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34.4 Nutrition and Human Health -- Part 2
In cells, coenzymes are used over and over again.
Not all vitamins are coenzymes; for example, vitamins A and A are a part of the pigment that prevents night blindness.
It has been known for a long time that a deficiency of a vitamins can be associated with a disorder.
It is recommended that we eat about 41/2 cups of fruits and vegetables a day.
Some people are still at risk for deficiency of vitamins because of poor food choices, despite the fact that many foods are enriched or fortified with vitamins.
Some people don't get enough iron, calcium, magnesium, or zinc in their diet.
Adult females need more iron in the diet each month than males.
Many people take calcium supplements to counteract osteoporosis, a bone disease that affects older women and men.
Many people consume too much salt.
Water retention can be caused by excess sodium.
A new set of guidelines from the Department of Agriculture focuses more on healthy eating patterns than on strict amounts of vitamins and minerals.
Storage of calories in the form of body fat is caused by the consumption of an excess amount of calories.
A condition in which excess body fat has an adverse effect on normal activity and health is called Obesity.
A person's body mass index can be calculated by dividing their weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared.
Diabetes and cardiovascular disease are related to Obesity.
Increasing popularity of surgical procedures designed to reduce food consumption shows the seriousness of obese as a health-care problem.
The U.S. revises the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
The Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services released guidelines in 2015.
Assist people with maintaining a healthy weight.
The new guidelines focus more on establishing healthy eating patterns.
A variety of vegetables, including leafy vegetables, beans, red and yellow vegetables, and starches.
Half of the grains should be whole.
There are fat-free or low-fat dairy products.
Less than 10 percent of calories come from added sugar.
Consuming less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fats is recommended.
It is recommended that alcohol be consumed in moderation.
Take a moment to reflect on your diet.
Diabetes is caused when the hormone insulin is not functioning properly and high levels of sugar are found in the blood.
This could be due to a deficiency of the pancreas's ability to makeinsulin, or it could be due to an inability of cells to respond to it.
Excess blood sugar spills over into the urine, leading to increased urination, thirst, and weight loss.
Damage to blood vessels, nerves, eyes, and kidneys can be caused by high levels of bloodglucose and lack of otherinsulin functions.
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can be successfully managed with injections.
People who gained 20 pounds or more after age 50 had three times the risk of developing diabetes, and the risk was four times greater for those with the biggest waist circumferences.
The authors of the study noted the importance of exercise in maintaining good health because we tend to lose muscle and gain fat as we age.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death.
When arteries become blocked by plaque, heart attacks and strokes can occur.
Cholesterol is carried in the blood by two types of lipoproteins.
They are considered bad because they are like delivery trucks that carry cholesterol from the liver to the cells.
They are considered good because they are like garbage trucks that dispose of cholesterol.
The cholesterol from the cells is converted to bile salts in the small intestine.
According to the American Heart Association, a diet high in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol can raise LDL cholesterol levels.
It is not recommended to take fish oil supplements without a doctor's approval because of the risk of interfering with normal blood clotting.
A physician can determine if a patient has normal cholesterol levels.
If a person's cholesterol and triglyceride levels are elevated, modifying the fat content of the diet, losing excess body fat, and exercising regularly can reduce them.
If lifestyle changes don't lower cholesterol enough to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, a physician may prescribe cholesterol-lowering medications.
Some animals, such as sponges and planarians, have incomplete digestive tracts, while others have only one opening.
Many animals, such as earthworms, have a mouth and an anus.
Some animals are continuous feeders and others are discontinuous feeders.
A storage organ is needed for continuous feeders.
Most mammals have teeth.
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