Public

Edited Invalid date

0

0

Quiz

4.2 Geometry

- You will be able to easily determine the geometry of an atom if you can determine its hybridization state.
- Let's do another example.

- The nitrogen atom is in ammonia.

- How many atoms are connected to this nitrogen atom?
- There are three hydrogen atoms.
- We need to know how many lone pairs the nitrogen atom has.
- It has one pair.

- We take the sum.

- The central car Bon atom is the hybridization state for each compound.

- The following molecule has a carbon atom.
- The hydrogen atoms are not shown.

- If you look at the number of bonds, you don't need to count anymore.

- We need to know the geometry of each of the three hybridization states now that we know how to determine them.
- The electrons in the outermost shell want to be as far apart from each other as possible.

- We can predict the geometry around most atoms with this simple idea.
- There are three types of hybridized orbitals.

- Think of this as a tripod with a leg sticking up in the air.

- Students get confused here.
- The molecule's geometry is affected by the geometry of the orbitals.

- An example can be looked at.

- Only three of the orbitals are responsible for bonds.
- If we only look at the atoms that are connected, we don't see a triangle.

- There are three bonds pointing away from the central nitrogen atom and it's shaped like a pyramid.

- Two of these orbitals are being used for bonds, while the other two are occupied by lone pairs.
- We don't see a tetrahedron if we focus only on the atoms that are connected.

- There are six different types of geometry.
- The hybridization state is determined first.
- We can figure out which of the six different types of geometry we are dealing with using the number of lone pairs.
- Let's see if it works on a problem.

- The first thing we need to do is figure out the hybridization state.

- Next, we remind ourselves of how many lone pairs there are.
- The geometry has to be trigonal.

- If you can determine the geometry around an atom, you should be able to determine the shape of a molecule.
- You can repeat your analysis for each atom.
- This may seem like a large task at first, but once you get the hang of it, you will be able to determine the geometry of an atom.

- You should be able to do these problems very quickly if you get to the point where you can.
- The first few will take longer than the last few.
- You will need more practice if the last problem is taking you a long time.
- In the second half of your textbook, open any page if this is the case.
- You are likely to see drawings of structures.

- To determine the geometry of a structure, point to any atom.
- The list above can be used to help you.
- If you can do it without the list, go from one drawing to the next.
- It's important that it's done without the list.

- The following compounds have the same geometry.
- Do not worry about the geometry of the atoms.

Study Panel

Review flashcards and saved quizzes

Getting your flashcards

Review

Quizzes

Mine

Others

Notifications

U

Profile

Mobile App

Privacy & Terms

Feedback

Need Help?

Tutorial

Log out