12 -- Part 9: Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia to
Wealthy men enjoyed poetry, painting, and music in the company of their friends in the table surroundings.
Courtesans are trained to entertain men.
A man who had more than one wife was advised not to let one wife speak ill of the other and to try to keep each of them happy by taking them to gardens, giving them presents, and loving them well.
Marriage and family were important for members of Indian society regardless of caste.
The ideal sons stayed home with their parents after they married and the family was under the authority of the eldest male.
Ancestor worship in China is similar to the religious ritual of honoring its dead ancestors that the family affirmed.
People in extended families lived in the same house or compound.
Children in poor households were able to work.
The age-old irritations of learning reading, writing, and arithmetic were faced by children in wealthier households.
Less attention was given to daughters than to sons in prosperous families.
A wife was expected to be with her husband.
The widow was expected to sleep on the ground, eat only one simple meal a day, wear plain undyed clothes without jewelry, and shave her head.
She did not attend family festivals because she was seen as suspicious.
A widow who threw herself on her husband's funeral pyre would be praised by high-caste Hindus.
A practice whereby a high could expunge both her own and her husband's sins, so that both would enjoy eternal bliss.
The position of a wife within the home depended on her intelligence and character.
The wives were supposed to be kind to their husbands.
Occasionally a woman ruled the household.
Roman culture spread to northern Europe and Chinese culture to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam in the first century BC.
The spread of Indian culture was aided by the growth of maritime trade, but there were still isolated societies in this region by 1400, most notably in the Pacific islands east of Indonesia.
Southeast Asia is a tropical region that is more like India than China, with temperatures hovering around 80degF and rain falling throughout the year.
The north and south mountain ranges are separated by a river.
It was easy for people to migrate south along these rivers, but harder for them to cross the heavily forested mountains that divided the region into areas that had limited contact with each other.
The indigenous population was mostly Malay, but migrations over the centuries brought many other peoples, including speakers of Austro-Asiatic, Aus tronesian, and Sino-Tibetan-Burmese languages, some of whom moved to the islands off shore and farther into the Pacific Ocean
Southeast Asia was a crossroads.
When traveling from the Indian to the Pacific Ocean, traders from China, India, Africa, and Europe passed through the region.
From the second century b.c.e., the northern part of Vietnam was under Chinese political control.
The capital of Funan, the first state to appear in historical records, was in southern Vietnam.
The sailors were willing to swap items on the beach, but they would find cloves in their place the next morning.
Chinese, Indian, and Arab seamen traveled to the Strait of Malacca or east Java because of the demand for these spices.
The Malay seamen in small craft such as out Spices were a major reason for both rigger canoes to bring spices to Europe and China.
The trade was important to the prosperity of the high demand because they could be used to flavor food.
Unlike other highly desired products of and odoric of Pordenone (in modern Italy), such as sugar, cotton, rice, and silk, cultivation and marketing of spices in the various places they no way was found to produce the spices close to where they were.
The cinnamon trunks were in demand.
The spices trees were floating down the rivers in India.
The pepper trade was from the earliest times picked like grapes from groves so large it would take maritime trade conducted through a series of middlemen.
There are two types of pepper in India and Southeast Asia.
A related plant that produced a great variety of spices as well as pepper was hotter.
He reported that the world imported pepper from India, China imported Nutmeg and cloves from Southeast Asia, and the world also imported cloves from India.
After the discovery of the New World, the Java, perhaps not understanding that they had often been importation of long pepper declined, as the chili pepper found shipped from the innumerable small islands to Java.
Portuguese sailors reached India by sailing around what later than pepper.
They are interesting because they Africa, and soon the Dutch were competing with them for could be grown in only a few small islands in the eastern control of the spice trade and setting up rival trading posts.
Merchants in China, India, Pepper was successfully planted in other tropical places, Arab lands, and Europe.
India has remained the largest despite not knowing where they were grown.
In the first to sixth centuries.
Funan was able to extend its control over the Malay Peninsula.
Merchants from northwest India would carry their goods across the Malay Peninsula.
The ports of Funan gave food and lodging to the merchants as they waited for the winds to shift.
Brahmin priests and Buddhist monks from India settled in the area to serve the Indian population.
Indian priests and monks were often invited to serve as foreign experts under rulers.