A 1 g flying animal is only 1 g so you have to divide it by 1,000.
The result for the 1 g animal is a small amount of calories.
The answer is that the 1 g animal uses more total energy flying a distance of 1 km than the 1 kilogram animal.
The main symptoms and causes of muscular dystrophy can be identified.
A disease called them to move around in their environments is a second major abnormality.
Four times this disease involves defects in the mineral or organic components of the bone.
Disuse of muscles is a cause of osteoporosis.
Some of them are temporary and can't be used due to paralysis, while others are chronic and severe illnesses and can't be used.
Osteoporosis can be caused by defects in parts of the nervous system.
Estradiol stimulates bone for control of contraction of the muscles rather than from defects.
The originate in the fibers.
When a woman's reproductive cycles cease, bone density maysclerosis, a disease in which the destruction of motor decline increases the risk of bone fractures, is an example.
Since they have more bone mass to start, men are more likely to die from rosis and skeletal muscle atrophy.
Some hormones, such as genes, may produce an abnormal parathyroid protein.
hormone acts to demineralize bone, releasing at a few of these conditions in more detail in this section.
Ca2+ enters the fluid as part of the way in which the body maintains Ca2+ in the blood.
In rare cases, this may happen when the glands that make these hormones malfunction and overpro Bone diseases are common.
There are two major anomalies in bone.
The first Osteoporosis can be mitigated with adequate calcium and vita due to improper mineral deposition in bone, usually due to inadequate min D intake and weight-bearing exercise programs.
Estradiol can be given to women who don't have adequate absorption of Ca2+ from their small intestine.
The most prevalent bone disease in the U.S. is rosis and it affects up to 30 million people.
National expenditures promote absorption of Ca2+ from the small intestine.
Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that affect males and females differently.
Skeletons are structures that support and protect.
Animals have two types of skeletons.
There is a defect on the X chromosomes.
The protective exterior structures of arthropods must be shed to accommodate their growth.
If she passes an animal that does not protect its body surface.
There are two parts to the vertebrate endoskeleton, the one with the affected gene and the one without it.
There are two or more patients with the disease.
Dystrophin is a largeprotein that links bones in the body.
In addition to the functions of support, protection, and involved in maintaining the structural integrity of the mem, the vertebrate skeleton also produces blood cells and muscle fibers.
In the absence of dystrophin, the plasma is crucial to the proper functioning of the body.
extracellular fluid is required for enter the cell because of a disrupted muscle fibers.
excessive growth of mature fibers is a grouping of cells called muscle fibers.
Researchers have found ani bound together.
Flexors are muscles that bend a limb at a joint, whereas mals are muscles that have a defect in the myostatin gene.
The extensors are the muta limbs.
Within each muscle cell are cylindrical bundles known as myofibrils, each of which contains thick filaments of myosin and thin filaments composed of actin and two other proteins, arranged in repeating units called sarcomeres.
Cross bridges are regions of the thick filaments that are closer to each other.
The sliding filament mechanism shortens the sarcomeres during muscle contraction.
In muscle contraction, the thick filaments remain stationary while the thin filaments slide past them propelled by the action of cross-bridges.
The human brain may have become larger because of the myosin genes.
A change in the shape of the myosin molecule is caused by the binding of a myosin cross bridge to actin.
The sarcomere is shortening and the muscle fiber is contracting as a result of the slide past each other.
The myosin-binding sites are from PNAS 94.
The number of actin d is determined by the concentration of Ca2+.
The outside of the body is not protected by the source of the cytosolic e.
The action potential of the fiber is 2.
A motor neuron's axon is located at the D. blood cell production neuromuscular junction, where electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle occurs.
Actin provides strength and flexibility to bone.
There are three major types of muscle fibers.
The myosin activity of slow-oxidative fibers is low and they do not fatigue easily.
There are fast-oxidative fibers.
A muscle fiber is a collection of cells that do not fatigue quickly and are tissue.
A sarcomere contains both actin and myosin, but can't make as much parallel fashion.
The function of Ca2+ in contraction is to bind to tropomysin.
The allosteric change in myosin is caused by a change in myosin and actin.
The movement of an animal from place to place exposes the myosin-binding sites.
The slow speed of most swimmers is due to streamlining.
Swimming is the most efficient form of locomotion due to the function of Ca2+ in skeletal muscle contraction.
On average, motion on land is actin.
The cross-bridge needs energy to move.
There is a stimulation of a muscle fiber by a motor neuron.
The bones and muscles are affected by several health conditions.
Rickets is the myofibril.
The large number of mitochondria in the muscles fails to keep pace with normal bone breakdown.
Muscular dystrophy is a fatal genetic disease.
Terrestrial animals and flying animals use energy to lift themselves.
Swimming animals need to be periodically shed, leaving them in a vulnerable state.
Swimming is the cheapest form of energy usage.
Explain how the streamlined body forms of aquatic animals work.
List and describe the steps.
Discuss the three types of muscle tissues found in the animal kingdom.
Distinguish functional features of each exoskeleton by comparing the structural and functional features.