African merchants gained the most from foreign trade.
The king of Dahomey had a gross income of PS250,000 in the 17th century from the overseas export of his fellow Africans.
His people's living standard was improved by a portion of his profit.
Slave-trading Entrepots provided opportunities for traders and for farmers who supplied goods to towns, caravans, and slave ships.
International trade did not lead to Africa's economic development.
Africa did not experience technological growth or the gradual spread of economic benefits.
The slave trade was also done by women in sub-Saharan Africa.
They obtained a lot of money by marrying the Portuguese merchants and serving as go-betweens for outsiders who were not familiar with the customs and languages of the African coast.
She is said to have owned hundreds of slaves and operated her own trading vessels.
She hired some of them as skilled artisans and sailors.
While living in European-style homes, she and her sister amassed a fortune in gold, silver jewelry, and expensive cloth.
A metis, or mulatto, class was created by the intermarriage of French traders and women from Senegambia.
In the emerging urban centers at SaintLouis, members of the small class adopted the French language, the Roman Catholic faith, and a French way of life, and they exercised considerable political and economic power.
European cultural influences did not penetrate West African society beyond the seacoast.
The political consequences of the slave trade were different in different places.
The trade increased the power and wealth of some kings and warlords in the short run, but it also promoted instability and collapse over the long run.
The Kongo kingdom was undermined by the Portuguese search for Africans and ended up with constant disorder and warfare.
The slave trade decimated the population and destroyed the local economy.
The military kingdom of Dahomey, which entered into the slave trade in the 18th century and became a royal monopoly, prospered enormously.
Dahomey's economic strength was based on the slave trade.
Dahomey became one of the major West African sources of slaves in the late 18th century after the royal army raided the interior.
When slaving expeditions failed to yield sizable catches and when European demand declined, the depression in the Dahomean economy caused serious political unrest.
The British drained tens of thousands of enslaved Africans from the great port cities of Bonny and Brass in Iboland.
Ibo societies remained demographically and economically strong despite the incursions of the slave trade.
The kingdoms of the Mbundu people were ruled by the same people in the 16th century.
She met the Portuguese governor in Luanda in 1622.
Tradition says that the governor offered her only a floor mat to sit on, so she ordered one of her servants to take her down onto the floor so she could sit on his back.
She personally led her troops into battle against the Portuguese.
Between 1501 and 1865, more than 12 million Africans were forcibly exported to the Americas, 6 million were traded to Asia, and 8 million were retained as slaves in Africa.
Approximately 10 to 15 percent of procurement deaths are not included in export figures.
The volume of slaves involved in the trade peaked in the 18th century.
10 to 15 percent of enslaved Africans who died in transit are not reflected in these numbers.
The early modern slave trade involved a worldwide network of relationships among markets in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas.
Africa was the center of the trade.
The trade between Africa and Brazil and Cuba continued despite the abolition of the slave trade by the British Parliament.
African industries used slave labor to produce a variety of products for domestic and export.
In the 18th century European demand for slaves expanded the trade within Africa, but in the 19th century European imperialists defended territorial aggrandizement by arguing that they were "civilizing" Africans by abolishing slavery.
European businessmen didn't push abolition because they wanted cheap labor.
Markets in the Americas wanted young male slaves.
Young females were preferred by Asian and African markets.
Women were sought for their reproductive value, as sex objects, and because their economic productivity was not threatened by the possibility of physical rebellion, as was the case with young men.
Two-thirds of those exported to the Americas were male.
The population on Africa's western coast became mostly female, while the population in the East African savanna and Horn regions were mostly male.
The institutions of marriage, the local trade in enslaved people, and the sexual division of labor were all affected by the slave trade.
Africa's overall population may have shown modest growth from 1650 to 1900, but it was offset by declines in the Horn and on the eastern and western coasts.
The political and economic consequences of the African slave trade are easier to measure than the human toll.
We have personal accounts from many slaves, ships' captains and crews, slave masters, and others of the horrors of the slave-trading ports along Africa's coasts, the brutality of the Middle Passage, and the inhuman cruelty enslaved Africans endure once they reach the Americas.
The term "man stealing" was used by Africans to describe capturing enslaved men, women, and children and moving them to the coast, where they were traded to Arabs, Europeans, or others.
West African kingdoms and stateless societies existed side by side in the early modern world.
Both economies were mostly agricultural.
Stateless societies have a single village or group of villages without a ruler.
Kings were able to rule over defined areas.
The north-south trade in gold, salt, and other items was controlled by the Sudanic empires.
Led by mostly Muslim rulers, these kingdoms were able to access vast trade networks and some of the most advanced scholarship in the world.
The royal and elite classes were the most affected by Muslim culture.
Europeans believed a Christian monarch named Prester John ruled the kingdom of Ethiopia.
Europeans were attracted to Ethiopia because of this fable.
Jesuit missionaries tried to convert the people of Ethiopia to Roman Catholicism but were rejected.
The city-states on Africa's southeastern coast had a Muslim and mercantile culture.
Portugal sought to conquer and control the East African-Indian Ocean trade network in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth century.
The rulers refused to form trading alliances with the Portuguese.
The economic decline and death of many Swahili cities was caused by the Portuguese presence.
Slavery existed before Europeans arrived.
Slaves were treated fairly in some societies, but not always as chattel possessions.
The slave trade began when the Portuguese purchased Africans to work in Brazil.
Africans and southeast Asians were used in the Cape Colony by the Dutch East India Company.
African entrepreneurs and merchants collaborated in the trade, exchanging people in the interior for firearms, liquor, and other goods with European slave ships.
Over time the slave trade was destabilizing and some kingdoms experienced a temporary rise of wealth and power.
It is not possible to estimate the individual suffering and social disruption caused by the enslavement of millions of Africans.
The period from 1400 to 1800 was a time when many parts of Africa experienced a profound transition with the arrival of Europeans.
The ancient trade routes up and down the East African coast were disrupted.
The internal trade routes in West Africa are now connected with the global trade networks at European coastal trading posts.
Along Africa's east coast, the Portuguese tried to take control of the Indian Ocean trade.
The introduction of the slave trade was the most significant consequence of the European presence along Africa's coast.
Millions of African men and women were enslaved by Europeans for more than three centuries.
Although many parts of Africa were untouched by the slave trade, areas where Africans were enslaved experienced serious declines in agricultural production, little progress in technological development, and significant increases in violence.
Early European commercial contacts with the Middle East and South and East Asia were similar to those with Africa.
The Portuguese, English, Dutch, and French were the first to establish trading posts at port cities, but they had to depend on the local people to bring their goods from the interior.
Tropical diseases in India and Southeast Asia took a heavy toll on Europeans.
It was possible for the Portuguese to attack and conquer the individual Swahili city-states, Middle Eastern and Asian empires, such as the Ottomans in Turkey and the Mughals in India.
There were many forms of resistance to enslavement on both sides of the Atlantic.
In Haiti, resistance led to revolution and independence, marking the first successful uprising of non-Europeans against a colonial power.
The ongoing slave raids from Africa's eastern coast far into the interior were an excuse for Europeans to invade and colonize much of central and eastern Africa.
After World War II, African independence was achieved because of the racial discrimination that followed colonial rule.
Explain the significance of each item.
Discuss the ways in which Africa came into contact with a larger world.
Slavery is studied in Africa.
Most of the slaves in Africa were women.
The definitive study of the Oyo Empire is still in southwestern Nigeria.
A perspective on African-European contact is offered.
A well-illustrated survey.
Each program takes about fifty minutes to complete.
Solomon Northup, a freeborn African American who was kidnapped and sold into slavery, was the subject of an Academy Award-winning film.
Some of the world's top Africanists have contributed to the discussion of African history on the website.
The premier database site for information about the slave trade, including information and maps about nearly 36,000 slaving voyages, estimates of the number of enslaved Africans, and the identity of 91,491 Africans found in the slave records.