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Chapter 136: Practice Questions
The most common inherited disease in Caucasians is cystic fibrosis.
A calculation shows that one out of 2,500 newborn infants have the disease.
The disease is caused by an allele.
At a young age, cystic fibrosis was lethal.
People have been speculating for many years as to why the gene pool is so high.
When you have a fatal disorder, you expect the population to decrease.
This has not happened with CF.
White shells were developed by snail populations because of the light surrounding gravel.
Soon after birth, her children will be able to learn sign language.
Antibiotic-resistantbacteria are becoming more common.
According to the CDC, over 80,000 MRSA infections and 11,000 deaths occur every year.
Scientists need to find a way to make the drug stronger.
The earliest evidence of the extinct freshwater reptile was found in the early Permian period.
It never ventured onto land.
It could not have traveled across the Atlantic Ocean because it only lived in freshwater.
South Africa and Brazil are the only places in the world where the fossils of the Mesosaurus are found.
There aren't enough paleontological expeditions in other regions to find them.
The fossils have not been recognized as a species.
Brazil and South Africa are now part of the area.
The phage viruses acquire bits of the bacterium's genetic material.
In some cases, the phage transfers the bits of hostbacteria to another bacterium.
Most of Earth's organisms disappeared in five major extinctions.
The allele for agouti is dominant in a population of Netherland Dwarf rabbits.
Stanley Miller set up a closed glass system containing a mixture of gases, including H 2 (hydrogen gas), CH 4 (methane), NH 3 (ammonia), and H 2 O.
The sparks were discharged to mimic lightning.
The atmosphere was cooled by raining water and dissolved into a flask.
Miller periodically collected samples for analysis.
In the 19th century, a large lava flow spread across one of the Galapagos Islands, dividing it into two parts, the dry highlands and the lowlands.
A new species of finch evolved on those islands.
A region of central Massachusetts has had a population of moths for hundreds of years.
The colors of the tree trunks on which the moths hide match a wide variety of colors.
There is a limestone mining quarry in that region.
The air is polluted with white dust from the limestone dust.
There are four possible changes to the moth population that can be seen in the graphs below.
A bat's wing and a human's arm are very different.
Humans and bats are related.
The choices are in two parts.
The answer that includes the correct term that describes the relationship between a bat's wing and a human's arm will explain how this relationship supports the theory of evolution.
The sickle cell trait is related to race.
A person must have two alleles in order to have the disease.
There were researchers collecting data on the incidences of the disease in children under the age of 14 in Touba.
They found out that 3,942 children had the disease, while 5,909 did not.
Two populations of finches are isolated from each other on a small island in the Galapagos Islands.
One population is larger than the other.
The entire island has been attacked by a new bug that has spread quickly.
Lake Washington is similar to the Pacific coast.
It was contaminated with 20 million gallons of sewage from surrounding farms.
The water clarity was less than 2 feet by the 1960s.
In 1968, the waters of Lake Washington were cleared and the lake became a paradise for boaters.
The lake's water clarity went up to 15 feet after the clean up was done.
The stickleback is a small fish that lives in both freshwater and marine water.
In 1955, the sticklebacks in Lake Washington had up to 30 plates on their bodies to protect them from large marine predators.
When scientists began to study the fish in the lake in 1955, the freshwater species of sticklebacks had little protective armor.
Experiments with mice who carry the genes have shown that they are resistant to the disease.
According to published work, the CF gene may confer resistance to some diseases.
The information in the question doesn't make sense.
The fact that a gene is dominant has nothing to do with how common it is in the population.
If a gene is somehow adaptive or not harmful, it can remain in a population.
Choice A is determined by sudden and extreme change.
The graph doesn't tell you how fast the change happened.
Choice B is not correct because it describes stabilizing selection.
There is a graph where one population divides into two.
The most successful organisms produce the most offspring.
The best-adapted organisms are not always the largest, fastest, or smartest.
The wording implies that the snail needed to be a certain color and so it became that color.
Organisms don't evolve because they need to.
Choice C isn't correct because acquired traits aren't inherited.
The other choices are related to apes.
All non resistantbacteria die when exposed to antibiotics.
Drug companies did not change the formula.
This is just one example.
There is a lot of evidence supporting the existence of Pangaea.
The p allele, which is the dominant one, is 0.4 if q is 0.6 and p is 1.
Directional selection is when one characteristic replaces another.
There was a range of colors of snakes in the area.
Pressure from the environment was picked against different colors until only two remained.
The stem of the question doesn't say anything about feeding.
The stem of the question doesn't say anything about nested.
Pressure from the environment will cause the population of moths to change in color.
No one will change.
There are two types of moths within the population.
The dark moths will be easier to see in the new environment.
Lighter ones will be counted by researchers.
Similar underlying structures do not reflect common ancestry.
These structures are not examples of convergent evolution or parallel evolution.
There were only one species of finches on the Galapagos Islands.
Different species fill different niches.
One example of genetic drift is the founder effect.
The bottleneck effect is another one.
The whale is a mammal and the shark is a fish.
They both experience the same environmental pressures.
The design of their fins is the best for living in the ocean, not because they are related or have a recent common ancestor.
The two animals live in the same environment and are under the same pressures.
They have evolved along parallel lines.
40% of the children are afflicted.
The percentage of those without the disease that are carriers is determined by the number of ps and qs.
Individual organisms don't change because of Choice A.
The rate of occurrence of a trait is what changes.
Over time, a trait will likely spread within a population.
The theory of evolution is based on denying that populations change over time.
The number of plates on a fish can be increased orDecreased by amutation.
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