15 -- Part 8: Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
After eighteen years of marriage, Henry's wife Catherine of Aragon failed to produce a male child and Henry fell in love with Anne Boleyn.
Pope Clement VII received a petition from Henry regarding his marriage to Catherine.
Henry decided to remove the English Church from papal authority.
He was able to marry Anne in this way.
Henry used Parliament to make himself the supreme head of the Church of England.
Henry VIII charged Anne with adulterous incest after she failed to produce a son and she was headed to prison.
Jane Seymour gave Henry the desired son, Edward, but she died in childbirth.
Henry had three more wives.
Henry dissolved the English monasteries in order to get their wealth.
The upper classes were strengthened by the sale of hundreds of former church properties to the middle and upper classes.
People rarely convert to Protestantism overnight despite the rapid change from Catholicism to Protestantism.
They responded to the local consequences of the shift from Catholicism with a combination of resistance, acceptance, and collaboration.
Edward VI, Henry's sickly son, had a significant influence on the religious life of the country.
Mary Tudor, the daughter of Catherine of Aragon, had a brief reign that saw her return to Catholicism.
Mary's death raised to the throne her half-sister Elizabeth.
At the start of her reign there were differences in England.
Catholics wanted a Roman Catholic ruler.
The "Puritans" wanted all Catholic elements in the Church of England to be eliminated.
The Church of England moved in a moderately Protestant direction after Elizabeth chose a middle course between Catholic and Puritan extremes.
John Calvin was born in France.
He converted from Catholicism to Protestantism in 1533 after experiencing a religious crisis.
Calvin believed that he was selected by God to reform the church.
He accepted the invitation to assist in the city's reformation.
Calvin worked to establish a Christian society ruled by God through reformed ministers.
Calvin believed in the absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the weakness of man.
Calvin didn't ascribe free will because it would detract from God's sovereignty.
God decided at the beginning of time who would be saved and who would be damned, according to his beliefs, and men and women could not actively work to achieve salvation.
Calvin's teaching aroused a high standard of morality.
The reformed city had a group of laymen and pastors who were assembled to keep watch on those who were destined for damnation.
All municipal governments in early modern Europe regulated citizens according to their purpose and grace.
Absence from sermons, criticism of ministers, dancing, card playing, family quarrels, and heavy drinking were all investigated and punished by the Consistory.
Religious refugees from France, England, Spain, Scotland, and Italy visited Calvin's Ge neva.
The Presby terian Church in Scotland, the Huguenot Church in France, and the Puritan churches in England and New England were all modeled after the Reformed Church of Calvin.
The religious landscape should be done with dedication and diligence.
Protestantism made remarkable advances between 1517 and 1547, how did the Catholic Church respond?
The Roman Catholic Church made a comeback.
After about 1540 no new large areas of Europe, other than the Netherlands, accepted Protestant beliefs.
Many of his torians see the developments within the Catholic Church after the Protestant Reformation as two interrelated movements, one a drive for internal reform linked to earlier reform forts, and the other a Counter-Reformation that opposed Protestantism.
New religious orders and papal reforms were important agents.
In 1542 Pope Paul III established the Supreme Sacred Congrega tion of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, also known as the Holy Office.
The power to arrest, imprison, and execute all Catholics was given to the committee of six cardinals.
In the Papal States, the Inquisition destroyed heresy.
The general council met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 at Trent, an imperial city close to Italy.
It was called to reform the church in order to reconcile with the Protestants.
The insistence that the Scriptures be the sole basis for discussion made reconciliation impossible for Lutherans and Calvinists.
The spiritual re newal of the Catholic Church was based on the decree of the Council of Trent.
Equal validity to the Scriptures and tradition was given to them.
Transubstantiation is the transformation of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.
The selling of church offices, the requirement for bishops to reside in their own dioceses, and forbidding the sale of indulgences were all addressed.
Every diocese was required to establish a seminary to educate and train clergy.