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41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs
This can include reviewing patient history and current condition, assessing and responding to patient needs before and during treatment, and monitoring the process.
Taking and reporting a patient's vital signs may be part of the treatment.
The skin and lungs play a role in the process of osmoregulatory organs.
Water and electrolytes are lost through sweat glands in the skin, which helps to cool the skin surface, while the lungs expel a small amount of water in the form of mucus and water vapor.
The suprarenal glands are on top of the kidneys.
The kidneys purify the blood.
The human body's organs use up 25 percent of the oxygen in the lungs to process blood.
The production of chemical energy through aerobic respiration is accomplished by the use of oxygen.
The urine is stored in the bladder before being eliminated through the urethra.
The hilum is the part of the bean-shape where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the kidneys.
The pyramids' tips point toward the body.
There are eight pyramids in each of the kidneys.
The structure of the organ is shown.
There is a drain into the ureter.
There are pyramids in the medulla.
The network of blood vessels is an important part of the structure and function of the kidneys.
The arteries, veins, and nerves that supply the kidneys enter and exit.
There are arcs along the base of the medullary pyramids.
The arterioles of the cortical arteries branch into the capillaries.
There are no segmental veins and Veins trace the path of the arteries.
There are over one million nephrons that dot the renal cortex, giving it a granular appearance when sectioned.
The kidneys have a functional unit called the nephron.
The glomerulus, convoluted tubules, and collecting ducts are located in the medulla.
The duct empties into the tubule.
The glomerulus is surrounded by the capsule.
The glomerulus contains a long and convoluted structure that can be divided into three parts based on function.
The contents of multiple nephrons are amass in the collecting ducts.
The blood comes from the capillary network that comes from the renal arteries.
The network of capillaries is called the glomerular capillary bed.
The peritubular capillary network surrounds the DCT.
To learn more about the workings of the nephrons, go to the website ( http://openstax.org/l/kidney_section).
The glomerulus has a capillary network that filters blood.
The filtrate is collected in the tubules.
The filtrate continues to exchange solutes and water in the loop of Henle.
During this step, water is reabsorbed.
The filtrate is collected by the collecting ducts.
The filtrate is delivered from here to the minor calyces that connect to the ureters.
The nephron performs different functions in maintaining homeostatic balance.
NH4 is formed when it reacts with H+ in the filtrate.
The more acidic the filtrate, the more ammonia is produced.
In the thick part, the ion are transported into the fluid.
As the filtrate travels up the limb, it becomes less salty.
Factors that affect systemic blood pressure do not affect the blood pressure in the glomerulus.
The connections between the cells of the capillary network are leaking.
There is no requirement for energy at this stage.
GFR is an important indicator of kidneys function.
Click through the blood flow to learn more.
The part of the tubule that has tubular reabsorption is called the PCT.
Almost all of the vitamins and minerals are reabsorbed.
Reabsorption of water and some key electrolytes can be influenced by hormones.
The most abundant ion is Na+), which is reabsorbed by active transport and then transported to the peritubular capillaries.
Water follows Na+ out of the tubule because of the osmotic pressure.
Water is reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries by the presence of aquaporins.
The peritubular capillaries have high osmotic pressure and low blood pressure.
The descending limb is impermeable to water while the ascending limb is not.
The loop of Henle invades the renal medulla, which is naturally high in salt concentration and tends to absorb water from the renal tubule and concentrate the filtrate.
As it moves deeper into the medulla, the osmotic gradient increases.
The loop of Henle uses energy to create concentration gradients.
The limb is wet.
Osmolality inside the limb increases as water flows from the filtrate to the interstitial fluid.
The osmolality is higher at the bottom.
As filtrate enters the ascending limb, Na+ and Cl- ions exit through ion channels.
Na+ is transported out of the filtrate.
There are units of milliosmoles per liter.
Sometimes loop diuretics are used to treat hypertension.
The drugs prevent the reabsorption of Na+ by the loop of Henle.
They increase urination.
Most of the urine and solutes have been reabsorbed by the time the filtrate reaches the DCT.
All of it can be reabsorbed if the body requires more water.
Further reabsorption is controlled by hormones.
Lack of reabsorption combined with tubular secretion leads to excretion of waste.
Undesirable products like urea, uric acid, and certain drugs are not good for you.
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