The activist court makes decisions that forge new ground such as Brown v Board of Education and establish precedent that can lead to legislative action.
The Senate has power over presidential appointments.
Affirmative Action is a way of providing equality under the law.
Policy goals are typically set by political parties.
"All politics is local" is a phrase used by the former Speaker of the House, Tip O'Neill, who said that the behavior of congressmen and women on the local level was the determining factor of how voters perceived their representatives.
The Americans with Disabilities Act requires employers, schools, and public buildings to provide ramps and elevators for handicapped people.
briefs that may be sent to support the position of one side or the other
One of the first political parties urging the rejection of the Constitution was led by Thomas Jefferson.
The interest of the common people was represented by its members.
Courts have the right to review cases from lower courts on appeal.
The Supreme Court is the final court of appeal.
Legislative district boundaries are determined by population changes measured every 10 years by the census.
The appropriation bill has spending as a basic characteristic.
The federal budget is made up of 13 appropriation bills.
The Antiballistic Missile Treaty, the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, and the first Strategic Arms Treaty are all related to arms control.
A court hearing is when a person is formally charged with a crime.
The first constitution of the United States was called the Articles of Confederation.
The period of time was known as the critical period because of its weaknesses.
The principle of one man, one vote was established in the case of Baker v Carr.
Guidelines for drawing up congressional districts were created by this decision.
Public policy advocates that the federal budget spend as much money as it gets.
The attempt to pass a constitutional amendment mandating this policy failed.
In a presidential election, battleground states are those states where the race is close.
The legislature cannot determine a judicial outcome without a trial.
The basis of civil liberties for Americans was established after the Bill of Rights was adopted by the states.
Two political parties work together to reach a common policy goal.
The McCain-Feingold Act, also known as the Bipartisan Campaign Act of 2002, banned soft money donations by individuals to presidential candidates and set aggregate limits for individuals contributing to individual candidates.
Fiscal federalism where federal aid is given to the states with few strings attached is called block grants.
The Supreme Court case Muller v Oregon spoke about the differences between men and women in the workplace.
The bully pulpit is the ability to use the office of the presidency to promote a particular program.
Bureaucracies reflect a hierarchical authority, job specialization, and rules and regulations that drive them.
Richard Nixon appointed Warren Burger as the 15th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1969.
The Court he presided over was more conservative than the Warren Court and gave more power to the states.
After the 2000 presidential election, the Supreme Court ruled that the Florida recount was in violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Part of the "unwritten Constitution" was established by George Washington and includes federal departments such as state, defense, etc.
Limits on accepting money and gifts from individuals and special interest groups are aimed at campaign finance reform.
The grants include project and formula grants and aim at assisting the states in areas such as health, income security, and education.
Party regulars meet in small groups to ask questions, discuss qualifications, and vote on endorsing a candidate.
The Iowa caucus is more important than the New Hampshire primary because of its timing.
Census is the official count of the population of a district, state, or nation.
The Constitution of the United States protects the balance of power between the three branches of government.
James Madison was the first to promote the concept.
The president was used to describe the chief executive.
There are powers found in the constitution.
The Bill of Rights protects civil liberties.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned the use of registration requirements that resulted in discrimination and paved the way for the federal government to enforce the law.
The Clean Air Act established national standards for states, strict auto emissions guidelines, and regulations, which set air pollution standards for private industry.
The Clean Water Act established safe drinking standards.
The Clear and Present Danger Doctrine gives the government the right to censor free speech if it can be shown that the speech will hurt national security.
Once the bill reaches the House floor, there is a closed rule.
It takes 60 senators to cut off a filibuster and it is done to protect minority interests.
The goal of coalition building is to achieve the same goal using both direct lobbying and grassroots lobbying.
The Cold War was an era of American foreign policy lasting from the end of World War II to the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Collective security is an agreement to form through treaties, such as NATO, which guarantee that if one nation is attacked, other nations will come to its defense.
Section 8 Clause 3 of the Constitution gives Congress the authority to regulate interstate commerce and commerce with foreign countries.
Common law is based on the legal concept of stare decisis.
The new federalism, also known as competitive federalism, was introduced by Richard Nixon and stressed the downsizing of the federal government and more reliance on revenue sharing and grants.
The power to tax is shared by the state and federal government.
There is an additional opinion written by a member of the majority.
The government should give more power to the individual states than it does to the central government.
The conference committee is made up of senators and representatives.
The Congressional Budget Office evaluates the cost of legislative proposals.
Congressional oversight is used by Congress to gather information useful for the formation of legislation, review the operations and budgets of executive departments and independent regulatory agencies, conduct investigations through committee hearings, and bring to the public's attention the need for public policy.
At the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Connecticut Compromise was adopted by the delegates and created a bicameral legislature, where one house is represented by the population and the other by the states.
The philosophy of consent of the governed was adopted by Jefferson when he drafted the Declaration of Independence and puts the authority of the government in the people's hands.
Conservatives believe in less government, lower taxes, and a strong national defense.
The person is in the district of an elected official.
Students who want to attend the U.S. military academies can get help from a member of Congress who lives in their district.
The basic framework of government is provided by the constitution.
It is the law of the land.
The increase in the cost of products compared to a base year is the primary measure of inflation.
Emergency spending legislation prevents the department from shutting down because the budget has not been enacted.
Immediately following a party's nominating convention, presidential preference polls show an increase.
Cooperative federalism was developed during the New Deal and is characterized by the federal government becoming more intrusive in what were traditionally state powers.
The White House created the Council of Economic Advisors to give advice to the president.
During President Lyndon Johnson's time in office, the Great Society programs placed a major responsibility on the federal government.
A critical election is caused by the movement of voters from one party to another.
Ronald Reagan won the election because traditional Democrats voted for him.
They became known as Reagan Democrats.
The Eighth Amendment to the Constitution prohibits the federal government from imposing excessive penalties for crimes.
The culture of poverty refers to the point at which an individual is considered to be living in poverty.
The dark horse in the race is a candidate who is not well known.
Segregation of schools and other public facilities is not supported by a law.
Brown v Board of Education made de jure segregation illegal.
The Declaration of Independence contains three parts.
Natural rights as related to life, liberty and property, the consent of the governed, and the concept of limited government are some of the ideas included in the first part.
The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions was taken from The History of Woman Suffrage.
The document outlines the case for the right to vote for women, as well as other rights denied to women at that time.
Deficit spending refers to a budget where expenditures exceed revenues and interest on the debt increases.
The powers that are listed in the Constitution as belonging to the federal government are referred to as delegated powers.
The original Democratic-Republican Party evolved into the Democratic Party.
One of the major political parties is it.
They believed that the central government had a limited role.
Characteristics of a population include age, sex, and race.
Changes in the make-up of a population can be determined using demographic information.
During the Cold War, relations with the Soviet Union improved because of a foreign policy started by Richard Nixon and supported by Ronald Reagan.
Devolution is a political theory of returning power to the states.
Direct democracy is a type of government in which citizens attend a town meeting and vote on issues raised by the majority.
Lobbyists attempt to directly influence legislation through communication with a member of a legislative body or government official who has a connection with the legislation.
Cross-over voters from other political parties can express a preference for candidates in the direct primary.
Income taxes are paid directly to the government.
The ability of the consumer to borrow money is affected by discount rates.
Raising and lowering rates are used to fight inflation.
Discretionary spending is items in the budget that are not mandatory.
The 13 appropriation bills that must be passed by Congress by October 1 include measures in transportation, agriculture, and education.
Dissenting opinion is a judicial written opinion that is not in line with the ruling of the full court.
The government gives benefits directly to people, groups, farmers, and businesses.
Subsidies, research and development funds for corporations, and direct government aid for highway construction and education are typical policies.
Political gridlock is the result of different political parties having control of different branches of the government.
Each skilled worker has a specialized function that leads to increased productivity.
You can't be tried for the same crime again if a verdict is handed down.
The federal government's powers were delegated to the states in the early days of dual federalism.
A separate slate of delegates is also voted on in a dual primary.
This type of primary is used in New Hampshire.
Earmarks are pet projects added to appropriation bills.
The elastic clause in the Constitution gives Congress the power to make all laws necessary and proper.
The presidential electors are from each state.
The state's population is used to calculate the number of electors.
The states with the greatest population have the most electoral votes.
When a voter casts a vote for president, the vote goes to one of the presidential electors in that state.
The number of senators and representatives in each state is equal to the number of electors.
A majority of the electoral votes are needed for a candidate to be elected to office.
The outcome of the election will be determined by the House of Representatives.
The theory of elite and class is about an economic group controlling the policy agenda.
Social Security benefits are guaranteed by law.
The power to collect taxes, pay debts, and regulate commerce among the states is one of thedelegated powers of Congress.
Air and water pollution, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, and toxic substances are regulated by the EPA.
The main environmental regulatory agency is it.
Equal Protection Under the Law is a phrase found in the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution.
The clause was originally meant to protect freed slaves, but it was expanded to protect other minorities.
The right of the citizens to practice their religions without governmental interference is defined by the Establishment clause.
There is a restriction on the creation of a "wall of separation" between church and state.
Laws that take effect after an act are called ex post facto laws.
This type of legislation is not allowed by Congress.
The exclusionary rule was created by the Mapp v Ohio decision, which said that evidence that can be obtained through a legitimate search warrant can't be obtained through exclusionary rule.
Other evidence found at the scene of the crime can't be used in the trial.
The president and the leader of a foreign country can make an executive agreement without the Senate having to approve it.
The National Security Council, the Council of Economic Advisors, the Office of Management and Budget, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy are all part of the executive office of the president.
Even though it is not passed by Congress, an executive order signed by the president has the effect of law.
An example of an executive order is President Clinton's order that legalized the abortion pill.
The ability of the president to protect personal material is called executive privilege.
The purpose of the exit poll is to find out who the voters cast their ballots for, demographic information, and where the voter stands on different issues.
Specific power of the president is listed in the Constitution.
Madison used the term "faction" to describe groups that threaten minority rights.
The media were allowed to air opposing opinions of the same issue.
The Family Medical Leave Act gave employees emergency medical leave with a guarantee that their job wouldn't be taken away in the interim.
Favorable balance of trade refers to a country exporting more than it imports.
Since World War II, the United States has had an unfavorable balance of trade.
The presidential candidate was backed by the home state at the convention.
In 1971 the Federal Election Campaign Acts set up restrictions on the amount of advertising used by a candidate, created disclosure of contributions over $100, and limited the amount of personal contributions a candidate could make on his or her own behalf.
The Federal Election Commission was established in 1974 to match federal funds for presidential candidates.
The Federal Reserve System regulates the money supply by controlling open-market operations, buying and selling of government securities, and establishing reserve requirements.
The Tenth Amendment states that federalism is the division of power between the federal government and state governments.
The states are told that they have reserved powers.
Powers not delegated to the government are given to the states.
The pen name Publius was used by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison to write the Federalist Papers.
They wanted a constitution that would establish a government that could deal with the tyranny of the majority by creating three different branches of government.
The party headed by Alexander Hamilton supported a strong national government and set a policy agenda that would solve the nation's economic problems.
The idea that the government can limit free speech if it can be proved that it will cause physical violence was incorporated into state law.
In the Senate, a vote on legislation can be delayed through debate.
Strom Thurmond made a continuous filibuster for 24 hours.
Fiscal federalism is where funding is appropriated by the federal government to the states with specific conditions attached.
Mandates are the form of legislation.
Fiscal policy determines how the economy is managed as a result of government spending and borrowing and the amount of money collected from taxes.
The precedent that the Supreme Court could rule a state law unconstitutional was established by the decision.
A focus group is used to determine how a cross section of voters feel about a topic.
The food stamp program gives food coupons to people based on their income and family size.
Privilege is enjoyed by members of Congress who are given free postage for any mailings made as part of their official duties.
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees an individual the right to pray and believe in the religion of his or her choice, if Congress passes a law that restricts this right.
The Freedom of Information Act opened the government's meetings of record to the public and media.
The candidate who leads in the polls is the front runner.
"full faith and credit" is a phrase used to describe the mutual respect and legality of laws.
Funded mandates are regulations passed by Congress or issued by regulatory agencies to the states with federal funds.
New trade barriers would be avoided by member nations, existing tariffs would be eliminated, and protective tariffs would only be used for emergency situations.
Many congressional districts are oddly shaped and favor the political party in power in the state making the changes.
The case established that Congress has sole authority over interstate commerce.
The Supreme Court incorporated the First Amendment to a state case for the first time in Gitlow v New York.
Franklin Roosevelt established good neighbor policy to improve relations with Latin America.
Public policy is created by government institutions.
The Tennessee Valley Authority was created during the New Deal and has specific responsibilities that facilitate a specific operation of the government.
The GOP is a way of identifying the Republican Party.
Grants-in-Aid is money provided by the federal government to the states and includes categorical grants, aid that meets the criteria of a specific category, project grants that are competitive, formula grants that have specific rules and block grants that are given for specific purposes.
Bicameral legislature was created at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
The compromise came about after delegates couldn't agree on the New Jersey plan that advocated one legislative house based on equal representation and the Connecticut plan that favored one house based on population.
According to Gridlock, people's perception is that Congress and the president are in a state of disagreement that results in little legislation passing.
GDP is the key economic measure that analyzes an upward or downward economic trend of the monetary value of all the goods and services produced within the nation on a quarterly basis.
The gross national product is the total of all goods and services produced in a year.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon Johnson the authority to defend American troops in Vietnam.
Without a formal declaration of war by Congress, the resolution triggered our escalation in Vietnam.
Habeas is a right that protects a person from illegal imprisonment.
The writ requires that a person be brought before a court to determine if he is being held legally.
Federally regulated campaign contributions made to political candidates and political parties.
Current law limits hard money contributions to $1,000 per election cycle.
The use of paid political ads, 30- and 60-second spots, paid infomercials, and sophisticated polling techniques have all been used in recent campaigns.
There is a claim that the media is more interested in covering a horse race than in-depth coverage of issues.
The Immigration Act of 1991 shifted the quota of immigrants to Europe in order to attract immigrants who were trained workers.
Impeachment is the process of removing an official from office for high crimes and misdemeanors.
President Clinton was not removed from office despite being impeached.
A Congress that establishes itself as dominant in legislative and foreign policy is described by the Imperial Congress.
The term "imperial presidency" was developed by historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr.
Implied Powers are powers that are not listed in the Constitution.
The Bill of Rights was made applicable to the states as a result of Supreme Court decisions.
Even though the Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868, it wasn't until the 1920s that it began to take place.
It peaked in the late 1950s and 1960s.
There are elected officials who are running for new terms.
The General Services Administration is an independent executive agency that has a specific responsibility that facilitates the day-to-day operation of the government.
Soft money is campaign contributions made by special interest groups, labor unions, and corporations to political action committees and political parties.
Independent regulatory agencies are quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial.
The Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration are examples.
Indictment is a list of charges made by a grand jury.
Money paid to the government as a result of purchases is called indirect tax.
Inflation is characterized by rising prices and falling purchasing power.
Wage rates are increasing faster than productivity.
The average paid political ad lasts 30 or 60 seconds.
The Internet is a conglomerate of computer-generated information.
The powers of the president are not listed in the Constitution.
The president's role as chief executive gives him inherent powers.
Ballot proposal put forth by the public and voted on as a result of the petition process.
An interest group is a public or private organization that wants to spread its members' viewpoint.
The International Monetary Fund is a clearinghouse for member nations to discuss monetary issues.
The primary task is to regulate monetary exchange rates.
The first phase of the presidential nomination process is called the invisible primary, where candidates try to gain front-runner status and raise the most money.
Usually the Iowa caucus is held in January or February.
The organizational ability and strength of presidential candidates are reflected in the results.
Most of the candidates who win the Iowa caucus go on to win their party's nomination.
The iron triangle network is a relationship between the public, the government, interest groups, and the executive branch.
After the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, Jim Crow laws were legalized.
The Senate and House of Representatives make up the congressional committee.
Judicial activism is a philosophy of judicial review that overturns precedent.
Following oral arguments, Supreme Court justices convene and review the case they heard before making a decision.