Some dramatic dif ferences in the characteristics of men and women were reported by Margaret Mead in her classic research.
The attitudes and behavior of men and women were very similar in the Arapesh.
Many cultures view both of them as having primarily feminine characteristics.
They spent their time gardening, hunting, and child rearing activities that were shared equally by men and women.
The men and women of the fierce Mundugumor shared many of the same characteristics such as selfishness and aggressiveness.
Children were left on their own as early as possible.
Their children were taught to be competitive, hostile, and suspicious.
The Tchambuli defined femininity and masculinity in a different way than the United States.
Women were practical, dominant, rational, and unadorned, while men were seen as vain, submissive, emotional, and nurturing toward children.
Women's weaving, fishing, and trading made up the community's economic base.
The men spent a lot of time in dance and art.
They tried to get the attention and affection of the women, who viewed the situation with limited tolerance.
Being feminine is associated with certain characteristics.
The characteristics can be combined in either males or females.
Women and men can have high levels of both instrumental and expressionary characteris tics.
The concept of androgyny has been studied in a number of countries.
In the Tamang villages of Nepal, both men and women do gender specific tasks.
Men do a lot of the cooking and child care, and they seem to be gentle with young children.
Heavy manual labor is also done by women when they perform these tasks.
Prescriptions for behaviors, occupations, and physical appearance are included in gender stereotypes.
This deviation from the femi nine stereotype is likely to cause a lot of people to be upset.
It seems that statements like "she doesn't look like a woman" are designed to enforce the stereotype.
Our perception of ourselves and others' perception of us can be influenced by gender stereotypes.
Rebecca's parents both have full-time jobs.
Her mother rarely cooks and her father makes din ner every night.
Rebecca puts the "mommy" doll in the kitchen when she picks up dinner in her dollhouse.
Parents are not the only source of information regarding gender stereotypes; relatives, peers, teachers, and the mass media are also influential.
Major characters in tele vision programs are more likely to be male.
Girls and women are more likely to rely on men for support if there is no clear occupation or means of support.
They work in traditional female jobs such as a nurse or household worker when they are employed.
Men and women are portrayed the same way in commercials as they were three decades ago.
Domestic products are likely to be represented by women and men.
Although women make most of the purchases of goods and services, they are underrepresented as primary characters in television commercials.
Compared with women, men in television commercials are more often portrayed as authorities and as users of the products.
The portrayal of men and women on television has changed.
The representation of women in prime-time television programs is still not equal.
The print media, from elementary school textbooks to newspapers to comic strips, present and strengthen messages about what is appropriate for women and men.
Many preschool children are taught that "boys don't play with dolls" and "mommies can't be pilots" despite the fact that these stereotypes are changing.
Mass media have increased their efforts to ensure that their programming does not reflect stereotypes.
Males are more vulnerable than females.
The most important determinant of identity is genetic inheritance.
There is a debate about whether an individual is male or female.
The 23rd pair of chromosomes in this community is currently necessary to determine if a person has an x and a Y sex reassignment surgery.
Sexually transmitted infections include gonorrhea and syphilis.
The undifferentiated gonad is directed by the Y chromosome to develop distinctions.
Children in parts of the world learn that gender stereotypes are usually tall, have below-average intelligence, and at an early age.
The mass media may have an influence on crime.
Sex-linked disorders can be caused by the size of the Y chromosome.
The x and Y chromosomes have the same number of genes.
John was selected by the teacher for the role.
Pat has high levels of characteristics that he or his partner would like with both males and females.
The researchers are affiliated with well-known universities and you are likely to believe their findings.
The study of male-female differences has been described as a national preoccupation.
Everyone wants to know if the differences are the result of biological factors or not.
We need to look at the causes of male- female differences as well as the size of the difference.
Sex differences are statistical and can be said about a given individual.
Unless hundreds or thousands of people are tested, many reported differences are not detected.
There are obvious physical differences between males and females.
Men are taller than women.
The average American man is 20 years old and taller than the average woman.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that the average American man and woman are about the same weight.
The effects of testosterone increase the muscle mass of men.
Males are better at throwing a ball or a dart than females are.
The ultimate game of life is won by females.
Females have a longer life expectancy than males.
Most physical differences have less impact than they did earlier in the work of air traffic controllers.
Due to the wide use of mechanical equipment, differences in physical size and strength are not important for occupational of people depending on their success.
In the past, physical strength was important in piloting an air traffic controller's airplane.
The physical effort of piloting an aircraft has been replaced by the use of superb concentration and computerized equipment that can land the plane if necessary.
Intelligence was thought to be a function of brain size by scientists a century ago.
They reported that men had larger brains than women, which they claimed led to differences in intelligence and explained the greater accomplishments of men in fields such as politics and science.
Some researchers knew if the brains they examined were those of men or women.
It is possible that expec tations influenced their observations.
They failed to notice the large degree of overlap in the brain sizes of men and women.
The existence of some slight structural differences in the brains of men and women is suggested by magnetic resonance images and positron emission tomography scans.
There is a reported difference between the two hemispheres of the brain.
The callosum in women is larger than in men.
There may be differences in the communication between the hemi spheres.
The left and right hemispheres of men do not communicate as much as women.
Language abilities in women are more likely to survive a stroke in the left hemisphere.
The language capacity of the right hemisphere can be tapped by female stroke victims.
Researchers have concluded that the differences are small and unlikely to account for differences in everyday behaviors.
The differences are open to interpretation.
People wonder if one sex is smarter than the other.
The scores obtained by females and males on standard measures of intelligence do not differ.
The first intelligence scale was developed by Alfred Binet and he found that boys were more likely to get low scores.
Girls answered a number of questions from cartoonbank.com.
Binet balanced the two types of items so that males and females performed equally well.
Males and females have an advantage due to items on intelligence tests.
Some differences emerge if we look beyond intelligence scores and investigate abilities.
vocabulary and verbal analogies are included in the concept of verbal ability.
Some differences emerge when the components are analyzed separately.
Women were favored on abilities such as anagrams and verbal or associational fluency.
The study found that women scored higher than men on the tests, but the dif ference was small.
According to Janet Hyde (1994), there are no gender differences in On February 14, 1946, the U.S.
The army unveiled a secret weapon because of gender differences, according to the more recent studies.
It is difficult to see how and Computer if this gender difference is biologically determined.
Several articles shells were published by two researchers in the early 1980s.
The birth that day caused a stir in the popular press and academic circles.
John had been collecting data on a group of very bright seventh- and eighth- grade students for several years.
The dents who scored in the top 2% to 5% of any standardized math test were invited to the center stage.
The SAT is used as a basis for admissions, but six women, including lege admission decisions, should not take it.
The results were analyzed by Benbow Betty Holberton and she found that the boys scored higher than the girls.
The seventh grade showed most of the difference.
The findings were overstated when they were reported in the press.
There is no evidence that boys and girls are different in terms of math ability.
Women who perform math are more likely to be judged on their math ability than men.
When female test takers are reminded of the stereotype of inferior performance before completing a test, they score less on mathematical tests than their male counterparts.
Stereotype threat may underlie gender differences in advanced math performance, as well as those that have been attributed to genetically based sex differences.
In a clever and potentially useful educational intervention, researchers found that the influence of stereotype threat could be reduced.
College students were required to complete a series of math problems under one of three conditions.
Some students were told they were doing a test of problem-solving ability, while others were told they were doing a math test.
The hypothesis that knowledge of stereotype threat improved performance by providing a means of externalizing arousal was supported by the research.
"Spatial ability is not a single construct," says Vicki Helgeson.
When reading maps, locating simple figures in more complex ones, and mentally rotating three-dimensional objects, we use these abilities.
The mental rotation task described at the beginning of Chapter 8 is a good example of a task requiring spatial ability.
Skills such as these are helpful in certain types of mathematics and in engineering or architecture; they are also evident when we solve jigsaw puzzles or envision how furniture fits into a room before moving it in.
Males are better at mental rotation tasks than females.
Some studies show that males and females have different spatial abilities.
Write down your answer before you read it.
Performance on tests of spatial ability is related to spatial learning opportunities.
Most American parents think that their sons are more talented than their daughters.
They are more likely to encourage interest in their sons than in their daughters.
It is difficult to draw a conclusion about sex comparisons in spatial abilities because the results depend on the specific task, according to Vicki Helgeson.
The size of the difference varies from small to large in favor of men.
Most differences between males and females are small.
The differences in verbal, spatial, and mathematical abilities are getting smaller.
The reasons for these changes are not clear, but they may be caused by societal changes that affect stereotypes.
Researchers have studied male-female differences in social behaviors such as communication, helping, and aggression.
Key findings of those studies are examined here.
Men and women view communication differently.
Communication is a primary way to establish and maintain relationships for most women.
Men tend to see communication as a way of controlling, preserving independence, and enhancing status.
Men are more likely to use speech to demonstrate their skills.
Contrary to popular belief, research shows that males talk more than females.
According to observations of the speech of men and women, feminine speech seems more indirect and less powerful than masculine speech.
The helping of a spouse or girlfriend is compared.
In public settings men are challenged to demonstrate their behavior of women and men, intelligence, expertise, and power.
At home or in a one-to-one setting, a man may feel that researchers need to consider he has nothing to prove; there is no one to defend against and therefore no reason to talk different types of help.
A nurturing type that can make or break a relationship is what dinner conversations can offer for women.
It is not surprising that established women experience more difficulty exert their influence in business set relationships compared to men.
There is a major difference between men and women in the social set.
Women are more likely to ask questions than men.
Women are more likely to consider helping a question to the end of their statements, such as "I think Ted's teacher is giving the behavior has led to erroneous conclusions in past research."
The speaker may be tentative with the questions.
They can be seen as a way of encouraging further conversation and inviting the participation of others.
Many women say that men don't listen.
Brain scans show that the complaint may have a biological basis.
Men and women use their left and right hemispheres when listening.
Most of the care for infants, elderly relatives, and sick or disabled people is provided by women.
If a child is ill and needs to stay at home, it is usually the mother who takes time off from work.
Men are more likely to have higher levels of aggression.
The vast majority of crime committed in the United States is committed by men, who are also responsible for more violent crimes than are women.
Consider male and female differences.
We need to consider the type of aggression that is involved before we conclude that males are more aggressive than females.
Researchers are by each other.
Although males are more for socializing, females have a higher level of aggression.
Clearly, the type of aggressive situation is an influence on the level of aggression for each outline, write down one that is displayed and who will be most aggressive.
The chart summarizes the research on male-female differences.
The intel igence of males and females is the same.
The differences have diminished according to recent research.
The highest ability level for males is shown on standardized tests.
Higher grades in math are earned by females.
Research shows that the differences are small in the general population.
The difference in mental rotation tasks between males and females is large.
Men talk more than women.
The use of tag questions are open to different interpretations.
An alternative explanation is that the questions facilitate conversation.
Most crimes and acts of physical aggression are committed by males.
Knowing a person's biological sex doesn't tell us much about their aggression.
Women show higher levels of aggression.
There are no biological differences between men and women when it comes to spatial and mathematical ability.
Intelligence mathematical and spatial ability may be a factor in the differences in intelligence between males and females.
In the past, females were said to communicate better than males.
The difference is related to gender stereotypes.
Both males and females score.
Males are better at mental rotation tasks than females.
It can be used to describe discrimination against women, such as differential treatment in educa tional settings and limited access to job opportunities, but it can also be applied to discrimination against men.
Less than 1% of the 500 largest companies in the United States are led by a female CEO.
There are still biases and discrimination based on sex in the U.S.
The distribution of household responsibilities is the topic of the discussion.
Scientists argued in the late 1800s that educating women would be dangerous because they couldn't handle the amount of energy required for men to have children.
They pointed to differences in the brain size of men and women as proof that women were less intelligent than men.
Women's inability to handle educational programs are considered absurd today.
There is evidence that males and females are treated differently in educational settings.
Beverly Fagot recorded the behavior of teachers and children in a toddler play group.
The teachers reinforced the tendency for girls to communicate more gently and for boys to communicate more assertively, even though the 1-year-old children communicated in similar ways.
In the coming decades, 600,000 and to accelerate.
There are differences between the educational experiences of boys and girls.
Boys are more likely to be nominated by teachers than girls.
Even though girls generally get higher course grades than boys, they are more likely to name boys as most skilled in mathematics.
Teachers are more likely to name girls when they think of students who excel in social skills.
There is a gender bias reflected in the materials used in teaching classes.
An analysis of educational software used in preschool classes found that there were more male characters than female characters.
The female characters were more gender-stereotyped in appearance than the male characters.
Girls who use such materials are told that technol ogy is not a good experience.
There are important implica tions for learning from the study of possible gender bias in educational experiences.
Write down your answers before you read further.
Two professors studied gender bias in classrooms.
They observed 100 fourth-, fifth-, and eighth- grade classes in urban and rural school systems and found that even teachers who care about gender equity tend to interact differently with the boys and girls in their classrooms.
The teachers were shocked by the findings.
Boys who call out in class are more likely to get the attention of their teacher.
Girls who call out in class are more likely to be told to remember the rule.
Girls teach boys to call out answers in class.
The age to be assertive in requesting that the teachers see the gender gap in communication in their classrooms is so powerful that the stereotype of talkative females is so powerful.
Boys are taught to be in a classroom.
Baltimore is not the capital.
The U.S. is located in the capital.
After Anne offered an incorrect answer, the teacher did not stay with her but moved on to Judy, who received a simple acceptance of her correct answer.
The teacher's reaction to the answer was more precise.
The teachers give the boys more time to talk in class.
Most teachers don't know about the impact of this bias.
This bias can be reduced or eliminated with brief but focused training.
The effectiveness of teach ing for all students is increased by increasing equity in classroom interactions.
Equity and effectiveness are not competing concerns.
High school and higher education have the same sexism patterns as elementary school classrooms.
Girls and boys take different courses in high school.
The classes in home economics, health, and office occupations are filled with girls, while those in technical, trade, and industrial programs are filled with boys.
The consequence of these differences is that girls are only prepared for a limited number of jobs.
In a small group, address the class as if only men were present, and consider gender by name more often.
Sexism is a part of education.
Women's achievements may be left and discussed in courses that deal specifically with gender, if you think about the selection and omission of course materials.
There isn't a simple answer.
The stereotype that firefighting is a male job has been broken by these firefighters, who are part of a tiny minority of women who work as firefighters.
Women's access to higher-paying jobs has been reduced due to stereotypes.
Many pictures of male scien tists but few of female scientists are included in science textbooks.
There isn't a lot of female role models in the sciences.
Men and women choose different majors in college.
Women are more likely to be found in humanities and fine arts than men are.
Men tend to enroll in areas such as computer science.
Students face the influence of gender stereotypes when they are ready to enter the job market.
During World War II, women entered the work force in large numbers to replace men who had been drafted.
When the war ended, most of the women were expected to return to their domestic roles of raising a family and taking care of the home.
Increasing numbers of women are entering the workforce for personal and financial reasons.
The costs of sexism for individuals and society as a whole are significant.
Sexism reduces the number of opportunities to enter the job market, which increases the risk of living a life of poverty.
Sexism reduces the pool of talent and abilities available for employment by effectively cutting off more than half of the population.
A variety of factors can affect a person's career choices, some of which can reduce the influence of sexism on the individual.
The availability of female models in the family, school, or among friends and relatives allows young women to pursue careers they might not have considered.
One of the most powerful influences on career development in women is having a working mother.
Compared to daughters of full-time homemakers, daughters of employed mothers are more likely to pursue careers in other areas.
The athlete's occupation is gender typed.
Women earn less than men in the working world.
Female scientists have lower salaries, are more likely to be in temporary positions, and find fewer opportunities to advance compared to males.
The incomes earned by men and women are not the same.
The primary responsibility of caring for the home and family is taken by women.
Some of these issues will be discussed later in the chapter.
The increased life expectancy has created additional burdens for women.
Women are more likely to care for elderly relatives than men.