The urban landscapes of such settlements were dominated by Temples, palaces, tombs, and public buildings.
The lands of the eastern Mediterranean and the valleys and coastal lowlands of the north were emerging as better-watered kind of city.
There are centers across the Anatolian and Iranian plateaus.
A mix of Sidon, all in modern Lebanon, as well as Damascus tree crops, grains, and livestock is raised in these settings.
Local and mechanization, crop specialization, andfertilizer use are growing in Syria, as well as long-distance trade in creating urban landscapes.
Following a pattern of port facilities, warehouse districts, and commercial set earlier in nearby areas of southern Europe, expand transforming such agricultural settings.
These urban settlements and many of the early Middle Morocco's flourishing hashish crop were suggested as examples of how trade and commerce shaped adaptation to growing regional and global importance.
Eastern trading towns have been around for a long time.
Baghdad emerged as a religious cen by the 8th century.
Irrigated rice is a staple in ter, followed by the appearance of Cairo as a Nile Valley.
The influences of Islam were felt in the settlements of North Africa and Turkey.
The Muslim culture was carried to Spain by the Islamic Moors.
Islam's impact on the settlement landscape merged with older urban traditions across the region and established a characteristic Islamic cityscape that exists to this day.
The housing districts feature an intricate maze of narrow, twisting streets that maximize shade and accentuate the privacy of residents, particularly we small windows, which are often located on dead-end streets and open into private courtyards, which are often shared by extended families with similar ethnic or occupational background.
European colonialism added more landscape features to selected cities.
The urban landscape reflects fundamental changes.
The global economy is marked by expanded airports, commercial and financial districts, industrial parks, and luxury tourist facilities.
Rural populations are drawn to the new employment opportunities as urban centers become focal points of economic growth.
The results are impressive and problematic.
In the last few years, many traditional urban centers have doubled in size.
Some government-planned neighborhoods have produced ugly, cramped high-rise apartment houses.
Quality housing or municipal services are not provided by the settlements.
Cairo is now the largest city in North Africa with more than 15 million people.
Cairo was founded over 1000 years ago along the shores of the Nile River.
Thousands of faithful Shiites visit the Hazrati Masumeh Shrine in the south of Iran each year to visit the commercial bazaars, which served as a regional crossroads between northern Africa and Tehran.
The late 19th century saw the creation of modern Cairo, which was inspired by the European Renaissance.
The Paris of the roofs, suburban housing districts, and wide European-style Nile section of the city was redesign with distinctive open spaces, grand bou commercial boulevards, and complicated settlement land levards.
Dramatic new forces Old Cairicts grew slowly have transformed the urban landscape, and some of Cairo's most interesting neighborhoods are found east and south of downtown.
Some streets are remnants of cities that are key gateways to the global economy.
The region was even before Cairo's official founding.
The city's Coptic popu is open to new investment, industrialization, and tourism.
The traditional Islamic urban center can be found in the tiny neighborhoods and twisting lanes of the old walled city.
The rectangular street patterns, open spaces, and broad avenues suggest colonial European influences to the southwest.
Huge suburban developments west of the river and east of downtown have spilled into former farmland and desert waste.
The famous City of the Dead is home to almost 1 million residents who live in cheap homes and apartment houses.
New Cairo City is about 20 miles east of downtown and features boulevards, upscale housing, and new university facilities.
Despite Egypt's current economic and political challenges, the development's long-term prospects remain uncertain.
The oil-rich states of the Persian Gulf show the most dramatic changes in the urban landscape.
Even as late as 1950, only 18 percent of Saudi Arabia's population lived in cities, because urban traditions were weak before the 20th century.
As the global economy's demand for petroleum grew, all that changed.
Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, has grown to over 5 million people, making it the largest city in the world.
After 1970, other cities, such as Kuwait City and Manama, took on modern Western characteristics, including futuristic architecture and new transportation infrastructure.
More than 50 elevators whisk visitors to a variety of hotel rooms, restaurants, residences, and other attractions at the Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world.
Offices and shops can be found in the Egyptian capital.
It is the tallest building in the world.
The Abu Dhabi Airport is near Masdar City.
The creation of new urban centers, such as Jubail, has been spurred by investments in the petrochemical industries of Pakistan, Filipino, and Indian.
Many of the foreign workers in the Gulf send their wages home to India, Egypt, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.
The migrant flows have been shadowed by recent reports of guest-worker abuse in settings such as Saudi Arabia.
Indonesia and India are putting limits on the number of people that can travel to the region.