Spain, France, England, and the Netherlands created colonies in North America during the 16th and 17th century as part of their larger plan for global supremacy.
France and Spain were at war with Great Britain and the Netherlands in the 18th century.
By the middle of the 18th century, North Amer ica had become a primary battleground between European powers and Native Americans.
Compared to the British colonies, Spain's settlements in the borderlands were small and weak.
Spain did not create colonies with robust economies.
The conversion of native peoples to Catholicism, prohibition of manufac turing within its colonies, and limited trade with Native Americans were all taken into account.
The French and British colonies developed a thriving trade with Native Americans at the same time that the fierce rivalry between Great Britain and France shifted the balance of power in Europe.
France and Great Britain were 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 Great Britain was forced to tighten its control over the American colonies to raise funds to fight Catholic France and Spain.
Tensions over Brit efforts to preserve their empire at the expense of American freedoms would lead to rebellion and eventually to revolution.
The French and Indian War changed the relationship between Europe and North America.
After the French and Indian War, the British tightened their control over the colonies.
France wanted to challenge the English presence in the Americas by establishing Catholic set tlements in the Caribbean, Canada, and the region west of the Appalachian Mountains due to the bitter rivalry between the two European powers.
The population of New France was less than that of Rhode Island during the 16th century.
The residents of New France numbered less than 5 percent of British Americans.
The actual settlement of New France began in 1605 when explorer Samuel de Champlain founded Port- Royal.
Quebec was established three years later along the St. Lawrence River.
The English to the south learned harsh lessons from the French.
The cold is much harsher than in France.
Two people were killed when Samuel de Champlain fired at a group of people.
France is on behalf of trading companies looking to create a colony tied to fur trade with the Indians and fishing opportunities off the Atlantic coast.
The French government ordered that only Catholics could live in New France.
The colony's growth was hampered by this restriction.
France spent more to maintain its North American colony than it did from the furs and fish it exported to France.
The French had to befriend the native peoples in order to survive.
He sent trappers and traders to live with the indigenous nations, learn their languages and customs, and marry their women.
Many hardy woodsmen pushed into the forested regions around the Great Lakes and developed a flourishing fur trade.
New France was converted into a royal colony in 1663 by French King Louis XIV, who modeled his rule after that of the absolute monarchy.
New France was subject to the French king and had no elected legislature.
In order to solidify New France, Louis XIV dispatched soldiers and settlers, as well as shiploads of young women to be wives for the men.
About 40,000 French immigrants came to the Western Hemisphere during the 17th and 18th centuries.
The total French population was only 70,000 when the British colonies in North America numbered 1.5 million.
From their Canadian outposts along the Great Lakes, French explorers moved down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico.
Louis Jolliet, a fur trader born in Quebec, and Father Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit priest, went to explore the Wisconsin River south to the Mississippi.
Rene- Robert Cavelier organized an expedition that started in Montreal and went down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, the first European to do so.
Near what is today Venice, Mississippi, La Salle buried an engraved plate and erected a cross, claiming for France the entire Ohio and Mississippi Valleys.
Access to the great inland rivers that led to the heartland of the continent gave New France an advantage over the British.
In 1699, the French established a colony near Biloxi, Mississippi.
In 1710 the main settlement moved to the present site of Mobile, Alabama.
The driving force in Louisiana for nearly fifty years was Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne.
New Orleans was founded in 1718 and became the capital of the Louisiana colony.
The Spanish founded San Antonio in Texas because of the French presence in Louisiana.
The British colonies in North America were not the same as New France.
The head of a colonial government was usually a royal gov ernor who could appoint and remove officials, command the militia, and grant pardons to people convicted of crimes.
In New France, the British colonists had some rights and powers that were absent in Britain.
Only adult males with a specified amount of property were allowed to vote for representatives in the lower houses.
More men voted in the colonies than anywhere else in the world because of the widespread holding of property in America.
Women, Native Americans, and African Americans were not included in the political process.
The power of the colonial legislatures was the most important political trend of the 18th century.
The assem blies were able to pass laws and regulations.
The colonial assembly paid the royal governors sala ries.
The assembly's power and influence grew throughout the 18th century.
The English Civil War reduced the flow of money and people to America and forced English Ameri cans to take sides in the conflict between Royalists and Puritans.
The colonies were affected by Oliver Cromwel's victory over the monarchy.
The government was in charge of all economic activities during the 17th century.
Key industries were regulated, taxed, or subsidized, and people with knowledge of new technologies, such as textile machinery, were not allowed to leave the country.
The creation of global empires was supported by Mercantilism.
It was assumed that Colonies enriched the mother country by providing silver and gold as well as crucial raw materials.
The law was intended to hurt the Dutch, who had developed a flourishing business shipping goods between America and Europe.
The English charged more to transport goods than the Dutch, but they encouraged the use of smuggled goods in the American colonies.
Between 1652 and 1674, England and the Netherlands were at war.
English warships conquered New Netherland in 1664 and took the Dutch out of North America.
By 1700, the English had surpassed the Dutch as the world's leading maritime power, and most products sent to and from America via Europe and Africa were carried in English ships.
The English government didn't expect that the mercantile system would cause resentment in the colonies.
The English government refused to lift the restrictions on the navigation acts.
New England was hit hard.
The Massachusetts legislature declared that the navigation acts had no legal standing.
The royal charter for Massachusetts was revoked in 1684 by King Charles II.
The importance of shipping in the colonies is shown in this view.
King James II became the first openly Catholic monarch in more than 100 years after Charles died.
The new king reorganized the New England colonies into a single supercolony to show his power.
Sir Edmund Andros arrived in Boston in 1686.
New Englanders were stripped of their civil rights, new taxes were imposed, and town governments were ignored.
The revolu tion was called "glorious" because of the small amount of bloodshed.
James II, fearing imprisonment in the Tower of London, fled to France and was replaced by the king's daughter Mary and her husband William III.
Both of them were Protestants.
The powers of William III and Mary II were limited by Parliament.
The Bill of Rights was issued to make sure that there would never be an absolute monarchy in England.
Americans in Boston staged a revolution in 1689.
A group of merchants, ministers, and militiamen removed Massachusetts Bay Colony from the new New England.
Within a few weeks, the other colonies that had been absorbed regained their independence.
After some delay, William and Mary allowed the colonies to regain their former status except Massachusetts Bay andPlymouth, which were united under a new charter in 1691 as the royal colony of Massachusetts Bay.
William and Mary were determined to stamp out rebellion.
They appointed new governors in Massachusetts, New York, and Maryland.
The governor of Massachusetts had the power to veto acts of the colonial assembly, and he also removed the requirement that only church members could vote.
The removal of King James II showed that a monarch can be deposed.
He said that the need to protect natural rights led to the creation of governments.
Locke argued that the people had the right to overthrow the monarch and change the government when rulers failed to protect the property and lives of their subjects.
When the king cracked down on American traffickers, many colonists were disappointed.
British efforts to enforce the navigation acts waned soon.
Descendants of James I, King George I and George II of Germany showed less interest in enforcing colonial trade laws.
The American colonies should be left alone to export needed mate rials and to buy manufactured goods from the mother country according to Robert Walpole, the long serving prime minister and lord of the treasury.
Britain followed a policy of "salutary neglect" of the navigation acts, allowing the colonies greater freedom to pursue their economic interests, in part because the British did not want to pay the huge expense of enforcing their imperial regulations.
The American colonies were accused by a London official of being "indepen dent Common Wealths" with legislatures that were virtual and "accountable for their Laws or Actions" to London.
Government within the American colonies evolved during the 18th century as the colonial assembly gained power, particularly with respect to government appoint ments, which Parliament had yet to exercise itself.
Unlike New France and New Spain, the English colonies in America are elected.
The "lower" houses were chosen by popular vote.
Based on the idea that only men with a stake in society could vote, only male property owners could vote.
More men were able to vote and hold office because of the more widespread property holding in America.
There were exceptions to the rule of members of the colonial assembly being wealthy.
The growing power and influence of the colonial assembly was the most profound political trend of the 18th century.
They were in charge of the budget through their vote on taxes and expenditures.
The royal governors' salaries were controlled by most of the assembly.
The colonies became self- governing by midcentury.
William and Mary were enemies of Louis XIV.
They organized an alliance of European nations against the French in a war known as King William's War.
It would be the first of four major wars fought in Europe, pitting Britain and its European allies against France or Spain.
The balance of power in Europe would change by the end of the 18th century.
The battles in the North American colonies were a sideshow to the war in Europe.
Massachusetts was close to the battlefields of French Canada and had a devastating effect on New England.
After the wars, America and Great Britain became the most powerful nation in the world.
International commerce became essential to the expansion of the British Empire and made the American colonies even more significant.
The French and Indian War started in America and ended in victory.
The "Ohio Country" was controlled by either Pennsylvania or Virginia because of the strategic importance of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
The French built forts in the Ohio Country to defend their interests.
Major George Washington was sent by Virginia's governor to warn the French to leave.
Washington made his way to Fort Le Boeuf on foot, canoe, and raft, but was turned away by the French.
In the spring of 1754 Washington went back to the Ohio Country with 150 volunteer soldiers and Indian allies.
The fort they were planning to build was where the city of Pittsburgh was later developed.
Both sides were determined to control Forks of the Ohio, the key strategic gateway to the vast territory west of the Appalachian Mountains.
After two months of travel through dense forested terrain, Wash ington learned that French soldiers had beaten him to the site and built Fort Duquesne in western Pennsylvania.
Washington decided to stay forty miles away.
Two years later, the French and Indian War began after ten soldiers, including the commander, were killed in an ambush by Virginians.
Washington and his troops, reinforced by more Virginians and British soldiers dispatched from South Carolina, hastily built a small stockade in western Pennsylvania.
It was called Fort Necessity.
There was nothing charming about the battle that erupted when a large French force attacked in a rainstorm on July 3, 1754.
Washington surrendered after seeing a third of his 300 men killed or wounded.
Three men were lost by the French and their Indian allies.
The French commander admitted that he had killed a group of French soldiers at the earlier encounter.
Washington and the defeated Virginians began walking home.
France had control of the Ohio Country.
What would become a world war was caused by Wash ington's bungled expedition.
British officials in America were worried about war with the French and called a meeting of the northern colonies.
Representatives from seven colonies gathered in New York.
It was the first time that a large group of delegates had come together.
The president of the eleven colonies was appointed by the king.
The grand council of the colonial assembly would have legislative powers.
The Union has jurisdiction over Indian affairs.
For the time, the Albany Plan of Union was too radical.
When the colonies faced a different threat twenty years later, Benjamin Franklin's plea to unite against the French became popular again.
The Albany Plan was rejected because it was simply a military alliance against Indian attacks.
Franklin believed that the Plan of Union might have delayed the need for a full- scale colonial revolution.
His proposal would become the model for the form of governance created by the new American nation in 1777.
The British decided to fight the French after the failure of the Albany Plan.
The British captured the French forts in June 1755.
The Catholic French residents were expelled by the British.
In 1755, the British government sent 1,000 soldiers to oust the French from the Ohio Country.
The arrival of "redcoat" soldiers on American soil would change the dynamics of British North America.
The use of British soldiers to enforce colonial regulations was opposed by the colonists.
General Edward Braddock, the British commander in chief in America, refused to recruit large numbers of Indian allies.
His dismissal of the Indians would be fatal.
With the addition of some American militiamen, including George Wash ington as a volunteer officer, Braddock's force left northern Virginia to con front the French, hacking a 125- mile- long road west through the Allegheny Mountains toward Fort Duquesne.
On July 9, 1755, as the British neared the fort, they were attacked by French soldiers, Canadian militiamen, and Indians.
He died three days after he was shot.
Washington, who was shot four times, helped lead a hasty retreat.
The Battle of Monongahela was one of the worst British defeats.
The British cannons and supplies were captured and killed by the French and Indians.
Indians allied with the French began attacking American farms in western Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia after Braddock's defeat.
The Pennsylvania provincial government was desperate to respond and offered 130 and 50 dol ars for each male and female Indian scalp.
Indians and colonists killed each other in 1755 and 1756.
May 1756 was when Protestant Britain and Catholic France declared war.
It would change the political map of North America.
France entered the war without excitement, fought with little distinction, and emerged battered, humiliated, and bankrupt.
The British had more warships than the army when the war began.
The British captured more than 64,000 French sailors, while the French lost nearly 100 ships.
William Pitt became the prime minister of the new British government.
His ability was matched by his ego.
He said that he could save England and no one else could.
Pitt determined that defeating the French required a different military strategy.
He decided to treat the colonies as allies rather than inferiors after realizing that the colonial legislatures had largely resisted British efforts to force American colonists into embracing the war as their own.
Instead of forcing them to help finance the war, he provided funds that convinced the legislatures to become full partners in the quest to oust the French from Canada.
British commanders were able to assemble a force of 45,000 British troops and American militiamen thanks to Pitt's new approach.
The French and Indian War ended in 1759 with a series of British victories.
Quebec is the capital of French Canada and the top fortress city.
In the dark of night, some 4,500 British troops scaled the cliffs above the St. Lawrence River and at dawn surprised the French defenders in a battle that lasted only ten minutes.
Four days later, the French surrendered.
The turning point in the war was the Battle of Quebec.
The fighting in North America ended in 1759.
The Carolina settlers and the Cherokee Nation fought in the South.
The Cherokee resis tance was broken by a force of British regulars and militia.
On October 25, 1760, British King George II, obese, blind in one eye, and a creature of methodical habits, arose at 6 a.m., drank his chocolate milk, and then went to his toilet closet.
The king was found dead on the floor after his body servant heard a noise and opened the door.
George II's twenty- two year- old grandson became the new king after his death.
The Treaty of Paris ended the war and made Great Britain the ruler of the world empire, while the American colonies celebrated the British victories with pride.
This encompassed all of Canada and what was then called Spanish Florida.
The treaty gave Spain control over the vast Louisiana Territory, including New Orleans and all French land west of the Mississippi.
France did not have any territory on the North American continent.
British Americans were happy with the outcome of the war.
The greatest empire in history has been ruled by Great Britain.
The Amer icans had a lot to celebrate.
British Americans could now enjoy the highest quality of life in the Western Hemisphere because of the removal of the French menace.
Huge challenges were created by Britain's military success.
The cost of maintaining the North American empire, including the stationing of thousands of British soldiers in the colonies, was staggering as the national debt doubled during the war.
British leaders developed an "arrogant triumphalism" which led them to lose control over the Indians in North America.
The British would soon find themselves at war with their own colonies as a result of managing a large North American empire.
George III and his cabinet began regulating the colonies in new ways after the Treaty of Paris was signed.
The colonies tried to encourage more immigrants by paying for their Atlantic crossing, but royal officials decided against it.
The king encouraged his ministers to enforce economic regulations on the American colonies in order to reduce the national debt caused by the war.
In 1763, the average British citizen paid six times more in taxes than the average American.
British leaders thought it was fair for the Americans to pay more for administering and defending the colonies.
Many Americans argued that the various navigation Acts restricting their economic activity were a form of taxation.
A chain of events would lead to revolution and independence.
The British ceded Indian owned land west of the Appalachian Mountains in the Treaty of Paris.
The Native American leaders were shocked to learn that the French had given their ancestral lands to the British, who were intent on imposing a harsh settlement on those Indians who had been allies of the French.
The British would no longer give the Indians gifts like the French did.
In the spring of 1763, the Indians captured most of the British forts around the Great Lakes and in the Ohio Valley.
In Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, Native Americans destroyed farms and killed thousands.
In December 1763, frontier ruffians in Pennsylvania took the law into their own hands.
The Paxton Boys, Scots-Irish farmers from Paxton, near Harrisburg, took revenge by massacring and killing peaceful Conestogas, after the Pennsylvania assembly refused to protect white settlers on the frontier from marauding Indians.
A group of Christian converts living near Bethlehem were threatened to be killed.
Benjamin Franklin helped persuade the Pax ton Boys to return home after the Indians took refuge in Philadelphia.
The Indians were forbidden to bemolested or disturbed on their ancestral lands if Americans went west of the line.
For the first time, Americans did not like the curtailing of territorial expansion by royal officials.
George Washington objected.
The Proclamation Line is a way to appease Indian concerns about expansion into their ancestral lands.
The Proclamation Line ended the activities of speculators who bought huge tracts of Indian lands but did not keep land- hungry settlers from moving into the ancestral Indian lands in the Ohio Valley.
There was a surge in European immigration to the American colonies after the war ended.
With the French out of the picture, the colonists were more comfortable in testing their ability to tame the wilderness.
Between 1763 and 1775, tens of thousands of English, Irish, and Scots left the British Isles for the colonies.
German and Swiss settlers came in search of a better way of life.
85,000 enslaved Africans were brought by force to America's southern colonies.
It was the greatest mass migration in history, and it provided a lot of America's development after that.
Young adult males who had served as apprentices were the majority of the new arrivals.
Many poor farm families left as a group.
Half of them arrived as indentured servants because they couldn't afford the cost of crossing the Atlantic.
Most of the new immigrants landed in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charleston.
They fanned out across the countryside from the cities.
The settlers were entering a new civilization that did not have a strict aristocracy.
America was a place where people could make their way on their own.
A young English farmer wrote to say that he missed his friends but that he valued more his chance to be his own person.
After 1763, Americans reminded Parliament that their original charters guaranteed that they should be treated as if they were English citizens, with all the rights and liberties protected by the nation's constitutional traditions.
The arguments were not taken seriously in Parliament.
A new British government led by prime minister George Grenville began to grapple with the huge debts the government had accumulated during the war, along with the added expenses of maintaining troops in America.
He said that the Americans must pay for the soldiers defending them.
He disliked the large number of American merchants who smuggled goods to avoid paying British taxes.
The colonial officials were ordered to tighten the enforcement of the navigation acts.