparative advantage encourages countries to export what they can produce the most efficiently and import what other countries can produce more cheaply and efficiently.
Brazil experienced a brief but intense boom in rubber production after becoming the world's largest exporter of coffee.
Argentina was one of the most profitable exporters of grains and beef.
nitrates and bat guano were exported to the international market.
The export booms were dependent on imported capital and technology.
In the Caribbean it came mostly from investors in the United States, while in South America it came from Britain.
By the early twentieth century, Barranquilla was a bustling center of immigration and industrialization, like port cities across Latin America.
Argentina's network of railroads and meatpacking plants were built by the British.
The territory that was seized by Chile was in the countries of Peru and Bolivia.
Bolivia lost its access to the Pacific and became a landlocked nation.
The outcome of the war revealed British influence as well, as the Chilean government issued bonds to finance the war.
The bonds were paid back through the sale of concessions for mining the nitrate-rich lands.
13 percent of nitrate mining was controlled by British companies.
They controlled 90 percent by 1890.
The challenges in building the Callao-Lima-Oroyarailroad across the Andes can be imagined from this picture.
There were opportunities in the ninth century.
Henry was born in upstate New York and responded to many of them, building and losing fortunes in Brooklyn, San Francisco, and Chile.
He began work at his father's shipyard.
After starting his own lumber business, he lost everything in the financial panic of 1837.
He rebuilt his business and when gold was discovered in California in 1848, he sold his cargo for twenty times what he had paid for it.
He entered the lumber business by organizing crews of five hundred men to fell huge California redwoods and bring them to his steam sawmills.
When the financial crisis of 1854 hit, he began speculating in real estate, which led to huge debts.
When discovery of the fraud seemed imminent, he sailed with his wife and children for South America, after forging warrants for more than $900,000 to save himself and his friends.
Within three years of arriving in Chile, Meiggs secured his first railway contract, and by 1867 he had built 200 miles of rail lines.
In 1868, he went to a place with less than 60 miles of track.
He would add 700 more in the next nine years.
He was a good manager.
He recruited experienced engineers from abroad and arranged the purchase of foreign rolling stock, rails, and ties, acting as a promoter and developer.
Most of the funding came from international investors.
The highest standard-gauge railway in the world is the Callao Lima-Oroya line, which crosses the Andes at seventeen thousand feet above sea level.
The water had to be transported up to the workers, who were mostly local people, because of the scarcity.
Dozens of bridges and tunnels had to be built.
The banquet marked the beginning of work on the Oroya Railway.
According to some, Meiggs bribed officials in the country to approve his projects on a large scale.
He loved to entertain and was a good speaker.
He gave thousands of pesos and soles to the victims of the 1868 earthquake.
An old wall was torn down and a park was put in its place.
In 1877, Meiggs died poor, with his debts exceeding his assets.
More than twenty thousand people, many of whom had labored on his projects, attended his funeral.
In South America, the process of liberal nation-state consolidation took place through military conflict.
Mexico's Wars of Reform and the U.S. Civil War were similar to the War of the Triple Alliance in that they consolidated liberalism.
In 1865, Francisco Solano Lopez declared war against the three neighboring countries after political competition between Argentina and Brazil threatened the use of Uruguay's port.
Landlocked Paraguay depended on Montevideo for its imports and exports.
Most adult men were killed in the war, and it was devastating for the country.
There were debates about the need for economic modernization after the war.
In Brazil, the army enlisted slaves who would be granted freedom if they served in the army.
Being a monarchy that relied on slavery made Brazil a weak and backward nation for many officers who were veterans of the conflict.
The movement to create a liberal republic and abolish slavery was formed by veteran officers and liberal opponents of the war.
The republicans created a liberal republic after overthrew the monarchy.
Liberal leaders began in Argentina after the war with Paraguay.
The 1868-1874) pressed modernizing reforms.
The Conquest of the Desert was a military campaign in which Argentine troops took control of the lands of the Mapuche Indians in the south of the country.
The introduction of barbed wire fencing and the development of new strains of cattle and wheat increased production after the railroads were built.
President Juarez had established national unity against the French in the country that the Battle of Puebla took over.
The legal and political framework was created by his generation of liberal leaders.
It was a country that faced enormous challenges, as per capita income was less than it had been at independence.
The United States has more than seventy thousand miles of railroads.
The first challenge was to get foreign investment.
From 1876 to 1911, Porfirio Diaz ruled with a single term out of power.
The political stability he created made Mexico a haven for foreign investment.
The country became the third largest oil producer in the world.
By 1910, the railroads had fifteen thousand miles of track, connecting Mexico to the United States.
For the first time since the colonial era, railroads connected regions that had been isolated from each other.
From 1876 to 1880 and again from 1884 to 1911, the regime of Porfirio Diaz was in Mexico.
The regime was modernizing.
The Porfiriato considered indigenous peoples inferior and suppressed them.
The Yaqui Indians of Sonora were at the border with Arizona.
The mission of modernization and economic development was used to justify abuses.
Economic progress was perilous to rural communities.
Small landholders became vulnerable as the rise in foreign investment and economic activity made land valuable.
The Lerdo Law was used to take the lands of peasants across the countryside.
The 1884 Law of Barren Lands allowed real estate companies to identify land that was not being cultivated and then sell it.
By 1910, 80 percent of rural peasants had no land because of the abuse of these laws.
The liberal ideology of the Porfiriato favored foreign investors over its own citizens.
Mexico's population of 12 million in 1910 was tied to the land.
The value of that land was made valuable by the expansion of railroads, and liberal reforms allowed the transfer of that value from peasants to capitalists.
The first great social upheaval of the twentieth century was caused by Mexico's proximity to the United States, and it was swifter and more intense than elsewhere in Latin America.
The unanimous winner of Mexico's 1910 elections was Porfirio Diaz.
Francisco Madero, his defeated opponent, issued a manifesto calling the election illegitimate and pronouncing himself the president of Mexico.
Madero's call to arms started a powder keg of grievances from peasants whose lands had been taken or threatened, and from exploited urban workers.
Peasants and workers across the country rose up and drove out Madero.
The armed peasant groups rose up again against Madero because he was a weak reformer.
The U.S. ambassador plotted with the commander of Madero's army to kill him.
Mexico's revolution has deepened as people join the fighting.
The leader of the Mexican Revolution was from rural areas south of Mexico City.
The army commanded by the charismatic Pancho Villa took up their pledge to fight until these demands were met.
During the war, they found allies in the Red brigades of socialist workers who controlled the capital of Mexico City.
During the Mexican Revolution, the Zapatistas wrote a document that demanded the government return all the land, forests, and waters taken from rural communities.
Villa sits in the presidential chair topped with the golden eagle, while Zapata stands next to him holding a sombrero.
Two small children peer over their shoulders as each leader insists he won't claim the presidency since his goal was reform and not power.
The Constitutionalists, led by Venustiano Carranza and a skilled general, were able to defeat the supporters of the plan.
To consolidate political control and to convince rebels to put down their arms, their constitution included key demands from the Plan de Ayala and from urban workers.
In meeting the demands of peasants and workers, Mexico's 1917 constitution imposed the most significant limits to liberalism yet attempted in the Americas.
All land, water, and subsoil resources belong to the nation and allow their use for the public good, which broke the fundamental liberal embrace of private property.
Over 80 million acres of farmland and forests would be redistributed.
The most advanced labor code in the world was included in the constitution, guaranteeing workers the right to unionize and strike, an eight-hour workday, a minimum wage, and protections for women workers.
By agreeing to these social demands, the Constitutionalists were able to consolidate control over a new political order that would enjoy remarkable stability: the political party that emerged from the Constitutionalists would hold presidential power for almost all of the next one hundred years.
Many people from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East came to North and South America during the late 19th and early 20th century.
Between 1860 and 1914, some 28 million immigrants settled in the United States.
By 1930, 8 million people had settled in Argentina and Brazil.
Liberal political and economic reforms abolished slavery, established stable political systems, and created a framework for integrating immigrants as factory and farm laborers.
Alberdi believed that black and indigenous Argentines lacked basic skills and that it would take too long to train them.
He pressed for massive immigration from northern Europe and the United States, because each European who comes to our shores brings more civilization in his habits, which will later be passed on to our inhabitants.
Similar immigration policies were adopted by other countries of the Americas.
Latin America was a consumer of industrial goods and a supplier of raw materials in Britain and northern Europe.
An industrial working class emerged by the twentieth century.
The workers clashed with their bosses who didn't think workers had rights.
The authorities resisted implementing labor laws such as a minimum wage, restrictions on child labor, the right to strike, and factory safety regulations.
Anarchism advocated putting power in the hands of workers' unions.
Over one hundred thousand workers picketed when radicalized labor actions grew into general strikes.
The movements of urban workers did not mix with rural unrest in the formula that produced revolution outside of Mexico.
Europe was a major source of immigrants to Latin America.
The largest Japanese community in the world outside of Japan was created in Brazil in the late 19th and early 20th century.
From the Middle East, Turks, and Syrians entered Brazil.
South Asian laborers went to the Caribbean to work as indentured servants.
Some returned to India, but the rest stayed and bought small businesses or land.
The abolition of slavery in Cuba in 1886 led to some Chinese indentured laborers working in the cane fields.
The abolition of slavery in Mexico led to the arrival of thousands of Chinese servants.
Buenos Aires, Sao Paolo, Mexico City, Montevideo, Santiago, and Havana experienced growth thanks to the influx of new arrivals.
Buenos Aires had a population of 3.6 million by 1914, making it one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the world.
The city was Argentina's political capital.
The heart of the nation's railroad network was passed through the city half of the time.
The elite upper classes made up about 5 percent of the population, and the shops near the Plaza de Mayo were designed to cater to them.
Immigrants who toiled twelve hours a day, six days a week, on docks and construction sites and in meatpacking plants were crowded into the city's one-room tenements.
Immigrants brought a wide range of skills to the table.
Cattle ranching, meat processing, wheat farming, and the shoe industry were stimulated in Argentina by Italian and Spanish settlers.
Italians gained a leading role in the coffee industry in Brazil, while Japanese farmers made the country self-sufficient in rice production.
The Chinese dominated the ownership of shops and restaurants in large cities in Latin America.
New cultures were brought to the Americas by immigrants.
The United States went through an industrial boom after the Civil War ended.
Private industrialists were given vast amounts of land and mineral resources by the federal government.
The railroad companies received 130 million acres.
40 percent of the railroad mileage in the world was built by immigrant labor, and the U.S. railroad system was 193,000 miles long by 1900.
28 million immigrants came to the United States between 1860 and 1914.
Immigrants helped develop industrial America, even though many became rural homesteaders.
Railroad tracks were laid by immigrants.
In South America, immigration fed the growth of cities.
In 1790, only 5.1 percent of Americans lived in centers of at least twenty-five hundred people.
Almost 40 percent of the population lived in cities by 1900.
New York City, Chicago and Philadelphia were the three largest cities in the world by 1900.
Chinese immigrants were seen as a threat to native-born workers.
New immigrants often had poor working conditions.
The class of workers that depended on wage labor was created by Industrialization.
Women and children are paid less than men.
Women textile workers were paid less than men for the same amount of work.
The working conditions in mines and mills were frightful because business owners resisted government efforts to install safety devices.
In 1913 alone, twenty-five thousand people died in industrial accidents.
There were seventy-two thousand railroad workers who died on the job between 1900 and 1917.
Workers responded to the conditions with strikes, violence, and unionization.
Powerful owners of mines, mills, and factories fought labor unions and fired thousands of workers.
Workers feared that immigrant labor would cause their salaries to go down.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which denied Chinese laborers entrance to the country, was the culmination of anti-Semitism against Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe.
Japanese immigrants settled in South America after the United States restricted Japanese immigration in 1907.
In Latin America, immigrants were more likely to be from Europe, the Middle East, and Japan because they believed they were superior to black or indigenous workers.
In the United States, the descendants of northern European Protestants built social barriers out of their belief that Catholic Irish, southern and eastern European immigrants were not white enough.
Canada was not as populated as other areas of the Americas in the 19th century.
British authorities agreed to grant the provinces political independence in order to avoid the disruption and loss of influence that followed U.S. independence.
Canada had 5 million people by 1900, compared to 13.6 million in Mexico and 76 million in the United States.
In the United States and Latin America, native peoples were pushed aside by Canada's development plans, and their population dropped by half or more.
127,000 indigenous people were left in Canada by 1900.
Canadians were the largest minority in the population, and they were different in language, law, and religion.
New provinces were added after the British Empire became self-governing in 1867.
Too many areas of Canada were too small to get provincial status.
Newfoundland was added to the Dominion in 1949, but not until 1905.
Immigration to Canada went up in the 1890s.
Between 1897 and 1912, more than one million people entered Canada from the British Isles, Europe, and the United States.
Immigrants went to work in the urban factories.
Between 1891 and 1914 wheat production doubled.
British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec produced large quantities of wood pulp that was sold to the United States.
Canada's great rivers were harnessed to supply hydroelectric power.
Less than 10 percent of Canada's population is engaged in manufacturing.
The United States claimed the contiguous territories by 1890.
The frontier was closed.
Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean and the Philippine Islands and Guam in the Pacific were the beginning of the United States redirecting its expansionist pressures outward.
The United States emulated European nations like Britain and France by claiming control of land and people that served its economic interests and justifying its domination by arguing that it was furthering civilization.
Between 1898 and 1932, the U.S. government used military force to protect its economic interests in the Caribbean and Central America.
The U.S. influence in the Caribbean began in the early 19th century.
The United States would keep European influence out of Latin America according to President James Monroe.
The doctrine claimed that Latin America was part of the U.S. sphere of influence.
The U.S. intervention in Latin America was a result of the ideal of consolidated national territory from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
The easiest way to connect the two sides was through Latin America.
The U.S. sphere of influence over the Americas was established by an 1823 decree.
The pressure to move people and goods quickly and cheaply between the eastern and western parts of the United States was created by the California gold rush of the 1840s.
It was cheaper, faster, and safer to travel to the east or west coast of Mexico and Central America by sea.
The planters and politicians in the U.S. South wanted to annex new lands in Latin America and the Caribbean.
They looked at Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and El Salvadoran.
William Walker, a Tennessean, used a mercenary army to overthrow the government in Nicaragua.
His first act was to restore slavery.
He was overthrown by armies from several countries.
By the end of the 19th century the U.S. had intensified its involvement in Latin America.
The Santo Domingo Improvement Company was formed in 1893 by a group of U.S. investors to buy the Dominican Republic's foreign debt and take control of its customs houses.
After the U.S. company fell, President Theodore Roosevelt introduced the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States, as a civilized nation, would correct the "chronic wrongdoing" of its neighbors.
The United States would correct what it saw as "chronic wrongdoing" in other countries.
In 1903 and 1904 Roosevelt sent Marines to the Dominican Republic to protect U.S. firms.
The Dominican Republic was ruled by Marines from 1916 to 1924.
The United States supported the corrupt and violent dictator Rafael Trujillo.
He was assassinated by rivals acting with the encouragement of the Central Intelligence Agency.
There were different versions of the Dominican Republic's experience.
The U.S. Marines occupied Haiti from 1915 to 1934.
Military force was used to protect private U.S. companies' investments in banana and sugar plantations, railroads, mining, ports, and utilities.
The dictators were governed by force, corruption, and the support of the United States.
Cuba had failed to gain freedom from Spain in the Ten Years' War and erupted in a second war in 1895.
By 1898 the countryside was in ruins and Spanish colonial control was restricted to a few cities.
Cuban nationalists were on the verge of independence.
The United States intervention resulted in the Spanish-American War.
The battleship was capable of hitting the entire city.
The U.S. government accused Spain of sinking the ship and demanded that the Spanish government give back the ship.
The kitchen fire spread to the main munitions storage and blew up the ship.
Spanish forces were defeated in the Pacific and the Caribbean by the U.S. Navy and Marines.
The United States launched a military occupation of Cuba and the Philippines after acquiring Guam and Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rico and Guam were ruled by the U.S.
Commonwealths are not states in the United States.
The U.S. established direct rule in the Philippines despite the fact that Filipino nationalists had fought for freedom from Spain.
The United States was defeated in the Philippine-American War by the Nationalists.
Cuba gained independence, but U.S. pressure limited it.
The United States gave the U.S. Senate the power to cancel laws passed by the Cuban congress as a condition of Cuban independence.
The safe and fertile environment for U.S. investment was created by the constraints that the U.S. government imposed on Cuban politics.
The Cuban farmers were bankrupted by the war of independence.
There were one hundred thousand farms and three thousand ranches destroyed.
U.S. investors flooded in.
U.S. businesses owned half of the island's sugar mills by 1919.
Twenty-two companies took over 20% of Cuba's national territory as small farms were consolidated into estates.
Coca-Cola and Hershey were among the US companies that took control of sugar.
The United States exported its prejudice to the Caribbean.
The U.S. encouraged political parties to exclude black Cubans.
The Independent Party of Color was founded by black war veterans to push for political inclusion.
Pedro Ivonet and Evaristo Estenoz wanted to incorporate black Cubans into government and education.
In 1912, the leaders of the party organized a revolt that led to a violent backlash by the army and police, supported by the U.S. Marines.
The lynchings of black Cubans across the island followed a campaign against members of the party.