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7.7 Constant-Pressure Calorimetry:
A change in altitude is like a change in enthalpy.
A relative quantity is defined as sea level in the case of altitude.
We define a similar standard for enthalpy.
Pure gas at a pressure of 1 atm is the standard state for a gas.
1997 to a pressure of 1 bar is the standard state for a liquid or solid, and it can be taken to be 25 degrees.
The standard state for a substance in solution is used a lot.
When all reactants and products are in their standard states, there is a change in enthalpy.
The standard states are indicated by the degree sign.
When 1mol of the compound forms from its elements in their standard states, the change in enthalpy occurs.
The equivalent of assigning an altitude of zero to sea level is the value of zero to the standard enthalpy of formation for an element.
We can measure altitude changes relative to sea level once we assume sea level is zero.
All changes in enthalpy can be compared to elements in their standard states.
If we were to have carbon at 1 atm and 25 degC.
The complete list is presented in Appendix IIB.
The enthalpy change of any reaction can be calculated using the two concepts of the decomposition of a compound into its elements and the formation of a compound from its elements.
2 is the amount of time it takes for the products to form.
The first step is the decomposition of 1mol of methane into its elements.
The units of the answer are correct.
The reaction is exothermic if the answer is negative.
The reaction in which powdered aluminum reacts with iron oxide is highly exothermic.
Thermite reaction releases a large amount of heat when powdered aluminum with iron oxide is used.
A city of 100,000 people uses a lot of energy.
All of that energy comes from the burning of liquid octane to make water and carbon dioxide.
Write a balanced equation in the first part.
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