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21.5 Repetitive Sequences and Transposable Elements -- Part 1
They move about the genome.
We will look at the characteristics of repetitive sequences and enhancers in order to explore how certain types move from one chromosomal location to rRNA or another.
The majority of our genome is repetitive.
Humans are largely responsible for their genes.
There is a section of a single ancestral gene known as the 7SLRNA gene.
This is accomplished by having multiple copies of the genes that are rRNA inserted into the human genome.
There are some moderately repetitive sequences in the nuclear genome of humans.
It may be a role in the regulation of genes.
Noncoding sequences make up 98% of the other 98%.
We often think of genomes as the repository of sequence that is several hundred nucleotides in length, even though a highly repetitive sequence is relatively short.
There are some sequences that are very repetitive.
Intron DNA makes up 25% of the tandem array, and unique noncoding DNA makes up 15%.
An example of a "junk DNA" example is shown here, because it was thought to have no biological function.
The researchers announced in 2012 that they were AATATAT multiple times.
It is possible to assign function to 80% of the human genome.
It is 10% of the total human genome.
Approximately every 5,000-6,000 bases, there are some types of repetitive sequences.
There are a few hundred to thousand base pairs in length.
They are called "jumping genes" because they are inherently mobile.
The speckled appearance of corn kernels was caused by a segment of DNA that could move into and out of a gene.
Since that time, biologists have discovered many different types of TEs.
The research that disrupted the pigment gene in corn progressed to a understanding of the process of transposition.
The bac Transposase gene teria, archaea, and eukaryotes are some of the species that researchers have studied.
Predicting the outcome of transposon release depends on the pattern of DNA replication.
There is a site called site A.
Transposase goes to site B.
In your first model, assume that site A Transposase cleaves the target DNA and inserts it, but site B does not.
Each of your two models will have a pair of sisters.
Refer back to fig ure 11.13c for a description of Transposon inserted into a new site.
There are 2 copies of the retrotransposon on the chromosomes.
There are only a few retrotransposons in the world.
Some retrotransposons have terminal repeats and genes that are needed in the transposition process.
A copy of a retrotransposon is inserted into a host.
Some forms of reverse transcriptase can also use a DNA template to make a strand of DNA.
These forms can make double-stranded DNA using a strand ofRNA as a starting material.
There are some forms of reverse transcriptase that can make DNA.
In those cases, the reverse transcriptase makes a strand from the template and the other strand from the host-cell DNA polymerase.
The As shown in retrotransposon is transcribed by the RNA polymerase.
This is the template reverse transcriptase uses to make a double-stranded DNA molecule.
The inverted repeats are first recognized by transposase.
Transposon recognizes the ends of double-stranded DNA.
The cleaves both ends of the transposon and removes the DNA from the host.
There are two copies of the 3 on the host chromosomes.
When a cell is in the process of DNA within the genome, retro transposons can be integrated at many locations.
Retrotransposons can be inserted into a chromosomal site that has not yet replicated, if a TE is removed from a site that has already replicated.
This is a way for transposons to become more common.
Recombinant DNA technology is the use of laboratory techniques to bring together fragments from two or more sources.
Chapter 19 states that reverse transcriptase can be used to obtain many copies of a particular gene or large amounts of the uses RNA as a template to synthesise a copy of the gene.
One method of gene cloning has both a chromosomal and aVector terminal repeats at each end.
The genes are cut with restriction enzymes.
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