The working conditions that new immigrants found were often poor.
A large class of wageworkers depended on their employ ers for work.
To keep labor costs low, employers paid workers piecemeal for the number of articles they made, and they hired women and children who could be paid less than men.
The working conditions in mines and military bases were frightful because business owners fought in legislatures and courts against the installa tion of costly safety devices.
The workers responded with strikes, violence, and unionization.
The Irishman is identified by his shillelagh, a blackthorn club, which used to imply a tendency toward violence, and the Chinese man is identified by his long pigtail and bow, which are seen as a sign of his devious obsequiousness.
Being American meant being of a Germanic descent.
There were different meanings to nationalism in the United States and Europe.
It did not refer to an ancient people whose culture was tied to their language.
Immigrants were expected to learn English and switch loyalties.
In Europe, a lot was done to promote patriotism and bring people together through flag-waving parades.
nativist sentiment among native-born Americans was the negative side of identification with the nation.
The Chinese with their exotic looks and willingness to work for very little seemed dangerous to most Americans.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 made it illegal for Chinese laborers to enter the country because of the violence against Asians.
Workers feared that immigrant labor would cause their salaries to go down.
The French explorer Samuel de Champlain established a trading post on the site of present-day Quebec after sailing down the St. Law rence River.
Jesuit missionaries to the Indians increased the French popu lation after they were granted fur-trading monopolies by the French crown.
French control of the fur trade was challenged by the British.
The French and Indian Wars were fought in North America during the Seven Years' War between the British and the French.
In the Treaty of Paris of 1763, Franceceded Canada to Great Britain.
The British conquest was a tragedy for the French Canadians.
The economic affairs of the colony were taken over by the governors of Britain and the thirteen American colonies to the south.
The Roman Catholic Church played a significant role in the political and cultural life of French Canadians.
A small merchant class sold furs and imported goods, but most French Canadians were farmers.
The Quebec Act granted religious freedom to French Canadians but denied Canadians a legislative assembly.
Parliament placed power in the hands of an appointed gov ernor and an appointed council made up of both English and French Canadians.
Canadian businessmen protested that they were being denied representation.
Forty thousand Americans moved to Canada during the American Revolution to show their loyalty to Great Britain.
Theloyalists pressed for a representative assem bly and tered the French-English ratio in the population.
The Constitution Act divided the province of Quebec in two and provided for an assembly in each province.
New provinces were added after the British Empire became self-governing in 1867.
Too many areas of Canada were too small to get provincial status.
Newfoundland became part of the Dominion in 1949.
The British didn't want to repeat the mistakes made in 1776 when they declared independence from Canada.
In order to form a union with Ontario and Quebec, the provinces of NewBrunswick and Nova Scotia joined.
The cabinet has in- substantial powers.
The framers of the Canadian constitution believed that the U.S. constitution left the states too strong and caused the Civil War.
Canada's "mani fest destiny" was pushed by the first prime minister, John A. Macdonald.
The Northwest Territories of the Hudson's Bay Company were purchased by the government in 1870.
Fearing that British Columbia would join the United States, Macdonald lured the colony into the confederation with a subsidy to pay its debts and a promise of a transcontinental railroad.
Prince Edward Island was drawn into the confederation with a large subsidy.
Between 1868 and 1873, Canadian sovereignty stretched from coast to coast thanks to Macdonald's imagination and drive.
The completion of the Pacific Railroad in 1885 led to the creation of two new prairie provinces in 1905.
In the 19th century, Canada had less than 5 million people, compared to 76 million in the United States.
The native peoples of the United States were pushed aside by Canada's development plans and their population dropped by half or more during the century.
French Canadians were the largest minority.
They were different in language, law, and religion and proud of their culture.