The Science and the Paranormal section of the 2010 Prometheus Books catalog included 98 male and 4 female authors.
Women are more likely to write about spirituality.
The prime years for dating and mating are in late adolescence and early adulthood.
By their teen years, girls become less assertive and more flirtatious, and boys become less dominant.
After the birth of a first child, attitude and behavior differences tend to peak.
It is possible that mothers may become more traditional.
Men and women become less domineering and more assertive.
Fewer women than men work full-time for an employer, but are more satisfied with their lives when employed.
There are some differences between the average woman and man.
Men and women are more likely to commit physical aggression.
Men and women are similar in how they regulate heat with sweat and prefer energy-rich foods.
When looking for a mate, both men and women look for someone who is kind, honest, and intelligent.
Evolutionary psychologists say that guys act like guys whether they're Chimpanzees or rural peasants.
You had these two influences before you were born.
Six weeks after you were conceived, you and someone of the other sex looked the same.
Your biological sex was determined by your twenty-third pair of chromosomes as your genes kicked in.
Whether you are male or female, your mother's contribution to that chromosome pair was an From your father, either another X or a making you male.
Females and males have two X chromosomes.
Each parent has an X chromosomes that produce a female child.
A male child is born when the mother has an X chromosomes.
Seven weeks after conception, a single gene on the Y chromosome throws a master switch, which causes the testes to develop and produce the male hormone androgen.
Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during the fetal period, and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
Sex hormones bathe the fetal brain during the fourth and fifth months of life.
Under the influence of the male's testosterone and the female's ovarian hormones, there are different patterns for males and females.
If females are exposed to high levels of male hormones, they will grow up with more male-typical activity interests.
hormones help sculpt what we love to do
During this two-year period of rapid sexual maturation, pronounced male-female differences emerge.
The subtle beginnings of puberty, such as enlarged testes, appear earlier in boys than in girls, though a variety of changes begin at about age 11 in girls and 12 in boys.
A year or two before the physical changes are visible, girls and boys often feel the first stirrings of sexual attraction.
The earlier girls enter puberty, the taller they will be compared to boys of the same age.
When boys start puberty, they are usually taller than girls.
The reproductive organs and external genitalia develop dramatically during growth spurts.
The nonreproductive secondary sex characteristics also do.
Boys begin growing facial hair.
Boys and girls are the same height.
At puberty, girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about 14.
The first ejaculation is the landmark of puberty for boys.
This event usually happens by the age of 14.
The first menstrual period in girls is usually within a year of age 12 1/2.
When girls experience menarche, genes play a major role.
Stresses related to father absence, sexual abuse, and a history of a mother's smoking during pregnancy are more likely to lead to early menarche.
Girls in various countries are reaching puberty earlier than in the past.
Increased body fat, diet filled with hormonemimicking chemicals, and stress due to family disruption are suspected to be triggered.
Girls who are prepared for menarche see it as a positive life transition.
Positive emotional reactions to spermarche are reported by males.
The sexual development of the fetus begins weeks after conception.
The beginning of ___________ is marked by adolescence.
Nature can blur the biological line between males and females.
A genetic male may have normal male hormones and testes but no penis or a small one.
People may struggle with their gender identity.
Fourteen cases of boys who had undergone early surgery were reviewed.
Of those cases, 6 had later declared themselves male, 5 were living as females, and 3 had an unclear male or female identity.
She won an Olympic gold medal.
A boy lost his penis during a circumcision.
He was raised as a girl rather than as a damaged boy by his parents.
"Brenda" was not like most other girls because she was raised as a girl.
She didn't like dolls.
She tore her dresses.
She didn't want to kiss boys at puberty.
After the parents explained what had happened, Brenda immediately rejected the assigned female identity.
David was the name he chose after cutting his hair.
He married a woman and became a stepfather.
He committed suicide.
Experts recommend postponing surgery until a child's physical appearance and gender identity are clear.
The National Academy of Sciences concluded that sex matters.
As we will see next, environmental factors matter as well.
The physical characteristics of a newborn are the same all over the world.
The gender characteristics that define how men and women should act, interact, and feel about themselves differ across time and place.
Cultures determine how we should behave in a particular social position.
The social expectations that guide our behavior as men or women can be seen as shaping power.
The excess of female deaths from the 2004 tsunami can be explained by the gendered division of labor.
80% of those killed were women, who were mostly at home, while the men were more likely to be at sea fishing or doing outdoor chores.
In a small part of history, gender roles worldwide have undergone an extreme change.
Only New Zealand gave women the right to vote at the beginning of the twentieth century.
All countries granted that right by 2015.
American women were not allowed to vote in national elections, serve in the military, or divorce a husband without cause a century ago.
If a woman worked for pay, she would most likely have been a nurse or a doctor.
Nearly half of the workforce is female, and more U.S. women graduate from college than men.
Most faculty positions in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics are held by men.
The highly qualified women were preferred over the equally qualified men when researchers invited U.S. professors to recommend candidates.
The modern economy has produced jobs that rely on social intelligence, open communication, and the ability to sit still and focus.
Boys and girls receive the same upbringing in nomadic societies of food-gathering people.
Children have been shaped to assume more distinct gender roles in agricultural societies, where women typically work in the nearby fields and men roam while herding livestock.
Take a moment to check your gender expectations.
Less than 12 percent of adults agree in the United States, Britain and Spain.
80 percent of adults agree in Nigeria, Pakistan and India.
Our views differ, but we're all human.
Middle Eastern and North African countries have the least gender equity.
In the Pacific region, women's representation ranged from 14 percent to 41 percent.
You can't put men and women on equal footing.
The social demands of different environments are proof that we are able to learn and adapt to them.
Our sense of being male, female or some combination of the two is what we call our personal sense.
Critics think there's more to gender identity than imitating parents.
Taking on a traditional male or female role from child to child is something they point out.
Parents help spread their culture's views on gender.
Parents with traditional gender views were more likely to have gender-typed children who shared their culture's expectations about how males and females should act.
When fathers share housework with their daughters, they develop higher ambitions for work outside the home.
Children may drift toward what feels right to them even if their parents encourage or discourage traditional gender behavior.
Some people organize themselves into "boy worlds" and "girl worlds" based on their understanding of the rules.
Others conform to the rules in a different way.
Some prefer a blend of male and female roles.
There are benefits to being agyny.
People who are androgynous are more Adaptivist as adults.
They are more flexible in their career choices.
They tend to be more self-accepting and less depressed.
Feelings and how we think matter.
We were "gender detectives" as children.
Before our first birthday, we knew the difference between a male and female voice.
Language made us label the world in terms of gender after we turned 2.
When children understand that there are two types of people, they look for clues about gender.
People communicate their gender in many ways.
3-year-olds may divide the human world in half.
They will look for their own kind and play with them.
They adjusted their behaviors to fit their concept of gender after collecting proof.
At about 5 or 6 years old, these stereotypes are most rigid.
A 6-year-old boy may think he can't share her interests if the new neighbor is a girl.
A person's gender identity is different from what is considered typical for that person's sex.
As young as 5- to 12-year-olds, children who are trans view themselves in terms of their expressed gender rather than their birth sex.
A person may feel like a male in a female body from childhood onward.
"It's not that these individuals think they are different from each other than they actually are," says Robert Sapolsky.
Mark Morris said that his famous parent was Jan Morris.
Jan Morris was forced to divorce Mark's mother after gender reassignment surgery.
When same-sex marriages became legal in Britain, they remarryed.
Being trans is not easy in most countries.
In a national survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans Americans, 81 percent said they had a lot of social acceptance for gay men, and 71 percent said the same for lesbians.
Only 18 percent of people saw the same acceptance for trans people.
In a survey of 27,175 people, 46 percent of them said that they had been harassed in the last year.
It is possible for a trans person to align their appearance with their gender identity.
Brain scans show that those who seek medical sex-reassignment have differences in their brain tracts.
"There are some great and some trivial truths in science," said the physicist.
The opposite of a trivial truth is false.
Our ancestors formed us as a species.
There will be evolution where there is variation, natural selection, and heredity.
Our unique combination of genes was created when our mother's egg engulfed our father's sperm.
Our genes make us.
There is a great truth about human nature.
Our experiences shape us.
We are taught how to think and act by our families and peer relationships.
Differences may be amplified by our nurture.
Culture can amplify the gender difference by rewarding macho men and gentle women if their genes and hormones cause males to be more physically aggressive than females.
Men and women may act according to roles that demand physical power and more nurturing roles.
Roles change their players.
Presidents become more presidential as time goes on.
There are gender roles that are merging in modern cultures.
Power and status have become more important than brute strength.
From 9 percent to 47 percent of U.S. medical students have been women.
In 1965, married women in the U.S. devoted eight times as much time to housework as their husbands; by 2012 this gap had shrunk to less than twice as many.
The changes show that biology does not fix gender roles.
Children learn their culture from the exhibit at San Diego's Museum of Man.
A baby's foot can enter any culture.
All-powerful genes are not all-pervasive.
People may choose not to reproduce because of their evolutionary role as transmitters of genes.
Culture is all-pervasive but not all-powerful.
People may resist peer pressures.
We can't excuse our failures by blaming them on bad genes or bad influences.
We are both creators of our worlds.
Our genes and environments are what make us who we are.
The stream that runs into the future can be traced back to our choices.