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16 -- Part 4: Politics and Public Policymaking
The policy adoption step is when the government adopts a plan of action to solve a problem.
Agenda setting recognizes an issue as a problem that needs to be addressed.
Finding ways to solve the problem is part of policy formulation.
Policy evaluation is the analysis of policy and its impact on the problem, while policy implementation is the execution of the plan of action by the appropriate agencies.
The relationship among the states is addressed in the Full Faith and Credit Clause.
The Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable searches.
The powers reserved to the states or to the people are spoken of in the Tenth Amendment.
The Second Amendment guarantees the right to bear arms, while the Ninth Amendment addresses rights retained by the people.
The base of power can change when the party of the president loses seats in Congress.
The political power of Congress does not increase in off-year elections.
Only one-third of the Senate is elected in congressional elections.
Senate approval is not required for executive agreements.
Pacts between the president and the head of state of a foreign country are binding on the parties who make them.
They don't need the consent of the Supreme Court to remove governmental authority from Congress.
Most citizens share basic beliefs and values in political culture.
European monarchs were thought to be ruled by God in the divine right theory.
By the time the Constitution was written, the divine right theory had been challenged by the Enlightenment philosophy, which included a belief in natural rights.
The idea that government depends on the consent of the governed was embraced by the founding fathers.
Proposed reforms of the electoral college include the district plan, proportional plan, national bonus plan, and direct popular election.
Two electors from each state would be chosen in the district plan, while the other would be chosen in the congressional districts.
Each presidential candidate would get a share of the electoral vote based on the state's popular vote.
The basic structure of the electoral college is kept, but the winner of the popular vote gets an additional 102 electoral votes.
abolishing the electoral college is a concept of direct popular election.
Political action committees raise money for candidates and campaigns.
The winner of the popular vote is the majority of the electoral vote.
Candidates from major parties usually get electoral votes.
Most modern elections center around a variety of issues, but rarely result in the realignment of the major parties.
Political parties participate in elections.
The Kennedy-Nixon campaign in 1960 is the best example of the power of the media.
Kennedy's victory over Nixon was attributed to television coverage of the debates.
Television played a major role in the coverage of future presidential campaigns.
The role of the media in the Truman-Dewey campaign was noted by faulty polling methods that predicted Dewey as the winner of the election.
The national and state governments each have their own sphere of influence.
The conference committee is the latest step in the passage of a bill.
When the House and the Senate pass a bill in different forms, a conference committee is formed.
B, C, E, D, and A are the steps in the bill's passage.
The presidential coattail effect is when voters support members of the president's party for other offices because of his popularity.
Justices to the Supreme Court are appointed for life terms, during good behavior, and can be removed only through impeachment and conviction of the charges against them.
They are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate.
Although the president tends to choose justices who reflect his or her own political ideology, he or she does not always nominate a candidate from the president's party.
Supreme Court justices' salaries and benefits are set by Congress.
There are two reasons for low voter turnout.
There is a belief that a person can influence politics.
A higher voter turnout is caused by unhappiness with the status quo.
Voters feel that their vote is more important if candidates or parties show different programs.
The cabinet level is one of the executive departments created by Congress.
The Committee of the Whole is a large committee in the House of Representatives.
A standing committee is a permanent committee.
The number of members who must be present for business to take place is called a quorum.
The full house and the Committee at Large are not House committees.
Minor parties haven't been very successful in electing candidates to office.
Only a few members of Congress have been elected from minor parties.
Major parties often adopt the ideas of third parties into their platform.
Minor parties are based on a set of social, political, or economic beliefs.
Minor parties tend to focus on a single public policy matter such as abolition, abortion, or prohibition.
Floor whips help the floor leader gather the votes needed to pass or defeat a bill.
The minority floor leader is the main spokesman for the minority party and organizes opposition to the majority party.
The presiding officer of the House is the speaker of the House.
Committee chairpersons set agendas, assign members to subcommittees, and decide whether the committee will hold public hearings.
The U.S. government is represented by the solicitor general.
Presidential succession and disability can be dealt with by the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.
The decline in voter turnout is due to a decline in the ability of political parties to mobilize voters.
Same-day registration has shown an increase in voter turnout.
Party loyalty has decreased in recent years.
There are no penalties for not voting.
The high school dropout is likely to be the least likely to vote.
People with higher incomes are more likely to vote.
People who actively participate in their religion are more likely to vote.
An example of the executive powers of the presidency is the president's issuance of an executive order.
The veto power is an example of the president's legislative powers.
The president's powers include issuing executive agreements.
The presidency has the power to grant reprieves and pardons.
One of the president's military powers is to provide for domestic order.
The movement's shift to the courts aided in the success of the civil rights movement after 1950.
The rights of citizens were defined by the Fourteenth Amendment.
The number of African Americans in public office increased in the 70s.
The NAACP continues to promote the goals of the civil rights movement.
Through the passage of legislation, the National Organization for Women wants to protect women's rights.
Under federalism, the national and state governments have the same authority.
The powers and prohibitions of the government are outlined in a constitution.
The Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment was used by the Supreme Court to apply the Sixth Amendment to the states.
The right of the accused to be confronted by witnesses is guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment.
The whole House may debate the bill if it is forced out of the committee.
A joint resolution is a proposal for action that is issued by both the House and Senate, and it has the force of law when passed.
A cloture petition is a request for a Senate vote.
One sign of party dealignment is that one party controls the executive branch of government while the other controls both houses of Congress.
Changing the tenure of judges doesn't affect the power of the federal courts.
The Constitution established the tenure for federal judges.
Checks on the power of the judicial branch are represented by the remaining answer choices.
The War Powers Resolution requires the president to inform Congress within 48 hours of any commitment of U.S. troops abroad.
A docket is a list of cases.
A political liberal believes in government involvement to promote individual welfare.
The choices describe a political conservative.
The failure of the Articles of Confederation to provide adequate direction for the Union was the cause of the creation of the United States Constitution.
The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation were not decided by the convention.
The conduct of the American Revolution was overseen by the Second Continental Congress.
The Articles of Confederation were written in response to the American Revolution.
The national government was weaker than the state governments.
Only one winner can be elected to represent the voters in a single-member district.
Candidates for office compete throughout the district or state as a whole in an at-large voting election.
The one-person one-vote system is a concept that states should have the same number of eligible voters in each legislative district.
Legislative districts are redrawn to give an advantage to a political party or group.
The National Security Council is part of the Executive Office of the President.
The Department of Homeland Security is a part of the cabinet.
It is in charge of preventing terrorist attacks.
The Department of State advises the president on foreign policy.
The CIA gathers information essential to national defense.
The FBI enforces U.S. criminal laws.
Both Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton were impeached by the House of Representatives.
Nixon was not impeached because he resigned before the vote on the charges.
The direct election of senators was provided by the Seventeenth Amendment.
The method of voting in the electoral college was changed by the Twelfth Amendment.
The federal income tax was established by the Sixteenth Amendment.
The terms of office of the president and members of Congress were set by the Twentieth Amendment.
Legislative courts are not constitutional courts.
The Senate has a minimum age of 30 years.
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson were the leaders of the Democratic-Republicans.
When appointing justices to the Supreme Court, senatorial courtesy is not used.
When appointing a justice to the Supreme Court, the other answer choices include factors.
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