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14.1 DNA Technology -- Part 2
The high temperature used to separate double-stranded DNA doesn't have to be interrupted by the need to add moreidases.
As long as the process continues, it is a chain reaction.
The colors of the old strand are different from the new strand, but all of the clones are the same.
Multiple copies of a segment of DNA can be produced by the polymerase chain reaction.
Researchers may use these segments in their studies.
It is possible to analyze the amplified DNA for various purposes.
Modern living populations were used to decipher the evolutionary history of human populations.
Page 247 has improved over the years.
Each person has his or her own restriction enzyme sites, so the entire genome was treated with them.
The result of fragment sorting was a pattern of distinctive bands that identified the person.
Each person's DNA is different and can be used to identify them.
A series of bands on a gel are created when fragments of chromosomal DNA are subjected to DNA fingerprinting.
Each individual has a unique pattern of these bands.
A copy of a specific region of the DNA is generated and analyzed for length variations.
These variations can be used to identify dead people in a crime.
The evidence shows that suspect A is not a criminal.
In the past two decades, the technique of DNA fingerprinting has been repeated many times.
There are specific locations in the genomes of all species where tandem repeat sequence are found.
Humans have the sequence GATA.
One person may have this sequence 10 times, while another may have 15 repeats.
The person with the higher number of repeats will have a larger fragment.
The new method of producing fingerprints does away with the need to use gel electrophoresis because the DNA fragments are fluorescently labeled.
The amount of emission for each DNA fragment in terms of peaks and valleys is recorded by a detector.
Each person has his or her own unique DNA fingerprints.
The FBI uses 13 locations on various chromosomes that are used in the identification of individuals in the United States.
In prokaryotes, it acts as a form of immune defense against invading Viruses.
The host cells of a Viruses function by getting their DNA into them.
The CRISPR system is based on an endonuclease that is capable of breaking two of the genes in the invading virus's genomes.
The guide RNA molecule is used to identify the specific nucleotides that will be cut.
To protect the bacterium from the activity of its own genes, a sequence called PAM must be adjacent to the target DNA sequence.
In genome editing, a nuclease is used to target specific parts of the genome.
A guideRNA that complementarily pairs with the target DNA sequence is used to identify specific sequence of genomic DNA.
The double-stranded break in the DNA may be used to inactivate a gene, or to insert new sequence of nucleotides.
The system can be used to target a specific sequence of nucleotides in almost any organisms.
If the target's genomic sequence is known, a strand of RNA can be used to break the DNA.
This break can be used to inactivate the gene and study its role in the cell, or it can be used to insert new genes into the cell.
The development of genome editing technologies continues.
New applications for genome editing in humans and other organisms are being investigated by scientists.
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