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24.6 Nitrogen and Phosphorus: Essential Elements
Nonmetallic nitrogen and phosphorus are included in the group 5A elements.
Nitrogen and phosphorus are nonmetals, they do not conduct electricity, and they form acidic oxides.
The chemical properties of the 3 electron configurations are very different.
In 1772 and 1669, nitrogen and phosphorus were identified.
About 80% of Earth's atmosphere is composed of diatomic nitrogen.
The air is cooled to -196 degC, which causes it to liquefy.
When the liquid air is warmed slightly, the nitrogen in the air breaks down, leaving liquid oxygen in its place.
The nitrogen is purifies by removing residual oxygen, which reacts with the copper to form CuO.
Saltpeter and Chile saltpeter are some of the mineral sources for nitrogen.
The nitrogen molecule has a triple bond between the two N atoms.
The triple bond makes N2 very stable and attempts to break it have not been successful.
Nitrogen gas forms with low yields when it is heated with oxygen or hydrogen.
Metal nitrides form when nitrogen gas is heated.
Nitrogen gas is notreactive.
The stability of nitrogen makes it useful in creating a protective atmosphere.
Industrial furnaces use a nitrogen atmosphere to hold products made of metal and chemical reactions that are sensitive to oxygen in a nitrogen atmosphere.
Nitrogen is used to preserve food.
The first isolated element from urine was found by an ill-informed attempt to obtain gold from the golden liquid.
Humans are highly toxic to white phosphorus.
For a long time urine was the main source of phosphorus.
Apatite is a calcium phosphate mineral.
White phosphorus is composed of P4 molecule in a tetrahedral shape, with the phosphorus atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron.
White phos phorus is usually stored under water to prevent contact with air.
The small bond angle between the two phosphorus atoms is broken.
The strain on the structure in structure is caused by the two phosphorus atoms at the corners of the phosphorus atoms linking to other phosphorus atoms.
Red phosphorus is made up of chains of atoms.
Red phosphorus is not as harmful as white phosphorus and can be stored in the air.
Match heads are used with red phosphorus.
The heat produced by rubbing a match head onto a surface ignites the phosphorus.
The compounds P4S3 and KClO3 are found in most strike-anywhere matches.
White phosphorus is obtained by heating it.
The least reactive form of phosphorus is this one.
The structure of black phosphorus is similar to that of graphite.
-2 pound in which nitrogen has the lowest oxidation state.
By the mid-1930s, it became practical.
The main industrial process for making ammonia and fixing nitrogen is this one.
There is a bond between nitrogen atoms that is similar to the bond between oxygen atoms in hydrogen peroxide.
Like hydrogen peroxide, hydrazine is a liquid.
The symbol shows the oxidation state of each atom.
The reduction of the other reactant is caused by the H reaction.
Liquid sodium is dangerous because of its high reactivity.
The large volume of nitrogen gas required to fill an automobile airbag quickly is produced by the overall reaction.
Nitrogen is oxidation by oxygen to form different oxides under certain conditions.
All nitrogen oxides are unstable and react to form more stable compounds.
Some nitrogen oxides persist for long periods of time because of the slow reactions.
Nitrogen oxide, also known as NO, is the most important nitrogen oxide because of its significance in biological systems.
NO helps control blood pressure through blood vessel dilation, it is important in memory and digestion, and it plays major roles in inducing male erections and female uterine contractions.
The ability to adjust NO levels is important in the treatment of ED.
In this section, we learned that lightning does not form in the atmosphere.
Acid rain is formed by NO and NO2, formed as by-products of fossil fuel combustion.
Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are free radicals.
Two NO2 molecules form N2O4 at a low temperature.
N2O4 will return to NO2 if it is heated.
N2O is a good oxidizer.
Nitrogen has an important product called Nitric acid.
This reaction is very slow.
The first step in the process is to pass ammonia gas over hot metal to form NO gas.
The NO gas can be recycled back to form more NO2 and HNO3.
The acid ionizes in water.
The main uses of nitric acid are in explosives.
As the nitrate explodes in the air, different metal ion emit different colors.
A nitrate compound is a good source for the cation without interference from the anion.
There are compounds with the NO 2 in them.
The practice hides the true age of the meat and the nitrites can react with amines in the meat to form compounds called nitrosamines, which are suspected cancer-causing agents.
There is no evidence to support the idea that the use of nitrites in meat increases the risk of cancer in humans.
There are many compounds with oxidation states ranging from -2 to +5.
The oxidation state of the most stable compounds is +5.
The oxidation state of phosphorus is -3.
Phosphine is less polar than ammonia.
When heated, phosphine oxidizes to hydrogen and P4 is reduced.
phosphine is not basic in the solution.
The starting materials for the production of many phosphoruscontaining compounds are the phosphorus halides and oxyhalides.
Many of the key compounds in pesticides, oil additives, fire retardants for clothing, and surfactants are commercially made from the same compound.
The cage structures are made of Phosphorus oxides.
The P4O6 structure has a phosphorus atom at each of the four corners and an oxygen atom between them.
The P4O10 structure has four oxygen atoms bonding to each phosphorus atom.
The P atoms arebonded to the O atoms at the corners.
Phosphoric acid is one of the most important compounds.
Phosphoric acid is a solid that can melt at 42 degrees.
A very pure phosphoric acid is produced by this method.
thick steel slabs must be heated and rolled into thinner ones The hot steel is exposed to air and oxidizes.
The thin steel sheets pass through the baths to remove the rust.
Phosphor acid is used in the production offertilizer.
Fish, bones, and bat guano were once used asfertilizer.
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