At the Democratic National Convention, several female politicians, including Elizabeth Warren, Ellen Malcolm, Deborah Stabenow, Tammy Duckworth, and Val Demmings, stood on stage.
In celebration, they all smile, wave, or clap.
"Emily's List" is on the screen behind them.
Corporations and individuals used to be able to contribute unlimited amounts to nonprofits.
Both organizations could not advocate for the election or defeat of a candidate.
Corporations are not allowed to directly spend on political ads.
Citizens United argued that federal prohibitions on election spending violated the First Amendment.
Federal prohibitions on election spending were argued to be spending restrictions by the Federal Election Commission.
Corporations are able to directly advocate for the election or defeat of candidates.
Justices Anthony Kennedy, John Roberts, Antonin Scalia, Samuel Alito, and Clarence Thomas voted in favor of Citizens United.
Ginsburg, Breyer, and Stevens voted against Citizens United.
The voices of real people can be drowned out by unregulated corporate electioneering.
Corporate special interests can now spend unlimited funds to support or oppose candidates.
Federally regulated contribution limits remain in place for party committees.
The ban on corporate spending was lifted.
Spending has increased in all categories.
The spending by corporate PACs is the highest it has ever been.
Cooperative and corporate without stock PACs have spent between 15 million dollars and 30 million dollars.
In 19 89 and 20 16 trade, membership, and health PACs spent about 90 million dollars.
In 19 89 and 20 16 labor PACs spent about 85 million dollars.
In 19 89 and 2016 Corporate PACs spent over 400 million dollars.
About 7 million dollars went to Republican candidates and 5 million dollars to Democratic candidates.
About 80 million dollars went to Republican candidates and 42 million dollars to Democratic candidates.
About 40 million dollars went to Democratic candidates and 7 million dollars to Republican candidates.
Corporations gave over 100 million dollars to Republican and Democratic candidates.
Democratic candidates received about 30 million dollars and Republican candidates received about 47 million dollars.
A graph shows contributions to congressional campaigns by the political action committee.
The amount of money given to challenger and open campaigns went from 50 million dollars in several years to less than 20 million dollars in 16.
The amount of money given to incumbent campaigns grew from one hundred and seventy million to three hundred and eighty million dollars.
You will be able to explain the function of elections after you've read this chapter.
Explain the influences on who votes and who doesn't.
There are factors that affect citizens' decisions.
In presidential campaigns, organizational and strategic tactics are employed.
What's at stake.
The candidate who accused the process of being rigged won in the end because of an ancient and vestigial appendage of election law that distorted the popular vote results so that his losing margin was enough to deliver to him the presidency.
It was a lightning bolt of good luck that struck twice in twenty years, but only four times in our history, for Republicans who watched election results late into the night on November 8, 2016 It felt like the crazy, upending election of 2000 all over again, minus the Supreme Court and the recount.
A candidate who had trailed in the national poll averages for the entire election cycle and who continued to trail in the popular vote was about to win the presidency of the United States.
Donald Trump received more popular votes than Hillary Clinton.
He became president of the United States.
Donald J. Trump received less popular votes than Hillary Clinton but still won the presidency.
It has happened four times in American history, in the cases of George W. Bush, Benjamin Harrison, and, of course, Trump himself.
Democrats were in shock and felt their votes hadn't been counted.
Crowds took to the streets to protest the election results.
The people's vote was demanded by petitions.
Even though they had won the popular vote in only one of the last seven elections, the Republicans were still given the presidency because of an institution they felt was rigged against them.
The Electoral College is a part of American politics.
You don't even realize it's there because it's so quiet and discreet, but it's an organ you don't really need any more.
If it gets irritative, it's painful and threatens a systemwide failure.
The life of the republic has not been threatened by the emergency caused by the Electoral College.
Twice in this very young century, Democratic winners of the popular vote had to give gracious concession speeches, respecting the procedures of American politics and the results they produced, even while they and their supporters felt robbed of a victory that seemed by every other rule of democracy to be theirs.