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29.5 The Reptiles -- Part 2
The average dinosaur was about the size of a chicken.
Dinosaurs were the largest land animals ever to live.
A bipedal stance freed the forelimbs and allowed them to be used in other ways.
It was adaptive to the evolution of wings in the birds.
Prior to the evolution of birds, these feathers were not used for flight but as insulation against cold weather.
Dinosaurs ruled the Earth for about 170 million years before they died out.
There is a possibility that a massive meteorite struck the Earth near the Yucatan Peninsula.
Many living organisms were destroyed by the cataclysmic events.
This hypothesis is supported by the fact that iridium is common in meteorites and rare on Earth.
Turtles can be found in many environments.
Most turtles have bones that are fused into a shell.
They don't have teeth but have a sharp beak.
The legs of sea turtles are flattened and paddlelike, while the legs of tortoises are strong for walking.
Some lizards have lost their limbs and look like snakes, but they have four clawed feet.
They feed on insects and small animals.
The marine iguanas of the Galapagos Islands are adapted to spending time at sea, where they feed on sea lettuce and otheralgae.
The long, sticky tongues of the chenchos are adapted to live in trees.
They can blend in with their background by changing their color.
The lizards have pads on their toes.
Skinks are lizards with reduced limbs and shiny scales.
Monitor lizards and Gila monsters are not a threat to humans.
Although most snakes are harmless, several venomous species, including rattlesnakes, cobras, mambas, and copperheads, have given the group a reputation of being dangerous.
Snakes lost their limbs as an adaptation to burrowing.
There are a few species of snakes and boas that still have the parts of the Pelvis.
Snakes have a jaw that is attached to the skull and can eat larger prey than their head size.
The analysis of airborne chemicals can be done with the Jacobson's organ.
Snakes have internal ears that can detect low-frequency sounds.
Their ears are not open.
There are two species of tuataras in New Zealand.
They can live for nearly 80 years and have a length of 66 cm.
These animals have a pineal eye, which is buried under the skin in the upper part of the head, and is light-sensitive.
The common ancestor of modern lizards and snakes was the tuataras.
crocodiles live in fresh water and feed on fish, turtles, and other animals that venture too close to the water.
They have long, powerful jaws with lots of teeth and a muscular tail that serves as both a paddle and a weapon.
Male crocodiles and alligators are loud.
The male protects the eggs and cares for the young in some species.
feathers, tail, and clawed feet are some of the characteristics that show they are a reptile.
The velociraptor fossils have been examined and it has been found that they also had feathers.
Birds are the most fascinating group of animals.
The smallest hummingbird is less than a penny in weight and 5 cm long, while the largest bird is 160 kilogram and has a height of 2.7 m.
A bird's ability to fly is related to nearly every part of the bird's body.
barbs and barbules interlock in a latticelike array in feathers.
The eagle's body is a representation of bird's body.
The eagle's skeleton shows that the bird has a large chest.
The wings are supported by the bones of the forelimb.
Wing feathers allow flight, and tail feathers are used for steering.
A feather is a modified reptilian scale with the complex structure shown in Nearly all birds lose their feathers and replace them once a year.
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