In assessing stress, researchers need to balance the rich information yield from interviews with the ease of administration and the efficiency of questionnaires.
It's not easy to adapt to stress after a harrowing event, like a car accident or high-pressure interview for a big job.
Natural selection has given us a set of responses for dealing with anxiety.
Selye's genius was to recognize a connection between the stress response of animals, including stomach ulcers and increases in the size of the adrenal gland, which produces stress hormones, and that of physically ill patients, who showed a consistent pattern of stress-related responses.
Let's consider the experience of a person named Mark, who is terrified of flying, as an example of key aspects of the GAS and the extent to which our appraisals determine our reactions to stress.
Joseph LeDoux has identified the seat of anxiety within the limbic system during the resistance phase and the exhaustion phase.
The amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus are included.
Mark felt the plane move through pockets of turbulence and his cold, clammy hands held the shaking seat.
His mouth is dry.
His breathing is very shallow.
He feels unwell.
There is a possibility of a crash.
Walter Cannon described this response in 1915 as a set of physical and psychological reactions that mobilize us either to confront or leave a threatening situ.
Mark's hippocampus retrieves Figure 12.2 The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, which shows the release of another stress hormone, cortisol, which floods Mark with energy.
He finds ways to deal with stress.
Anterior pituitary don't think like that.
Mark slowly but surely gets over his fears.
He reminds himself that flying is much safer than driving and that he's flown through choppy air in the past without being injured.
Most of the other passengers look calm as he looks around.
He reminds himself to breathe slowly and relax.
If our personal resources are limited, our resistance may break down and cause our levels of activation to go down.
The results can range from damage to an organ system, to depression and anxiety, to a breakdown in the immune system, which we'll discuss later in the chapter.
Selye recognized that stress can be beneficial.
Positive stress can be created by events that are challenging, yet not overwhelming, such as competing in an athletic event or giving a speech, and can provide opportunities for personal growth.
A healthy immune response can be triggered by short-term stress that lasts minutes to hours.
Some of us don't respond to stressors with a fight-or-flight response.
The reactions to movies are shaped by gender.
In times of box office gold.
That's not to say that women don't have a fight-or-flight pattern when in danger.
They do not shirk from defending themselves and their children when threatened.
When they're pregnant, nursing, or caring for children, women have more to lose than men.
The tendand-befriend response to threat and the fight-or-flight response boost the odds of survival.
Men sometimes show a tend-andbefriend response.
They may respond with increased sharing, trust, and trustworthy behaviors when they participate in a stress-produced game with a partner in the laboratory, compared with participants in a non-stressful control condition.
A hormone that plays key roles in love, trust, and emotional bonding, and promotes the tend-and-befriend response, further counteracts stress, and is known as LO 3.7a.
In the first month after giving birth, women with high levels of oxytocin are more likely to touch their children affectionately, sing special songs to them, and bathe and feed them in special ways.
A tend-and-befriend response is associated with the promotion of trust in laboratory studies.
In one study, participants interacted with a partner who dismissed, ignored, and interrupted The 2012 tragic shooting spree at Sandy them.
Hook Elementary School perpetrated greater trust in their partner when they received oxytocin before their interaction compared by 20-year-old Adam Lanza, which resulted in the death of 20 children and 6 adult staff with a placebo.
In response to a stressor, write about a fight-or-flight reaction you experienced.
Write about a tend and befriend response to an event.
Efforts to avoid reminders of the trauma, feelings of estrangement from others, and increased arousal are some of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
The severity, duration, and nearness to the stressor all affect people's likelihood of developing post-traumatic stress disorder.
Playing the popular computer game may help prevent disturbing events.
It may be possible to prevent flashbacks of disturbing events.
Students watched a film about horrible deaths and injuries.
Students who played the game for 10 minutes a half-hour after the film recorded less flashbacks in a diary they kept for a week after the study, compared with students who didn't play the game.
Playing a game called Tetris may distract participants from thinking about upsetting scenes and interfere with the formation of disturbing memories.
There is still a need to determine if playing video games prevents flashbacks in people who have experienced real life traumas.