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26.1 Bacterial Diseases of the Urinary System -- Part 1
Sexually transmitted infections are a major public health concern.
Over half of all new cases of chlamydial infections in the United States go undiscovered, according to the CDC.
The FDA approved an HIV oral testing kit.
In 1-2 weeks, you can use a password over the phone or online.
Similar to an indirect ELISA test, people with the Ora Quick strip have it.
It costs about $40 per positive test to get referrals to nearby clinics for counseling and testing.
On the website there is an option to pay for anti-HIV antibodies.
Clinical studies show that this test can give the user the ability to notify their sexual partners of a false positive in as many as 5000 people.
Sometimes women wrongly attribute symptoms of an STD as being from a UTI.
Testing for urinary tract infections is also available at home.
A dipstick is held in the urine stream, and the test strip shows the presence of nitrites, which are usually produced bybacteria that cause UTIs.
The tests look for the presence of leukocytes, which indicate an immune response.
The "I Want the Kit" initiative detected more chlamydial infections than traditional clinics did in the areas where it was available.
The method of testing would save $41,000 in direct medical costs per 10,000 women, when compared with clinic-based screening, according to its creators.
For people with limited transportation, home testing kits can be very helpful.
Most home test kits can be ordered over the phone or online.
Providing a screening method that works for people who are reluctant or unable to visit a clinic means more diagnoses and quicker treatment.
It can lead to better outcomes.
A urine sample for culturing.
Home test kits increase consumer costs because they aren't covered by health insurance.
Concerns have been raised that the results of a test may fall into the hands of someone other than the patient.
Home kits should be used with care, as PINs and other test related paperwork should be kept out of sight.
Not every home test kit sold online is effective.
FDA approved kits should be sought by users.
A person with persistent or worsening symptoms should always see a health care provider.
The presence of nitrites in urine can be a sign of urinary tract infections.
If there is a line next to it, nucleic acid amplification is used to screen for infections.
Is it a virgin?
Gonorrhea can cause an infections of the epididymis in both men and women.
This is a nate and can become a serious, systemic infection.
The disease is more common in women.
The vaginal of the gonococcus in fluids in joints can be found in about 1% of gon walls.
The wrist and knee are not colonized.
Few women are aware of the problem.
If a mother has gonorrhea, her baby's pain from other diseases can get into the birth canal and cause infections.
This was discussed on page 757.
Antibiotics are placed in the eyes of newborn infants because of the seriousness of this condition and the difficulty of being sure the mother is free of gonorrhea.
An antibiotic is administered to the infant if the mother is known to be infectious.
In most states, some sort of prophylactic is required.
It is possible to transfer gonorrheal infections from one site to another.
pharyngeal and anal gonorrhea can be acquired at any point of sexual contact.
The symptoms are limited to itching.
Special transporting media is needed to keep it viable for a short time before the cultivation begins.
The advantage of cultivating is that it allows deter mination of antibiotic sensitivity.
The gonococcus has anti-gens on the surface.
Pairs of cocci are visible with the gram-negativebacteria.
The large stained bodies are the cells of the immune system.
Because of the rapid development of fluoroquinolones, oral contraceptives are no longer a factor in the increase.
The oral con was mended.
Gonorrhea has no effective adaptive immunity.
The conventional explanation for treating sex partners of patients is that the gonococcus exhibits extraor risk of reinfection and decreases the incidence of STDs.
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