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You will be able to easily determine the geometry of an atom if you can determine its hybridization state.
Let's do another example.
The nitrogen atom is in ammonia.
How many atoms are connected to this nitrogen atom?
There are three hydrogen atoms.
We need to know how many lone pairs the nitrogen atom has.
It has one pair.
We take the sum.
The central car Bon atom is the hybridization state for each compound.
The following molecule has a carbon atom.
The hydrogen atoms are not shown.
If you look at the number of bonds, you don't need to count anymore.
We need to know the geometry of each of the three hybridization states now that we know how to determine them.
The electrons in the outermost shell want to be as far apart from each other as possible.
We can predict the geometry around most atoms with this simple idea.
There are three types of hybridized orbitals.
Think of this as a tripod with a leg sticking up in the air.
Students get confused here.
The molecule's geometry is affected by the geometry of the orbitals.
An example can be looked at.
Only three of the orbitals are responsible for bonds.
If we only look at the atoms that are connected, we don't see a triangle.
There are three bonds pointing away from the central nitrogen atom and it's shaped like a pyramid.
Two of these orbitals are being used for bonds, while the other two are occupied by lone pairs.
We don't see a tetrahedron if we focus only on the atoms that are connected.
There are six different types of geometry.
The hybridization state is determined first.
We can figure out which of the six different types of geometry we are dealing with using the number of lone pairs.
Let's see if it works on a problem.
The first thing we need to do is figure out the hybridization state.
Next, we remind ourselves of how many lone pairs there are.
The geometry has to be trigonal.
If you can determine the geometry around an atom, you should be able to determine the shape of a molecule.
You can repeat your analysis for each atom.
This may seem like a large task at first, but once you get the hang of it, you will be able to determine the geometry of an atom.
You should be able to do these problems very quickly if you get to the point where you can.
The first few will take longer than the last few.
You will need more practice if the last problem is taking you a long time.
In the second half of your textbook, open any page if this is the case.
You are likely to see drawings of structures.
To determine the geometry of a structure, point to any atom.
The list above can be used to help you.
If you can do it without the list, go from one drawing to the next.
It's important that it's done without the list.
The following compounds have the same geometry.
Do not worry about the geometry of the atoms.
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