In 1517, Martin Luther, a Ger The Church also taught that Satan, a wicked super man monk and professor at the university in Witten natural being, was constantly challenging God by berg, took up the cause of reform in the Catholic tempting people to sin.
The doctrines were inconsistent with the teachings of the Church.
The Church was seen as the tools of Satan by Luther, who said that Christians of Christian rulers.
Luther translated the Bible into German as Christians were obliged to do so.
John Calvin established a Protestant expanded until it threatened European Christendom.
Calvin stressed the weakness and God's omnipotence after the death of Muhammad.
Between vation before they are born and condemns the rest, Christian armies undertook to eternal damnation.
Europe's luxury is under the banner of the pope.
Calvin wrote that the man is of so Christian monarchs, crusading armies aroused great perverse and crooked nature, that everyone would waves of popular piety as they marched off to combat.
The Teutonic Knights were supported by Calvin's authoritarian doctrine.
Scotland and England had some military successes.
The persecution of Jews in Germany and the expulsion of many European countries were caused by Luther's criticisms.
The Roman Catholic Church and reformers like the Crusades introduced Western European merchants like Luther and Calvin to the Western world.
The first change from within was sugar.
Returning soldiers brought it back from the missionary orders, including the Jesuits, who saw themselves as soldiers of Christ.
The tory in the eastern Mediterranean was experimenting with raising it their own.
European colonization of the sugar would have a profound impact on the Americas.
West and Central Africa were carried the wealth of North Africa.
The Songhai Empire took over the Atlantic Empire in the 15th century after theGhana Empire gave way in the 13th century.
Civiliza relied on military might to control their valuable trade tions and contacts routes.
By 1450, West African traders had 1400 and Africa was divided into two parts.
One-half to two-thirds of the gold in North Africa was under the control of Christianity.
The region was under Islamic control until the seventh century when Muslim the tenth emperor of Mali conquered the area.
He embarked on a pil Near East, Africa, and Europe in 1326 South of the grimage to Mecca with a large retinue that crossed the Sahara, the societies of West and Central Sahara passed through Egypt.
The region's money supply was late because they spent so much in Africa.
The lower savanna Empires, Kingdoms, and Ministates, as well as the tropical rain forest of West Africa, were home to a mosaic of kingdoms that traded among them.
The Atlantic can be visualized as a broad horizontal densely populated, resource-rich region with three climatic zones.
There is a competition for local power in the Sahel.
The zone immediately south of the few coastal kingdoms was large in size.
The savanna, a grassland region, is dotted with trees and shrubs.
South of the savanna is called ministates by historians.
The band 200 to 300 miles wide along the West African city-states of Italy lies in a tropical rain forest.
Since West Africa dominates, the tropical watersheds prevented them from raising livestock.
How do the states differ?
Monotheism was distinct from that of Christians, Muslims, and Jews in Sudanic civilization.
The primary avenue of trade for West Africa was ruled by kings and princes who were considered to be divine.
The first caravans carrying West African goods appeared around a.d.
The recently domesticated camel north across the Sahara was used to pioneer trade routes across the Sahara to and other foreign goods.
West Africa and the Mediterranean region were connected by trade routes.
Fine textiles, spices, and the Muslim faith traveled south as gold, ivory, and slaves moved north and east.
In the 1430s, the Portuguese opened up maritime trade with the coastal regions of West Africa, which were home to many peoples and dozens of large and small states.
The movement of gold and slaves into the Atlantic would surpass that across the Sahara in the next century.
In the mid-fifteenth century, several dozen independent but culturally linked opening coastal trade with Europeans offered many peoples.
The Akan states had goldfields of their own.
European sailors made their way along the coast of the Gold Coast.
The Bight of West and Central Africa lay east of the Akan states and became an early center of the slave trade.
The Slave Coast came to be as a result.
Multiple gods, spirits, and animals were acknowledged by Africans.
Like animists in the Americas and Europe, African communities had wise men and women who could manipulate these forces for good or ill.
Many people believed that their kings could contact the spirit world because of the Sudanic tradition of divine kingship.
West Africans believed that the dead resided in a nearby spiritual realm and interceded in their lives.
The man with a big household, many wives, many children, and many relatives was happy.
The terracotta European engagement with the wider Atlantic world figure came from an archaeological site near Djenna.
Around 1400, the Portuguese monarchy rider wore a large, ornate necklace while the horse had a decorative covering on its head.
Europe propelled the Empire into overseas expansion.
Portugal large cavalry to expand and defend its borders, and the horse that took a leading role in the African slave trade, was an important symbol of Malian wealth and power.
The newly unified kingdom of Spain undertook Forman/ Art Resource.
The capital city of more than 100,000 residents was visited by Duarte Lopez in 1578.
As a young soldier fighting North African Moors with Wherever they went, European the Crusading Order of Christ, Prince Henry of traders had to negotiate contacts on local terms.
Henry founded a center for oceanic navigation to find a maritime route to the source of this trade.
The Mande designed a better-handling vessel, the caravel, rigged speakers in Mali, and the Haus, as Henry's mariners were challenged to find a way through some West Africans who lived immediately south of the northwest African coast.
They were able to call Muslim leaders imams.
They discovered the Koran and worshipped only a single God when they sailed far into the Atlantic.
In 1435, Timbuktu became the center of African ivory Islamic learning and instruction after they exchanged salt, wine, and fish for African ivory.
Carefully consider each of the objects.
The bows are very long and the arrows are made of heavy reeds that are tough enough to pierce a shield.
Some are pointed with a fish bone, while others have a stone like a diamond point.
It is small and has few villages and towns.
The king is a member of the same sect.
He pays his allegiance to the crown of Portugal in order to not be subject to the government.
The National Museum of the American Indian/George Gustav Heye is at the mouth of the River Cuama, trading with the Center/New York, NY.
They saw a half league from camp.
The large population of pagans, who are black, of captured four Indian women, and twenty Indians came at middle stature, swift of foot, and in battle fight with great us and attacked us so stoutly that we had to retreat to the bravery, their weapons being bows and arrows.
There are many kings who are following Monomo their weapons.
The people are so quick and warlike that they wage war against it.
The Emperor maintains large armies, which in the provinces for them, they flee, and when their adversaries turn into legions, they are immediately on them.
Being a great ruler, he must be at constant warfare in flee.
They are always trying to maintain his power.
The female legions of his warriors are always running and crossing from one side to another, so that the crossbows or the arquebuses can not be aimed at them by the Emperor.
The source is the Art Resource, NY.
John E. Worth wrote an account of the Northern Conquest and Discovery of Hernando de Soto.
There is a connection between warfare and commerce, which appears again and again in contact settings.
Banza Kongo was the capital of the Kingdom of Kongo when Portuguese traders first arrived.
Kongo's king, Nzinga a Nkuwo, chose to be christened Joao I. Kongo became officially Christian and Banza came to be known as Sao Salvador.
The engraving shows the city as it appeared a century later.
Madeira sugar was available in London, Paris, Rome, and Con due to the rising power of the quantities, as merchants were forced out of eastern and Madeira sugar was producing 2,500 metric tons a year.
Most of the islands were empty.
The only way to get to the lucrative markets of the Canaries was via the Castilian adven Indian Ocean.
They began to work with Portuguese turers to conquer the Guanches who lived there.
Once defeated, they were enslaved to labor in the ing voyages and the African coast and its offshore Canaries or on Madeira, where they carved irrigation islands open to their efforts.
The island's steep rock cliffs are home to European voyagers.
Mediterranean agriculture was well sion of the coastal kingdoms.
His ships were mistaken for those of Chinese traders and the last pale-skinned men to Portuguese traders were ousted by sea.
Coerced basins, coarse cloth, honey, and coral beads were labor, through slavery, serfdom, or indentured servants snubbed by the Arab and Indian merchants along tude, was the norm in most premodern societies.
War captives were found in the Indian Ocean and along the coast of many other countries.
The Slaves were a key commodity of exchange, sold as momentous growth of European wealth and power, the cultural laborers, concubines, or military recruits.
The Portuguese and Dutch replaced the Arabs as the leaders in Asian commerce.
The Silk Road from China and the Spice Route from India were used for centuries to connect Europe, North Africa, and Asia.
Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch rulers and merchants subsidized Christian maritime explorers who discovered new trade routes around Africa and new sources of wealth in the Americas.
The commercial importance of the Mediterranean was undermined by these initiatives.
The ruler of the powerful Songhai Empire personally bought gold and slaves from Africans and owned twelve "tribes" of hereditary agricultural slaves.
Many of them were seized in raids against stateless people.
Slaves were central to the trade.
He traveled with a caravan of six hundred female slave trade, a forced diaspora of African peoples, slaves, destined for domestic service, as Europeans set up sugar plan in North Africa, Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire.
Between 700 and 1900, as many as nine million Africans were sold in the trans-Saharan Sixteenth-century Incursions slave trade.
Europeans were more interested in the trade of Portuguese traders south and east than in the trade of Spanish monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of ing for human beings.
The Portuguese saw national unity and fortified trading posts as the keys to power and prosperity.
The map created by Christopher Columbus's brother, Bartholomew, was used to create this huge view of the world.
The map uses information from Marco Polo's explorations in Asia and Bartolomeu Dias's recent voyage around the tip of Africa.
It suggests that Asia is only 5,000 miles west of Europe, rather than the actual distance of 15,000 miles.
Columbus persuaded the Spanish monarchs to support his voyage using a map.
After a perilous voyage of 3,000 to drive Muslim Arabs from the European mainland, he disembarked on an island in the present-day capture of the last Islamic territory in Western Bahamas.
He believed he had reached Asia in 1492.
Using Catholicism to build a sense of Indies, they launched the brutal Inquisition called the native inhabitants Indians and the islands against suspected Christian heretics and expelled or the West Indies.
Thousands of Jews and Muslims were forcibly converted.
Ferdinand and Isabella explored the neighboring Caribbean islands and sought trade and empire by and demanded tribute from the local Taino, Arawak, subsidizing the voyages of Christopher Columbus, an and Carib peoples.
There were stories of rivers of gold and daring mariner from Genoa.
After six years of lobbying, Columbus persuaded Genoese investors in Seville, influential courtiers, and Ferdinand to accept his dubious theories and finance the West Indies.
The native peoples of the Caribbean were wiped out by the Spanish.
Rumors of a gold-rich civilization led to the invasion of the Aztec Empire.
One of the great conquests in world history was achieved by Spanish conquistadors in 1535.
Steel swords, armor, guns, horses, and attack dogs gave the Spanish a military advantage.
The Aztecs and their allies would have overwhelmed the invaders before they reached the capital of Tenochtitlan.
Tlaxcala, an independent kingdom hostile to the Aztecs, was one of the reasons for the Spanish Conquest.
Some Aztecs thought that Cortes might be their god, according to a later tradition.
These documents were written by people who experienced the conquest.
He was born poor and went to America as a common soldier and served under conquistadors in Panama and Cuba.
The present-day Guatemala was brought by Cortes.
In fresh and straightforward prose, it depicts the conquest with musk so that it should have a sweet scent, and he as a divinely blessed event that saved the non- Aztecs placed it around the neck of the Great Moctezuma.
He was told through the mouth of Dona Marina that the Great Moctezuma had sent the great Caciques to him and that he took it as a great honor that he had received them.
When we arrived near to Tenochtitlan, space was made for us to enter the streets.
The great now count the multitude of men and women and boys who were in the streets and in canoes on the canals who supported him with their arms after he got down from his litter.
They took us to lodge in some large houses, where they had apartments for all of us, for they had belonged and spread cloths on it, so that he should not tread on to the father of them.
Not one of these people dared to think of Axayaca.
They were white, had yellow hair, and we were told that we were to be black.
The cavalry and all of us soldiers were on alert when Moctezuma heard.
According to his heart, a sumptuous dinner was provided for us.
He put forth great effort, he quieted, he controlled his entry into the great city of heart, and he submitted himself entirely to the fact that he was Tenochtitlan Mexico on the 8th day of November.
They imported him and then sought gold.
The Aztecs told their stories in a repetitive style and he translated them into Spanish.
The Aztec elders' account and that of Diaz were his.
It was as if he were being tortured.
It was as if he sighed, became weak, and felt the tone of these accounts.
astounded suggests an explanation.
It shut off one's ears because it lacked one of strength.
There was a round pebble that came forth when it discharged.
There was fire that went showering forth.
The smell of its smoke was foul and it wounded the head.
When the shot hit the mountain, it dissolved.
Their war array was all iron.
They were clothed in iron.
They covered their heads with iron.
Their swords were made of iron.
Their crossbows were made of iron.
They had shields made of iron.
They had iron lances.
The deer which bore them upon their backs were as tall as roof terraces.
The de Leon explored the coast of Florida and gave three more of his voy peninsula's name to the Spanish.
Hundreds of Europeans became the first to see the Pacific Ocean when they saw the Pacific Ocean after Columbus colonized the West Indies.
The Spanish monarchs labeled the newly offered successful conquistadors noble titles because of their Florentine estates and Indian laborers.
In 1519, Hernan Cortes led an army of 600 men to the coast of South America, denying that the region was part of Asia.
Awed by the Spanish invaders, Moctezuma received Cortes.
After taking the emperor captive, the Spanish took the mainland for gold and slaves.
This image is from a history of the Aztecs written in 1570 by the Spanish Dominican monk Diego Duran and shows a successful attack by Mexica warriors against Spanish soldiers prior to the conquest of Tenochtitlan.
As the Mexicans prepare to strike, the Spaniards try to hold their position.
The residents of Tenochtitlan changed their name to Brazil after the larly.
The tree that yielded the red dye was destroyed by the Aztec Empire.
I have been an Indian for Brazilwood.
The process of carving out European diseases began in the 1530s when King Dom Joao III sent settlers who had no immunity to the Americas.
There were sugar plantations in the coastal lowlands after the Spaniards arrived.
Native Americans supplied most of the labor for the Tenochtitlan epidemic, but African slaves replaced them as the epidemic continued.
Soon, Brazil would become the world's more.
It would also devour African stir because they could not move.
Many lives covered with mantled with pustules.
Hundreds of workers were killed by small Americas, a form of estate agriculture that was pioneered by Italian merchants and the cru sands of Indians.
The Portuguese set in motion one of the tenants and moved against the most significant developments of the early modern era.
The peninsula eventually conquered them as well.
Francisco Pizarro set out to colonize the Americas by the end of the 16th century.
The force of 168 men and 67 horses was already built by the time he and his small elements were done.
Half of the population of the Inka empire were vulnerable to European diseases in 1532.
Weakened mili quest was especially valuable because it was divided between rival claims to the wealth.
The Portuguese found a way to make the throne viable.
The last Inka emperor, Pizarro, killed sugar plantations in the tropical regions of the Americas Atahualpa and pioneered the transatlantic slave trade.
The resistance of the Inka continued.
The conquest was completed by 1535 and it was found that the native peoples were vulnerable to the diseases of Spain.
Chapter 2 talks about the Columbian Exchange.
Life in the Americas was changed by the Spanish invasion.
The Indians of Hispaniola were wiped out by disease and warfare.
The population of 9 million in 1530 was less than 500,000 a century later.
Native American, European, and African societies suffered the greatest losses in one of the veloped independently over thousands of years before great demographic disasters in world history.
The Americas had 20 million Native Americans in 1500 and 3 million in 1650.
Portuguese were semisedentary with central fields and villages trying to find a sailing route around the southern tip of Africa.
West and Central Africa had a mix of sedentary, semisedentary, and nonsedentary rents, and their voyages carried them far away.
Western Europe was from the African coast to the Atlantic.
The Portuguese commander Pedro patchwork of political organization was surprised to see land kingdoms and chiefdoms in the west in 1500.
The Island of the True Cross, da Vera Cruz, was named after Cabral's discovery of Ihla and ministates.
North America's transformation from a land of exploration, conquest, and exploitation to a land of trade, tribute, and taxes dominated by no one around them.
The Caribbean and coastal Brazil helped to set them apart from ordinary laborers, but they also bore responsibility for the well-being of their enslaved Native Americans and offered them various forms of protection.
The demands of plantation led Europeans to import slaves from Africa and set in motion a chain of events that would destroy African lives on both sides of the Atlantic.
The collapse of two of the greatest empires in the world -- the Aztec ondary to their efforts to reach the Indian Ocean, from and Incan empires -- was due to the miscalculations of Columbus and the happy acci biological forces.
The map of Brazil was drawn from the Miller Atlas, which was made in 1519.
Indians harvesting brazilwood; macaws and other colorful birds; a monkey; and a fire-breathing dragon.
The dense annotations and place names along the coast remind us that Portuguese familiarity with Brazil was limited to the seaboard.
Explain the significance of each term.
You can demonstrate your understanding of the chapter's main ideas by answering these questions.
Ordinary people helped Europe.
The events discussed in this chapter can be found here.
Images and analysis of the native are offered.
You should ask yourself why this chapter begins and ends with these dates.