There is no official count, but knowledgeable scholars estimate the number to be close to 200,000.
Visitors to Thailand would not be surprised by this number and might even reject it as an underestimate.
When you surf the internet, you'll find that there's a lot of hype about the feature of nightlife in the city.
Kathoeys, or "lady boys" as they are referred to, live openly in rural villages across the country, even though they are located in the capital city.
Many people in Thailand prefer to see kathoeys as belonging to a third gender, even though they are neither male nor female.
The fact that Thailand has wide acceptance and even national fame for its sexual minorities is equally important.
The fact that they live and move through Thai society with little harassment has drawn scholars to understand them.
Survey research has shown that both children and adults can identify at least one kathoey in their school or village.
There are a large number of males in Thailand who decide to make a dramatic transition from one generation to another.
The paper "Why are there so manykathoey.htm" was accessed on June 25.
The first thing that comes to mind is the fact that in Judeo, sex and gender are only the expression of significant differences, despite the fact that they are defined in terms of human anatomy.
In this chapter, which is a largely Buddhist country, we explore culture as a process that defined in terms of the social roles males or females is not understandable outside of the geographical con perform in the home or in the public.
It operates at the same text.
scholars who study elsewhere Historians and cultural studies specialists are more similar to each other than in other cultures, and they agree that culture is a complex concept.
Women are highly revered in Thailand.
In a country where families pay a bride price to ing, the transition from definition of culture to a particular way of life is a significant one.
All of these understandings of culture are not accurate for our purposes as anyone can be affected by karma.
Culture, including sexual role and sexual anatomy, is not something that is tied to a place and thus a sexuality and gender, including gender identity and gender pre fact to be discovered.
We consider the connections among sentation.
It helps us see that sexuality and people, places, and cultures to be emerging and always evolving creations that can be altered sometimes in subtle and dramatic ways, there other times in more dramatic ways.
A group of people dressed up as Star Trek characters are attending a 'Destination Star Trek' event in Germany.
These values, beliefs, ideas, and practices can be changed from within and outside a group.
Culture is a concept that revolves around and intersects with many different factors.
For most of the twentieth century, anthropologists have focused most of their attention on material culture, as opposed to its less tangible symbolic or spiritual manifestations.
geography and other disciplines have a tradition of understanding culture.
The cultural tradition in geography will be looked at more closely in the following section, in which we discuss the debates surrounding culture within the discipline.
In Chapter 2, it was pointed out that cultural and geography are related.
The opposite is true when it comes to cul meanings and practices.
As local forces confront practices and in the process form an identity and act, place matters more than ever, as groups operate to shape those meanings and in the negotiation of global forces.
A contemporary example of a two-way relationship between green and a traditional march can be seen in the popu St. Patrick's Day in Tokyo.
The marchers are using online social networks to connect with friends, traditional Irish whistle or feadog stain.
The most popular online social networking website Facebook allows members to share photos, blogs, music, and videos, and a host of other personal information, as well as organize events, join groups, or seek relationship partners.
Facebook celebrated its tenth birthday.
Not only is the social media site important for social connection, but it is also important for other forms of connection from economics to politics.
Facebook and other social media played an important role in the Arab Spring and continue to be used in political ways around the world.
Obama's use of social media was thought to have helped him win the election.
Facebook and other virtual networks have changed the way people communicate with each other, but there is more to the internet than that.
The "Internet of things" is the most powerful force on the internet because of its ability to connect objects across time and space.
It's also a powerful cultural force as it transforms the way we relate to these connected objects and the relationships they generate with other things and people.
The Internet's ability to connect things across space can make life less frustrating and more efficient.
What it doesn't show is the way that increasing internet access also creates inequalities and challenges to fundamental rights such as privacy.
Having your bills consolidated into one that is immediately registered and paid by your bank is very convenient.
These things are talking to each other and developing their own intelligence.
Imagine a scenario where...
There are fill-ups driving the route.
5 extra minutes of sleep can be obtained by communicating this to your alarm clock.
The coffee maker should turn on 5 minutes late.
The internet of things is believed to be one of the biggest influences on the way we live our lives in the next 20 years.
As the Internet becomes more connected across all of our things, it is important to discuss a significant difference between our parts of the world, other parts will not be The Internet of Things view.
Many able to be so connected as they can't afford the introductory human geography texts divide culture into two costs of the "smartness" of these things.
The Internet allows large groups of people with similar tastes and lifestyles to connect in their own way, often in response to shared space.
mercial products is a feature in the app "Couple".
Hip-hop would be seen by these theorists as ThumbKiss(tm), which allows distant couples to send a kiss an example of popular culture, when each of the couple touches the same spot on a smart
In the United States, marriage ceremonies and recep and shapes politics, the economy, and society are all shaped by culture.
There is a number of char drones flying over the wedding party taking videos from above acteristics or degree of homogeneity of its practitioners.
We communicate with bots on the dance floor that see culture as something that can be enduring as well as capturing conversation and snapping candid photographs.
The Internet of things, and computers more generally, does not have a purpose in differentiating power between hip-hop and Hinduism, as both are significant tural institutions of contemporary life.
Geographers look at the interactions between people and culture.
Carl Sauer was a professor at the University of California, Berkeley in the early to mid-20th century.
The "Berkeley School" of cultural geography was created by Sauer.
He wanted to understand the material expressions of culture by focusing on their man.
The Hindu music duo Adhithya Venkatapathy are the pioneers of Tamil hiphop.
Box 5.1 shows the concept of the cultural landscape.
The activities of humans resulted in an identifiable process and all the different factors that shape culture.
Understand how place and space have shaped your culture.
The cultural landscape is a representation of how cultural and environmental processes come together to create a unique product as they do in the small village pictured here, where herding is the major occupation.
The village is surrounded by branches and thorns.
The dwellings are arranged in a circular pattern within the enclosure, with the animal pens in the middle of the settlement for easy observation by the residents.
An excellent example of the concept of cultural landscape is provided by the UNESCO World Heritage Program.
Over 1000 properties have been accepted for World Heritage status.
Israel and Palestine worked together to protect the property in the village of Battir, despite their differences.
Many of the concerns and elements Sauer specified as central to his concept of the cultural landscape are reflected in the criteria for inclusion of a landscape as a World Heritage property.
Khmer architecture evolved largely from the genius of the Indian sub-continent, from which it became clearly distinct as it developed its own special characteristics, some independently evolved and others acquired from neighboring cultural traditions.
The result was a new artistic horizon.
The influence of Khmer art as developed at values, over a span of time or within a Angkor was a profound one over much of cultural area of the world, on developments South-east Asia and played a fundamental role in architecture or technology.
The Khmer Empire of the 9th-14th centuries civilization which is living or which has encompassed much of South-east Asia and disappeared played a formative role in the political and cultural development of the region.
The rich heritage of cult structures in brick and stone is what remains of that civilization.
As it developed its own criteria, this site became clearly distinct as it met four of the UNESCO landscape.
The result was a new artistic horizon.
Plants are reaching the end of their development cycle.
The figure summarizes the ways in Europe that natural and cultural landscapes are transformed.
There were slightly different approaches to the landscape.
The landscape is shaped by factors.
The approach to understanding the forms, such as population distributions and patterns of housing, is an example of the results of cultural factors.
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1963, pp.
was the most famous of its practitioners.
The life characteristic of a particular culture group is what the original diagram from Sauer's work is about.
Landscape components are emphasized over by wind or water.
The cultural landscape component of ers or giving a larger or smaller role to the physical environment should be understood to recognize that the cultural landscape is active and ongoing and processes like industrialization or the heart of their study of human- environment.
A rich catalog of the ownership of nearly every tract of land in England can be found in the book Sauer's ideas about the effect of cultural practices on the physi.
The names of landholders are included in each challenged and critiqued by geographers over the years.
The manors they held and their values, as well as the names of prominent challenge, were leveled by James Duncan who rejected their subtenants.
Duncan argued that Sauer had adopted what holders, unfree peasants, and slaves on each manor, and he called it a "superorganic" notion of culture in this conceptual resources of each manor.
Such ization was found by theographers.
What he meant was that the data was useful for reconstructing the political, economic, and social forces that shaped past landscapes.
Duncan and de la Blache emphasized the need to study small, most contemporary geographers reject this view and see culture, homogeneous areas to uncover the close relationships that exist between people and their immediate surroundings.
Humans go about living their lives.
His approach to the cultural landscape was ecological, and his many published works reflect his attempts to under 2C.
The use of chopsticks is a cultural trait.
Chopsticks are a common eating implement in China and other parts of Asia.
These are acts, customs, practices, or procedures that recognize key transitions in human life--birth, menstruation, and other markers of adulthood, such as sexual awakening and marriage.
Many of the world's cultures have rites of passage.
This image shows a rural setting ring or circumcision, for example, in Corsica, an island nation in the Mediterranean where commercial agriculture is being undertaken.
Farming is a way of life that we can read from the landscape where extensive cultivated fields and isolated farmhouses are key elements.
The unifying element was no longer regional homogeneity.
De la Blache recognized that people in vari geography are the cultural region.
Although a cultural region ous places struggled to cope with the big changes transforming may be quite extensive or very narrowly described.
Tuareg women don't wear veils, but men do.
There are differences between American and European reach maturity.
Think of a neighborhood, an international border, or regional space as an example of how culture shapes land scape.
Specific aspects of culture, ranging from single attributes to complex systems, are examined byographers.
Contemporary cultural geographers study both practices and representations at Oxford University in the UK, where scenes from the novels were filmed.
Through fictional worlds, man beings can communicate a lot more than they do in real life.
Ramona was written by daily lives through complex, entangled webs of practices and represents Helen Hunt Jackson.
Jackson's novel was intended to draw readers' attention.
The plight of the California Mission Indians who had been denied meaningful places, objects, and stories do not have to be factual in the way people make meaning.
Jackson knew her topic was politically sensitive so she hid it from Cultural geographers studying literature and film, for example, explore it in romance: the half- Indian Ramona is raised by an adoptive mother on how works of fiction and film help shape place identities and cul an opulent rancho where California Consider how the recent Lord of the Rings and Hobbit films have been received.
Ramona falls in love and elopes with the son of an Indian Chief; both shot on locations across New Zealand, have stimulated tourism to in her new life she endures all the suffering of her people: white invaders New Zealand, complete with scene-by- scene location guides.
While it's steal their lands and her husband is murdered before Ramona's eyes, it's possible that some Hobbit tourists believe they are actually visiting "Middle real-life incidents Jackson took from her research and applied to the life of Earth"
The novel was a great success, but it failed to draw attention to ists to buy souvenirs that remind them of favorite films or works of fiction.
Jackson's was the first novel written about southern California, so when a ring, Hogwarts crest mugs, and wand/pens were available, there was a huge tourism-and-real-estate boom.
The shape of southern California's Ramona-inspired landscapes were dismissed as insignificant by the tourists and the things they bought.
Tourists watch as a Harry Potter fan tries to enter platform 9 at King's Cross.
At home and in stores, look around you.
"La Casa de Estudillo" is a real house in Old Town San Diego, but it is also imagined by Helen Hunt Jackson as the site of Ramona's marriage.
Tourists and souvenirs are difficult to study because of their rapid geographical dispersion.
After observing and interviewing tourists at tourist sites, geographers followed them and their purchases back home to understand what objects mean in their new contexts.
They have learned that the objects serve as reminders of places visited, stories and histories engaged there, and personal experiences shared there.
Each souvenir serves to link people, through travel, to places and understandings of those places, in personally meaningful ways, creating what cultural geographers call "intimate spatialities of social memory"-- personal geographies of connection to place and history.
We can either laugh or smile at the number of souvenirs.
Their existence is revealing for cultural geographers.
Between 1885 and the 1950s, Ramona souvenirs were abundant in southern California.
Every Ramona-related tourist attraction has a curio shop that sells dozens of different kinds of souve.
Before the boosters, anything from a covered-wagon lamp to a sterling-silver match ists came first.
Tourists shaped the southern box cover, from salt-and-pepper shakers to seeds from the garden.
When combined with the cultural complex of food, holidays, family and related practices and undertaken in China, they demonstrate how a cultural system is at work, though its specific manifestations vary by the cultural region in which they are occurring.
chopstick use goes beyond the borders of China to include Vietnam, Korea and Japan.
The cultural system is a collection of interacting components that shape a group's collective identity.
It is possible for internal variations to be practiced more or less by the majority of the inhabitants.
Cul to exist in particular elements at the same time that broader tural regions should be seen as key parts of a cultural complex similarities.
The coming-of-age ceremony for girls in South Korea is held on May 15.
There are young women who are turning 20 who participate in dances and other activities.
Not everyone in the tion is meant to remind them of their responsibilities as adults.
The United States and Ameri South Korea have the same history, but people who turn 60 are ritually celebrated.
cul has completed a full zodiacal cycle It is celebrated because it is seen as a great accomplishment to live to be 60.
Most people in South Korea died before their 60th birthday in the past.
Culture has an impact on social organization.
Depending on geography, social categories like kinship, gang, or generation can figure more or less prominently.
As the group interacts with people and forces outside of its boundaries, the salience of these social categories may change.
The Middle East and North Africa are just as culturally dynamic as any other region of the globe.
While baseball teams are associated with their home cities, their fan base can extend far beyond the city limits.
Thousands of miles away from their homes on the east coast, the New York Yankees and Boston Red Sox are very popular in Alaska and Hawaii.
Global media technologies, such as sat relations, are understood by social groups to be only available on television and the internet.
The potential for a new social ally to be determined through the father is important in the Middle forms to emerge, but they are not the only important ties that link individuals.
Kinship is such a valued relationship for expressing soli that it should not be assumed that a feeling within these forms has not already occurred.
The idea of kinship is central to the culture system of the Middle East and North.
The definition needs to be firefighters who have a strong bond with their co-workers.
Other places in the world where tribal relationships are key to the differentiated include public and private space.
You can create a map of your family.
The Middle East and North identify a kinship system from the Middle East or North Africa once you have done this.
A tribe is not a widespread form of social organization.
Religion and a primitive social organization are some of the cultural forms that are explored in Africa.
geographers in the Middle East and North Africa have begun to ask questions about other forms of tity due to the tribe's belief that a nation shares a common culture.
Tribes are grounded in more than one expression of identity.
Some long-estab political and cultural identities created by individuals who lished and some more recently self-conscious cultural groups share those identities are what this interest is about.
The result is the formation of collective that are beginning to use their identities to assert political, eco loyalties that result in primary allegiance to the tribe.
The map shows the distribution of tribal people beyond India's borders.
Sex and gender are shown in a diagram.
Sex and gender shape each other in ways that are deeply connected.
One's sex need doesn't align with one's biology, as there are many genders in between the two extremes of male and female.
A socially constructed performance that uses codes of femininity and masculinity to operate in the world is called gender.
Because of that, we discuss gender in its many aspects, as well as its relevance to geographic concerns.
The height of masculinity was illustrated in the chapter opener.
He was con der is a cult of the self that has captured the attention of the public.
The man on the left is a cultural geographer, but he is well-known in popular cul dressed in a dress.
More than 50 custom categories were added to Facebook's gender option in 2013.
Research shows that the simple male/female dichotomy was inadequate and that space is central to its understanding.
In order to open up the in who occupies those spaces, how they are occupied, and even category to 58 options, where in capturing the multiplicity of genders that reside in the space, plays a central role between them, took a rather radical step.
The previous section focused on gender region and class.
The common denominator among the poor as a sexual identity that extends far beyond the simple binary throughout South Asia is that women not only have the con or male or female, gender has also been a category that stant responsibilities of motherhood and domestic chores.
90 percent of all production occurs in poor communities.
More than half of the difference in power between males and females is a result of women's efforts.
In addition, women's property rights females that gives an advantage to the former over the latter are restricted, their public behavior is restricted, and their oppor and is not biologically determined but socially and culturally tunities for education and participation in the waged labor force created.
What do you think about the UN statement?
Do you know the bases of identity in your country?
Mention the ties that may have arisen recently.
Why do you think these have emerged?
Ethnicity is one of the areas in which geographers explore cultural identity.
The word intersectionality is used by feminists to describe perceived similarities.
When other identities such as race, class, age, or graphic focus on ethnicity is an attempt to understand how ability also have an effect on power dynamics.
The original example of intersectionality ethnic group cohesion was advanced by feminism because of territory.
Ghettos, ethnic enclaves, homelands, and tribal areas are included in the concept of intersectionality.
Turks have migrated to Germany due to a guest worker program in order to shape social life for men and women in the Middle East.
There is no single Islamic, Chris are not veiled in contrast to the women in the crowd behind them.
In celebration of May Day, the tian, or Jewish notion of gender that operates exclusively in the festival to welcome spring weather, they are out in public.
It is important to understand that these do not capture the wide variety of gender relations that exists in the Middle East and North Africa across lines of class, generation, level of education, and geography.
The poor in South Asia bear the greatest social and economic burden and the most suffering because of the complicated nature of gender.
The first of the UN's annual Human Devel 1 was published in 1990.
There is a gender wage gap in opment reports.
The report looks at economic growth and human development.
The differences in women and men's pay in the developed world is a common topic.
A male child is more valuable than a female child in some countries.
The following are examples of child and parents who don't want a girl.
50% of women's life chances are limited by forced marriages and the lack of legal access to divorce.
The geography of the Adapted from Molly Edmonds, "Examples of Gender Inequality around the World".
Human geography places in Global Context control over their territory to practice self-governance and follow their own cultural traditions, not those of the mainstream society.
The Uyghur ethnic identity is not unified.
Some Uyghur support a pan-Islamic vision, exemplified in the East Turkestan Islamic Movement, while others support a pan-Turkic vision.
From the fifteenth to the mid-nineteenth century, ethnic came to mean foreign or pagan in England.
Following bloody riots in the capital of China's Xinjiang region, Uyghur residents protested in the city of mean a racial, cultural, or national minority group.
In China, the majority of the population is Han.
There are 55 different ethnic groups.
Many examples of ethnic groups who share a cohesive sense are found in relatively remote border regions.
Tensions exist between community and belonging.
The latter are a group of Muslims.
The area in central Singapore is called Arab Street.
There are many Arabic shops, restaurants, cafes and residences.
The geographic distribution of places of worship in an urban area is an indicator of ethnicity and territory.
Churches, temples, mosques, meeting houses, and chapels are usually located close to the communities they serve.
You can use a spatial visualization program to map your town or city's places of worship, and speculate on what this distribution might tell you about the local ethnic geography.
Geographers use prevailing ideas and practices to understand places.
To appreciate the complexity of the relationship between white and black spaces in North America and the United States, two examples are provided.
One is about space and race in the form of racial deseg acteristics of hair, skin, and bone structure made race into a regation and the other is about blackness as an object of white category of difference.
Consider the two facts and how they are expressed.
The mainstream approach views neighborhood as a spatial successfully achieved within a decade of court-mandated inte setting for systems of affiliation more or less chosen by people in the 1960s and 1970s.
The approach to seeing neighborhoods as spaces that affirm the South has been taken over by cultural geographers.
The second fact of the mechanism for creating and preserving local systems of racial integration is the huge popularity of black rap music among white audiences who classification and geographical difference within are the largest consumers of recordings by black rap artists.
The dismantling of apartheid in South Africa and the emergence of rap music by white teenagers show their fascination with African American culture.
They don't examine the ways in which they perceive and practice.
They are not likely to create racialized places like Arab Street in Sin to send more than a few black kids to high school.
According to cultural theorists, the category of difference that these two have shown is dependent on dictory facts and can only be understood in relation to each other.
Researchers in the humanities and social sciences are looking at the ways in which whiteness is changing in the United States.
As white youth are embracing black culture and appropriating certain sites such as classrooms, on the street, and in board it for their own use, they and their parents who make deci rooms, just periods and places as well as the ways whiteness operates in that.
The students are protesting against racist land rights legislation.