Chapter 30 -- Part 2: The Great Depression and World War II
The victory of collectivization was for the Communists who wanted to institute their brand of communism and crush opposition as much as possible.
93 percent of peasant families were herded onto collective farms by the year 1938.
The collectivized peasants were no longer a political threat because they were now state employees.
The industrial side of the plans was more successful.
In 1937, the Soviet industry produced four times as much as it did in 1928.
No other country has ever achieved such rapid industrial growth.
More than 25 million people migrated to cities in the 1930s to work in the heavy industry.
Huge resources were required for the sudden creation of dozens of new factories.
Heavy hidden sales taxes were used to collect funds for industrial expansion.
Firm labor discipline contributed to rapid industrialization.
Most of the power of the trade unions was lost.
Factory managers were sent peasants from collective farms when they needed more hands.
Many of the new factories were built by foreign engineers.
After 1932, newly trained Soviet experts began to replace highly skilled American engineers who were hungry for work in the depression years.
Stalin's planners harnessed the skill and technology of capitalist countries to promote the surge of socialist industry.
Stalin ordered the forced collectivization of peasants in 1929, promising that large-scale industrialized agriculture would provide them all with better lives.
The peasants resisted so successfully that the state used violence, starvation, and genocide to force them out of their homes, off their lands, and onto collective farms.
Hindus wrote about his visit to his native village in central Russia in the summer of 1929.
The peasants distrusted the whole world and never believed in anyone's words.
As the specter of collectivization approached, rumors of what was to come spread from village to village across Russia among the uneducated and religious peasants.
In the collective farm, there will be no husbands or wives, dead people will be cremated, children will be forbidden, and the elderly will be killed.
Beautiful men and women will be taken and brought to a place where they will be produced beautiful people.
Children will be taken from their parents.
People are in a barrack on a collective farm.
The district administration called for open rebellion in 1930.
The administration of the Stalingrad district in the lower Volga River region called for peasants to rise up and overthrow the Soviet government in July 1930.
The People's Democratic party wants you to throw off the yoke of red terror.
The slogans of the years of revolution were freedom of speech, press, conscience, religion, factories to the workers, land to the peasants, etc.
The people have gotten from these slogans.
The dictatorship of the communist party gave instead of the promises.
Instead of freedom of speech and the press, the suppression of the thought and speech of people, terror for the workers, and instead of bread, the peasantry gets taxes.
The dictatorship was down with the thieving.
A soviet activist performs his revolutionary duty in 1933.
One of the activists recruited to enforce the collectivization and gather the peasants' grain in the Ukraine recalls the horrors he witnessed while carrying out his duties in support of the socialist fatherland.
I believed that the ends were justified.
For the sake of the universal triumph of Communism, everything was permissible to lie, steal, and destroy hundreds of thousands and even millions of people.
I didn't lose my faith.
Male and female peasants on a Soviet collective farm are sharing a meal.
In addition to what you have learned in class and in this chapter, use the sources above to write a short essay on the Soviet government's efforts to promote collectivization.
Stalin had a hard life in the Soviet Union.
Communism was seen as heroically building the world's first socialist society while capitalism crumbled and fascists rose in the West.
Old-age pensions, free medical services and education, and day-care centers for children were some of the important social benefits Soviet workers received.
Unemployment was not known.
There was a chance of personal advancement.
Huge numbers of trained experts were needed for rapid industrialization.
The Stalinist state broke with the policies of the 1920s and gave tremendous incentives to those who acquired specialized skills.
A growing technical and managerial elite joined the political and artistic elites in a new upper class.
Women's lives were profoundly affected by Soviet society's radical transformation.
The equality of rights for women was proclaimed by the Russian Bolshevik Revolution.
Women were encouraged to work outside the home in the 1920s because of the availability of divorce and abortion.
Stalin encouraged a return to traditional family values after he came to power.
Work and education are the most lasting changes for women.
Millions of women now toil in factories and heavy construction as Peasant women continued to work on farms.
The better-paid specialists in industry and science were entered by the more determined women.
By 1950, 75 percent of the doctors in the Soviet Union were women.
Culture was politicized through propaganda.
Party activists lectured workers in factories and peasants on collective farms, while newspapers, films, and radio broadcasts warned of capitalist plots.
The push to build socialism and a new society culminated in police terror and the purge of the Communist Party.
In August 1936 sixteen prominent "Old Bolsheviks" -- party members before the 1917 revolution -- confessed to all manner of plots against Stalin in spectacular public show trials in Moscow.
In 1937 the secret police arrested a bunch of lesser party officials and newer members and tortured them for more show trials.
The party faithful, union officials, managers, intellectuals, army officers, and countless ordinary citizens were all struck down.
If people were only arrested for certain crimes, everyone else would feel safe.
At least 8 million people were arrested and executed.
Those who weren't executed were sent to labor camps where few escaped.
Stalin's industrialization drive in areas of low population relied on convict labor that was worked to death.
Over 1.5 million Soviet citizens died from forced-labor prison camps from 1929 to1953.
Ten to 20% of these prisoners were women, many of them found guilty of nothing more than being married to men considered enemies of the state.
The prisoners are working in a lumberyard in a cold and snowy area.
1.5 million new members were recruited by Stalin.
More than half of all Communist Party members joined after the purges.
The leader's Communists served until his death in 1953 and then ruled the Soviet Union until the early 1980s.
Stalin's mass purges are baffling for most historians believe those who were removed posed no threat and confessed to crimes they had not committed.
They argue that Stalin's fears were shared by many in the party and the general population.
Historians who have accessed recently opened Soviet archives continue to hold that Stalin personally directed the purges and that the purges were abetted by informers, judges, and executioners.
Theories about the nature of the terror, the loss of central control, and the role of regional leaders in starting it are not supported by the archives.
Stalin was a ruthless and paranoid man who found many willing partners for both crime and achievement.
Mussolini's Fascist movement and his seizure of power in 1922 were important steps in the rise of dictatorships.
His dictatorship contained elements of both conservative authoritarianism and modern totalitarianism.
Italy had civil rights and a constitutional monarchy in the early 20th century.
Universal male suffrage was granted on the eve of the First World War.
There were serious problems.
Many peasants were more attached to their villages and local interests than to the national state because of poverty.
Relations between the church and state were tense.
The Socialist Party's radical wing led the revolutionary socialist movement and class differences were extreme.
Italian nationalists were disappointed with Italy's modest gains at the Paris Peace Conference, having fought on the Allied side almost exclusively for territorial expansion.
After the war, the government failed to deliver on its promises of social and land reform.
Italy's revolutionary socialist movement was inspired by the Russian Revolution and began occupying factories and seizing land in 1920.
The property-owning classes were scared by these actions.
By 1921 revolutionary socialists, antiliberal conservatives, and frightened property owners were all against the liberal parliamentary government.
Mussolini stepped into the crosscurrents of unrest and fear.
Mussolini was a leader of the Socialist Party and editor of a newspaper before World War I.
Mussolini's program was a combination of nationalist and socialist demands.
It failed to attract followers because it competed directly with the Socialist Party.
There are many more than two classes, so we deny the existence of two classes.
Human history can't be explained in terms of economics.
We don't believe in internationalism.
Mussolini's private army turned to physical violence.
There were socialists in the city governments of northern Italy.
Mussolini was a skillful politician who promoted a real revolution of the little people against the established interests.
Socialist newspapers, union halls, and local Socialist Party headquarters were destroyed by a private army under Mussolini that pushed the Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy.
Mussolini was the leader of order and property when the government broke down in 1922.
In October 1922, thirty thousand Fascists marched on Rome, threatening the king and demanding he appoint Mussolini prime minister.
Mussolini was asked to form a new cabinet by Victor Emmanuel III, who was forced to choose between Fascists or Socialists.
Mussolini imposed a series of repressive measures after declaring his desire to make the nation Fascist.
The government ruled by decree and abolished press freedom.
Mussolini put Fascists in control of Italy's schools and arrested his political opponents.
He created many Fascist organizations.
Italy was a one-party dictatorship under Mussolini.
Mussolini used Rome's ancient heritage to promote Italian fascists.
The Way of the Imperial Forum was built through the old city because he wanted a grand avenue to stage triumphal marches.
Mussolini rides at the head of a grand parade in 1932 to open the new road, passing the Roman Coliseum, one of the focal points along the route.
Mussolini was interested in personal power.
He was content to compromise with the conservative classes that controlled the army, the economy, and the state.
He left the big business to regulate itself, profitably and securely.
There was no reform of the land.
The Catholic Church supported Mussolini.
He agreed to give the church heavy financial support after he recognized the Vatican as a tiny independent state in 1929.
The pope urged Italians to support Mussolini's government.
Mussolini in Italy agreed to give the church heavy financial support in return for the pope's public support in 1929.
Mussolini favored a return to traditional roles for women.
He told women to stay at home and have children.
Women were limited by law to a maximum of 10 percent of better-paying jobs in industry and government.
When Italy was under Nazi control, Mussolini's government did not persecute Jews until late in the Second World War.
Mussolini did not create a ruthless police state.
Between 1926 and 1944, only twenty-three political prisoners were put to death.
Mussolini's Fascist Italy was not really a dictatorship.
The dictatorship in Nazi Germany was frightening.
The ultimate power of Hitler was proclaimed by the Nazism here.
The ambitions of the Nazism were truly totalitarian.
The most influential concepts of Nazism were extreme nationalism and racism.
The ideas captured the mind of the young Adolf Hitler.
From 1933 until the end of World War II, the movement was dominated by Adolf Hitler.
Hitler did poorly in high school and dropped out at the age of sixteen.
He was exposed to extreme Austrian nationalists who believed that Germans were superior people and central Europe's natural rulers.
They advocated the expulsion ofinferior peoples from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Hitler absorbed anti-Semitic, racist and hatred of Slavs from these extremists.
He believed in the crudest distortions of Social Darwinism, the superiority of Germanic races, and the inevitability of racial conflict.
He claimed that the Jews directed an international conspiracy against German culture, German unity, and the German race.
Hitler's most passionate convictions were anti-Semitism and racism.
The Great War was greeted by Hitler as a salvation.
When Germany surrendered in 1918, Hitler's world was shattered because of the struggle and discipline of serving as a soldier in the war.
He was convinced that the Jews and Marxists had attacked Germany.
Hitler joined the German Workers' Party in the late 19th century.
Germany was on the verge of collapse in the late 19th century due to hyperinflation.
Hitler was inspired by Mussolini's recent victory.
Despite the failed plot and Hitler's arrest, Nazism was born.
Hitler attracted a lot of publicity when he denounced the Weimar Republic.
The economic prosperity and stability of the late 1920s were shattered by the Great Depression.
By the end of 1932, more than a third of Germany's labor force was out of work.
Between 1929 and 1932, industrial production fell by half.
The economic crisis contributed to Hitler's success.
Hitler admires a young boy dressed in the uniform of Hitler's storm troopers, a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that supported Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and early 1930s.
Hitler began to organize Germany's young people into paramilitary groups in an effort to militarize all of German society a year after the founding of the storm troopers.
The Hitler Youth numbered in the millions.
Free-market capitalism was rejected by Hitler.
He spoke to middle- and lower-middle-class people.
The Nazis won over 14 million votes in the July 1932 election, 38 percent of the total, and became the largest party in the Reichstag.
Hitler was forty years old when he appealed to German youth.
40 percent of Nazi Party members were under 30 in 1931, compared to 20 percent of Social Democrats.
The official Nazi slogan was "National Socialism is the organized will of the youth."
National recovery, exciting and rapid change, and personal advancement made Nazism appealing to millions of German youths.
The breakdown of democratic government caused Hitler to come to power.
Germany's economic collapse in the Great Depression convinced many voters that the country's republican leaders were incompetent and corrupt.
The republic's coffin was filled with disunity on the left.
Even though the Nazis outnumbered the Social Democrats in the Reichstag, the Communists refused to work with them.
Hitler excelled in backroom politics.
He gained the support of key people in the army, big business, and politics who thought they could manipulate and use him to their own advantage.
Hitler, leader of Germany's largest party, was appointed as German chancellor in January 1933.
Hitler established a dictatorship very quickly.
Hitler blamed the Communist Party when the Reichstag building was destroyed.
He convinced the President to sign emergency acts that abolished freedom of speech and assembly.
In order to solidify his political power, he called for new elections.
The Communist Party was banned by Hitler after the Nazis won only 44 percent of the votes.
On March 23, 1933, the Nazis forced through the Reichstag the so-called which gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years.
The Reichstag was passed by the Nazis in 1933 and gave Hitler absolute power for four years.
The government bureaucracy was taken over by Hitler and the Nazis.
Independent labor unions were replaced by the Nazi Labor Front after Hitler abolished strikes.
Professional people saw their organizations swallowed up by the Nazis.
Students and professors burned forbidden books when publishing houses and universities were under Nazi control.
Modern art and architecture were not allowed.
Life became antiintellectual.
When I hear the word culture, I reach for my gun.
A brutal dictatorship that was mostly in place by 1934 was characterized by frightening dynamism and total obedient to Hitler.
Civil servants and members of the German armed forces were required to swear an oath of unquestioning loyalty to Hitler in 1934.
Hitler's personal guard grew quickly.
The Gestapo and the political police were taken over by the SS under Himmler.
German Jews were an object of Nazi persecution from the beginning.
Most Jewish lawyers, doctors, professors, civil servants, and musicians were banned from their professions by late 1934.
The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 stripped Jews of their rights of citizenship if they had more than one Jewish grandparent.
Roughly one-quarter of Germany's half million Jews had left in order to emigrate by the year 1938.
The attack on the Jews grew more violent in the late 1930s.
The Nazis launched a series of attacks against Jews in Germany and Austria on November 9 and 10, 1938.
Kristallnacht, also known as the Night of Broken Glass, was an event that took place in Germany in Novembernacht.
The wholesale arrest and transportation to concentration camps of male German Jews between the ages of sixteen and sixty has been the most hideous phase of the so-called "spontaneous" action.
The solution against the Jews made it difficult for Jews to leave Germany.
Some Germans privately opposed the outrages, but most went along with them.
The lack of response reflected the individual's helplessness in a totalitarian state, but also reflected the strong popular support for Hitler's government.
The economic recovery was promised by Hitler.
The public works program was launched by the Nazi Party.
Germany turned toward rearmament in 1935.
The Nazis boasted of nearly full employment by the year 1938.
The economic recovery of millions of Germans was proof that Nazi promises were more than propaganda.
Hitler's government offered more opportunities and equality to ordinary German citizens than it did to those deemed undesirable.
Class barriers in Germany were high in 1933.
These barriers were lowered by Hitler's rule.
The new Nazi elite included many young and poorly educated dropouts, rootless lower middle-class people like Hitler who rose to the top with breathtaking speed.
Privilege and wealth were only allowed by the Nazis if they served party needs.
Hitler and the Nazis did not bring about a social revolution.
The well-educated classes held on to most of their advantages, and only a modest social leveling occurred during the Nazi years.
The stereotypical view of women as housewives and mothers was shared by the Nazis and Fascists.
When faced with labor shortages during the war, they reluctantly mobilize large numbers of German women for office and factory work.
Thousands of political enemies were executed.
The Communists and Socialists were the main resisters in the first years of Hitler's rule.
There was a second group of opponents.
They focused on preserving genuine religious life, not overthrowing Hitler.
After Germany's economic recovery and Hitler's success in establishing Nazi control of society, Hitler turned to the next item on his agenda: aggressive territorial expansion.
Germany withdrew from the League of Nations in October 1933.
When Hitler declared the "unequal" Versailles treaty null and void in 1935, leaders in Britain, France, and Italy warned him against future aggressive actions.
The united front against Hitler collapsed quickly.
In order to avoid war, Britain granted Hitler everything he could reasonably want.
British appeasement, which dictated French policy, had the support of many powerful British conservatives who underestimated Hitler.
The British people were horrified by the costs and losses of the First World War, but still supported pacifism.
At the time, some British leaders, such asWinston Churchill, were against appeasement.
British appeasement was seen as granting from fear or cowardice of unwarranted concessions in order to buy temporary peace at someone else's expense.
The Treaties of Versailles and Locarno were violated by Hitler in March 1936.
Without British support, France wouldn't move.
In October 1935, Mussolini attacked the independent African kingdom of Ethiopia after Britain and France appeased Hitler.
Hitler supported Italy despite the condemnation of the Western powers.
The Rome-Berlin axis was established in 1936.
Japan joined the alliance in 1940 in order to get support for its occupation of Manchuria.
General Francisco Franco's Fascist movement defeated republican Spain in the Spanish Civil War thanks to the support of Germany and Italy.
The Soviet Union provided Spain's only official aid in the fight against Franco.
Hitler moved forward with his plans to crush Austria and Czechoslovakia as the first step in his long-contemplated drive to the east.
Hitler brought ethnic Germans into the Nazi state and then turned on the Slavic peoples, whom he had always hated.
He prepared for an attack on Poland in September 1939.
Hitler demanded that the Sudetenland be turned over to Germany.
Democratic Czechoslovakia was prepared to defend itself.
The Sudetenland should be ceded to Germany immediately after a meeting between Hitler and the British and French prime minister in September of 1938.
He told the crowd that he had secured "peace with honour".
Czechoslovakia gave in after being sold out by the Western powers.
Hitler was shown in a satirical cartoon playing with other statesmen at the Four Power Peace Conference that year.
The Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia was allowed to be annexed by Germany despite the fact that representatives of that country were not invited to the conference.
The lower right corner depicts the British prime minister under Hitler's boot.
The rest of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Hitler's armies in March 1939.
There was no rationale for self determination this time.
When Hitler used the question of German minorities in Danzig as a pretext to confront Poland, Chamberlain declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked his eastern neighbor.